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Russian philology
The meaning of the word “philology” is “love for word”. This is love that unites teachers and researchers of modern and Classical languages and literature , interpreters and diplomats, journalists and publishers, writers and poets .
Russian philologis are highly demanded in various spheres of scholarly research and education, in the mass media, in civil service at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, in archives, libraries , museums, in travel agencies, as well as Russian and international companies.
Curriculum within in philological faculty includes courses of Russian and European languages and literature, courses of Linguistics and Theory of Literature for students to familiarize themselves with various schools and trends of Russian and foreign philology.
The core curriculum also includes a number of Liberal Arts courses ( Philosophy , History, Psychology, Pedagogy), as well as courses of basic mathematics and computer studies , and optional courses of science and the Humanities.
The Department of Theory of Literature and the Department of General and Comparative Linguistics teach a vast number of core courses to junior students, both offering major courses to senior students in all the divisions of the faculty.
The Department of Theory of Literature teaches literature as a type of art, focusing on the genesis , structure, classification , and functioning of literary works , on stylistics and versification, as well as on the methodology of literary criticism, a number of major courses being offered in these specialist areas .
The Division of the Russian Language and Literature unites the Department of the Russian Language, the Department of Russian Literature, the Department of Russian Literature of XX century , and the Department of Russian Folklore . The core curriculum includes courses in the history of Russian literature (from Kievan Rus times to the present ) and folklore, modern Russian , Old Slavonic, the history of the Russian language and Russian dialectology, etc.
The Department of Russian Literature of XX century in Russian literature explore (from 1890s to the present), including works of Russian emigrants abroad and non–Russian writers in Russia proper .
Curriculum at the Division of Russian as a Foreign Language is similar to the one of the Division of the Russian Language and Literature, with additional stress laid on foreign languages, the theory and methods of teaching Russian as a foreign language, and area studies.
Division of Theoretical and Applied Linguistics aims at giving students profound knowledge in the field of linguistic theory. The core courses include mathematics (mathematical language, probability models, mathematical statistics, information theory and coding, algebra, logic , mathematical theory of grammar ) and linguistics (the theory of language structure, comparative linguistics, language typology, psycholinguistics, sociolinguistics; applied linguistics including speech and text processing, quantitative linguistics, modern applied linguistics).
History of the Department
Russian philology was not studied as an independent academic discipline until 1945, yet from the very beginning of the faculty’s existence there were courses in Russian studies on offer for students of Slavic studies. In the 1922/1923 academic year , an independent Section of Russian Language and Literature was founded within the School of Slavic Studies. The section was, from its foundation until 1945, headed by Valerij Alexandrovič Pogorielov. In 1945 another member of the post- revolutionary wave of Russian emigrants, Prof . Alexander Vasilievič Isačenko, was appointed Professor in Russian Philology. In 1946 Prof. A. V. Isačenko became the director of the newly established School of Russian, which transformed itself into the Department of Russian Literature and Modern Language Studies in 1948. Prof. Isačenko was still holding the leading post in 1950 when the Department of Russian Language and Literature came into being.
In 1955, when Prof. A. V. Isačenko left Bratislava for Olomouc, the department already had ten full -time teachers.
Russian studies continued developing in the second half of the 1950s and in the 1960s when Prof. A. V. Isačenko was replaced first by Assoc. Prof. Ľ. Ďurovič (1955- 1959 ) and then by Assoc. Prof. J. Kopaničák (1959-1970).
The political turnaround in 1989, of course , also had impact on the evolution of Russian studies as an academic discipline. The department found itself in a peculiar situation. On the one hand , it represented one of the most developed philological disciplines with a large personnel and material base ; on the other hand, the factors that had made Russian studies one of the favoured philological disciplines in the past ceased to be significant. What followed was a perceptible drop in the number of applicants for the Russian teaching programme as Russian gradually lost its dominant position at primary and secondary schools. In terms of research, literary studies, which had appeared to be less productive for decades, prevailed over Russian linguistics.
Part 1. Linguistics
Linguistics is often said to deal with language as a universal human faculty. Nonetheless, scholarly reflection on language and linguistic inquiry strongly interact with society: on the one hand, societal developments determine the linguistic agenda to a greater extent than linguists are prepared to admit; on the other hand, linguistic reflection sometimes sets the agenda for changes in a society, especially through educational systems.
This is particularly true in the Eurasian area, where the Russian national language has been constructed out of a diglossia situation as a top-down process in a partly multi-lingual environment. Over the last few centuries , the development of society and its political upshots have produced agendas for linguistic inquiry and discourse on language, some of which have had an impact on the development of Russian and contingent languages and their social functions , as well as on the development of linguistics as a global discipline. Six such agendas can be pinpointed:
(1) the Orthodox emancipation agenda (1600-1700),
(2) the Russian nation building agenda (1700-present),
(3) the scientific agenda (1860-present),
(4) the Marxist agenda (1917-1989),
(5) the Eurasian agenda (1920-1935),
(6) the cybernetic agenda (1953-1975).
Russian language
Russian language is an East Slavic language and an official language in Russia, Belarus , Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and many minor or unrecognised territories. It is an unofficial but widely spoken language in Ukraine and Latvia, and to a lesser extent, the other post- Soviet states and former members of the Eastern Bloc.
Russian belongs to the family of Indo-European languages and is one of the four living members of the East Slavic languages. Written examples of Old East Slavonic are attested from the 10th century and beyond .
