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Challenges of childrens participation A Case Study of active citizenship in Cadle Primary School (0)

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Challenges of children `s “participation”: A Case Study of active citizenship in Cadle Primary School
Gerli Orumaa ­– 662974
9th of May 2014
Word Count: 8,800
`Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of B.A. International Relations `

Table of Contents

Abstract 3
Introduction 4
Chapter 1:
Citizenship, Children`s Rights and Participation: from the UN to the UK 6
Chapter 2: Citizenship Education in Wales ………………………………………………14
Active Citizenship in Cadle Primary School: A Case Study 20
Conclusion 29
Bibliography 32
Appendices
Appendix 1: The United Convention of the Rights of the Child
Appendix 2: Interview with Jamie Richards , the Head Teacher of Cadle Primary School
Abstract:
Children inherently have had a rather tenuous relationship with citizenship. Similarly to how women were once viewed, children have not been considered as subjects of rights due to their perceived incompetence and irrationality. Currently, children are not considered as being rational and capable of exercising responsibility until the age of majority , the age of 18. However , the adoption of the U.N Convention of the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) in 1989 granted for the first time the recognition for children as worthy individuals with rights of their own. The UNCRC laid the foundation for the potential re-evaluation of our traditional understanding of childhood and the perception of children as primarily objects of the adult world. Since , then the UNCRC has attracted significant scholarly interest from various disciplines and as such a high degree of research has been published in this area already . The increasing sociological interest in children in particular that has provided a new perspective around the idea of children as competent social actors has provoked a great controversy and confusion as it challenges the image of the incompetent child which is overwhelmingly prevalent in the Western society. The purpose of this dissertation is to critically explore this hotly debated tension between these two conflicting salient features that have often prevented the recognition of children as active citizens, entitled to respect and participation. With a particular interest in Wales, the following research project analyses the development of children`s active participation both in the Welsh Government and the County and Council of Swansea as they both have regarded the UNCRC on the basis of all its activity . Finally, the Cadle Primary School in Swansea has been used as a case study to investigate the potential change in attitudes in children after the school placed the UNCRC at the heart of its ethos and curriculum across all areas of the school. The primary goal is to critically analyse the commitment of the Cadle towards children`s participation within school and explore the possible spaces created for children that allow them to actively engage with meaningful discussions on the matters that concern them.
Introduction
Children have `somewhat tenuous relationship to citizenship` as a number of authors interested in children`s citizenship have noted.1 Historically, they have not been considered as subjects of rights, but rather as objects of social concern or citizens-in- making . Children have been perceived as objects of investments in the future, and thereupon recognised as `productive economic subjects` who will be carrying out vital tasks for the society and their families `.2 Similarly to how women were once viewed, children have been seen as irrational, emotional and incompetent and therefore are often excluded from the citizenship status . However, the adoption of the U.N Convention of the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) in 1989 was the initial legally binding law that for the first time, granted children the recognition as worthy individuals with rights of their own.3 The UNCRC has been considered as one of the most innovative international treaties ever ratified. It laid the foundation for the potential change of attitude and perception of children as primarily objects of the adult world.
The recognition of children by the UNCRC as respected individuals with rights of their own has given impetus to a significant field of academic study. Since then, there has been increasing sociological interest in children which has provided a new perspective around the idea of children as social actors, and that childhood is not a natural phenomenon but a social construct. 4 It is now recognised that childhood is a culturally constructed phenomenon arising from human interaction.5 However, the new knowledge of children as competent social actors has provoked a great controversy as it challenges the image of the incompetent child which is overwhelmingly prevalent in the Western society. It has generated a great confusion `about what role young people below the age of majority should play in community and political life`.6 On the one hand , there is a growing recognition with respect to children`s participation in society. On the other hand, children are seen as welfare dependants, needy for care and protection of adults. The goal of this dissertation is to critically explore this hotly debated tension between these two conflicting salient features that have often prevented the recognition of children as active citizens, entitled to respect and participation. With a particular interest in Wales, the following research project analyses the development of children`s active participation both in the Welsh Government and the County and Council of Swansea. Both the local and national authority has regarded the UNCRC on the basis of all its activity. One of the primary goals in both authorities is to work towards the adoption of the UNCRC in every school in Wales and Swansea as they recognise the positive impact rights based education may have upon young people`s emotional, social and academic development.