It is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia and the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages. It is also the largest native language in Europe , with 144 million native speakers in Russia, Ukraine and Belarus. Russian is the eighth most spoken language in the world by number of native speakers and the seventh by total number of speakers. The language is one of the six official languages of the United Nations. Russian is also the second most widespread language on the Internet after English .
Russian distinguishes between consonant phonemes with palatal secondary articulation and those without , the so-called soft and hard sounds. Almost every consonant has a hard or a soft counterpart, and the distinction is a prominent feature of the language. Another important aspect is the reduction of unstressed vowels . Stress , which is unpredictable, is not normally indicated orthographically. though an optional acute accent (знак ударения, znak udareniya) may be used to mark stress, such as to distinguish between homographic words , for example замо́к (zamók, meaning a lock) and за́мок (zámok, meaning a castle), or to indicate the proper pronunciation of uncommon words or names .
The standard form of Russian is generally regarded as the modern Russian literary language (современный русский литературный язык). It arose in the beginning of the 18th century with the modernization reforms of the Russian state under the rule of Peter the Great, and developed from the Moscow ( Middle or Central Russian) dialect substratum under the influence of some of the previous century's Russian chancellery language.
Mikhail Lomonosov first compiled a normalizing grammar book in 1755 ; in 1783 the Russian Academy's first explanatory Russian dictionary appeared. During the end of the 18th and 19th centuries, a period known as the " Golden Age", the grammar, vocabulary and pronunciation of the Russian language was stabilized and standardized, and it became the nationwide literary language; meanwhile , Russia's world- famous literature flourished.
Until the 20th century, the language's spoken form was the language of only the upper noble classes and urban population, as Russian peasants from the countryside continued to speak in their own dialects. By the mid-20th century, such dialects were forced out with the introduction of the compulsory education system that was established by the Soviet government . Despite the formalization of Standard Russian, some nonstandard dialectal features (such as fricative [ɣ] in Southern Russian dialects) are still observed in colloquial speech.
History
The history of Russian language may be divided into the following periods.
Kievan period and feudal breakup
The Moscow period (15th– 17th centuries)
Empire (18th–19th centuries)
Soviet period and beyond (20th century)
Judging by the historical records, by approximately 1000 AD the predominant ethnic group over much of modern European Russia, Ukraine and Belarus was the Eastern branch of the Slavs , speaking a closely related group of dialects. The political unification of this region into Kievan Rus' in about 880, from which modern Russia, Ukraine and Belarus trace their origins, established Old East Slavic as a literary and commercial language. It was soon followed by the adoption of Christianity in 988 and the introduction of the South Slavic Old Church Slavonic as the liturgical and official language. Borrowings and calques from Byzantine Greek began to enter the Old East Slavic and spoken dialects at this time, which in their turn modified the Old Church Slavonic as well.
The Ostromir Gospels of 1056 is the second oldest East Slavic book known, one of many medieval illuminated manuscripts preserved in the Russian National Library.
Dialectal differentiation accelerated after the breakup of Kievan Rus' in approximately 1100. On the territories of modern Belarus and Ukraine emerged Ruthenian and in modern Russia medieval Russian. They became distinct since the 13th century, i.e. following the division of that land between the Grand Duchy of Lithuania , Poland and Hungary in the west and independent Novgorod and Pskov feudal republics plus numerous small duchies (which came to be vassals of the Tatars) in the east.
The official language in Moscow and Novgorod, and later , in the growing Muscovy, was Church Slavonic, which evolved from Old Church Slavonic and remained the literary language for centuries, until the Petrine age, when its usage became limited to biblical and liturgical texts. Russian developed under a strong influence of Church Slavonic until the close of the 17th century; afterward the influence reversed, leading to corruption of liturgical texts.
The political reforms of Peter the Great (Пётр Вели́кий, Pyótr Velíkiy) were accompanied by a reform of the alphabet , and achieved their goal of secularization and Westernization. Blocks of specialized vocabulary were adopted from the languages of Western Europe. By 1800, a significant portion of the gentry spoke French daily, and German sometimes. Many Russian novels of the 19th century, e.g. Leo Tolstoy's (Лев Толсто́й) War and Peace , contain entire paragraphs and even pages in French with no translation given , with an assumption that educated readers would not need one.
The modern literary language is usually considered to date from the time of Alexander Pushkin (Алекса́ндр Пу́шкин) in the first third of the 19th century. Pushkin revolutionized Russian literature by rejecting archaic grammar and vocabulary (so-called высо́кий стиль — "high style") in favor of grammar and vocabulary found in the spoken language of the time. Even modern readers of younger age may only experience slight difficulties understanding some words in Pushkin's texts, since relatively few words used by Pushkin have become archaic or changed meaning. In fact , many expressions used by Russian writers of the early 19th century, in particular Pushkin, Mikhail Lermontov (Михаи́л Ле́рмонтов), Nikolai Gogol (Никола́й Го́голь), Aleksander Griboyedov (Алекса́ндр Грибое́дов), became proverbs or sayings which can be frequently found even in modern Russian colloquial speech.
The political upheavals of the early 20th century and the wholesale changes of political ideology gave written Russian its modern appearance after the spelling reform of 1918. Political circumstances and Soviet accomplishments in military , scientific and technological matters (especially cosmonautics), gave Russian a worldwide prestige, especially during the mid-20th century.
During the Soviet period, the policy toward the languages of the various other ethnic groups fluctuated in practice . Though each of the constituent republics had its own official language, the unifying role
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