The central theme of this dissertation rests on the commitment of the Cadle Primary School towards children`s right to participation as underpinned in the Article 12 of the UNCRC. The Cadle Primary School is one of the first schools in Swansea to adopt the UNCRC through the Rights Respecting School programme (RRSA). The RRSA school initiative is developed by the UNICEF UK, which encourages the schools to place the UNCRC `at the heart of its ethos and curriculum across all areas of the school`.7 Thereupon, the primary goal is to critically explore the spaces the Cadle has created for children that allow them to actively to engage with meaningful discussions on the matters that concern them.The Cadle Primary School was chosen for this study mainly due to the growing interest of the author towards citizenship education after recognizing a great change in her children`s personal and social development within Cadle Primary School. In the context of this research, the scholarly work on children`s rights was almost extraordinary. Over the last twenty years , the children`s rights have attracted scholarly work from various disciplines ranging from law, philosophy to education and politics . However, due to the time and space constructs, a total of 60 academic articles , books , primary and secondary material was chosen. Moreover , in order to gain the greater knowledge around the challenges of children`s active participation within the Cadle Primary School, the interview was conducted with head teacher of Jamie Richards. In relation to interview, the author takes the full responsibility for the possible misinterpretation of the interview with Jamie Richards. Moreover, the following research project is not intending to be wholly representative of children`s participation in Wales and in Swansea in particular. Before presenting the research findings from the Cadle Primary School, it is important to explore the developments of children`s rights after the adoption of the UNCRC in UK and Wales and the academic discourse and debate around the children`s rights and participation rights in particular.
Chapter 1: Citizenship, Children`s Rights and Participation: from the UN to the UK
The adoption of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) in 1989 followed by the unanimous ratification of the Convention by many countries (except the US and Somalia) represented a significant shift in the status of children in society. The UNCRC is the first legally binding law under International Law that has granted children with the recognition as respected individuals with rights of their own.8 The UNCRC states that all children regardless of their ` race , colour , sex, language , religion , political or other opinion, national, ethnic or social origin (Article 2) are entitled to the set of `economic, social, cultural , civil and political rights (Article 4)`.9 The Convention provides a framework stating that children not only have the right to be cared for, provided for and protected but also have the right to participate in the matters that affect their daily lives (Article 12).10 The Article 12 states that;
`States Parties shall assure to the child who is capable of forming his or her own views the right to express those views freely in all matters affecting the child, the views of the child being given due weight in accordance with the age and maturity of the child…For this purpose, the child shall in particular be provided the opportunity to be heard in any judicial and administrative proceedings affecting the child, either directly, or through a representative or an appropriate body , in a manner consistent with the procedural rules of national law`11
The Convention recognises children as active members of society who have the capability to provide a valuable contribution to their `family, community and society from the first years of their life`.12 The UNCRC has had an unprecedented support in almost every country in the world which has made the Convention the most comprehensively agreed treaty ever ratified in the world.13 However, while the ` provision rights` and `protection rights` have found consentient recognition in drafting welfare policies aiming to protect children against all forms of discrimination or punishment, the participation rights have been considered greatly controversial14. The United Kingdom (UK) for instance (who ratified the UNCRC in December 1991) was immediately faced with strong criticism from the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child after producing their first required report (1995) about the progress around implementation.15
The UN Committee concluded that there has been a lack of progress in terms of implementing Article 12.16 The Committee expressed its concern over the insufficient attention provided to the right of the child to express his/her opinion and have these views given due weight in education, law and policy . The Committee suggested that the establishment of further mechanisms by the State party are required `to facilitate the participation of children in decisions affecting them, including within the family and the community`.17 Furthermore , in regards to education the Committee recommended that schools should encourage and facilitate children`s right to participate in matters of concern to them and suggested that `the State party consider the possibility of introducing education about the Convention on the Rights of the Child into school curricula`.18 Moreover, the Committee recommended that the teacher training curriculum should ` incorporate education about the Convention on the Rights of the Child. It recommended that teaching methods should be inspired by and reflect the spirit and philosophy of the Convention…`.19
However, the criticism by the UN Committee was met with an outrage by the UK government and media as there was a strong belief that the UK is one of the leading countries in the protection of children.20 There was the sentiment of unjust accusation given to the poor record of respecting children in many other countries. The `protectionist` approach towards children trenchantly illustrates the fact that the nature of the Convention and its purpose was clearly underestimated by the UK.21 Gerison Lansdown argues that the UK commodiously failed to place emphasis on respecting children`s right to express a view in all matters of concern and have these views taken seriously in a variety of social settings in which they live their daily lives, like family life and education. Instead the UK government placed the importance only on the legal requirement of courts and local authorities under the Children Act 1989 to ascertain children`s views and wishes when making decisions about their welfare.22 Lansdown cites that providing children a voice only in the point of crisis like the breakdown of marriage or when placing the child into the care of the local authority is not enough to adhere to Article 12. He contends that listening to children and taking their views into account must be respected and taken seriously.23
Moreover, the outrage to the explicit criticism also demonstrated that children`s rights are predominantly viewed with some hostility in the UK, where Article 12 in particular has created considerable resentment as children are predominantly stereotyped as being innocent/vulnerable or `aggressive, demanding and badly behaving adolescents out of control of their parents and teachers and lacking the willingness or capacity to accept the responsibilities that should accompany with the granting of rights`.24 There is a clear tension between the commonly held assumptions of children on the one hand, as welfare dependants, needy for protection and care of adults, and on the other hand, as young citizens entitled to respect and recognition, and the right to participate in the matters that affect their daily lives25. However, the very fact of how childhood is perceived within society has a profound impact upon whether children`s rights are upheld or not. The commonly held assumption that relates children with innocence and vulnerability often `constructs children out of society, mutes their voices, denies their personhood, and limits their potential`26. Children are not citizens in a constitutional sense , they cannot vote . They are perceived as `presocial` actors `trapped in the state of becoming rather than being`.27
Thereupon, children are not considered of being rational and capable of exercising responsibility until the age of majority, the age of 18.28 There is an imposition that granting children rights to participate in decision making will overwhelm them with a great responsibility and denies them an opportunity of childhood.29 It is strongly believed that children should have the time for play and innocence and henceforth `must be protected because they are children and as children they lack competence and autonomy presumed by the idea of a right.30 Moreover, rights also threaten the stability and harmony of family life in which too much freedom of choice in making decisions about the matters that affect children is considered to be fatal to adult authority. Laura Purdy`s argument greatly illustrates the deep concern over the idea of losing control over children and failing to meet their basic needs if granting children rights. She is a fierce opponent to the liberal education and proponent of child development. She contends that children do not have equal status with adults as they do not possess the virtues of rationality and capability of making reasonable decisions about their lives.31 Purdy believes that `there are morally relevant differences between children and adults `in which irrationality is instrumental of justifying divergent treatment for children.32 Purdy believes that children are `unfinished beings who need a period of development and teaching to become admirable human beings`.33 Purdy is convinced that by giving children equal rights `they are less likely to develop virtues and self-control upon which they depend . If children do not develop such virtues, they live less satisfying lives and there seems little hope of a better world`.34 Prudy concludes by arguing that only strict parental control combined with warmth and affluence of meaningful adult models enable children to become competent social actors who have a clear understanding of the ` meaning of tolerance , cooperation , and compassion`.35
The proponents of children`s rights on the other hand, strongly disagree with the idea that children are morally incompetent and need time to develop a clear moral understandings of right and wrong .36 Over the past two decades, increasingly new kind of work and research has been done in the sociology of childhood which `explores how children and young people see the world, their values and priorities and the ways in which they feel themselves marginalized`37. The concept of childhood is now being understood amongst the scholarly work as a socially and culturally constructed phenomenon which is not a `natural or universal feature of human groups`38. According to the new sociological knowledge, children are regarded as people to be studied in their own right and not just as `receptacles of adult teaching`39. Children are now considered as social actors who have the capability to understand the complexity of the world. Pricilla Alderson points out that the recent studies into childhood have demonstrated `that children are much more competent than was formerly thought possible`40. Children as young as nine for example have been regarded of having a degree of capability in comprehending political issues and making political decisions41. Alderson postulates that young children have a strong interest towards societal issues like environment and poverty if these matters are discussed in the classroom42. She concedes that children have the competence of understanding `general and partly-abstract issues, such as the politics of racism, inequality and oppression` if these things are discussed with them43. Besides, children as young as five , have a very clear understanding of `self and others , language, physics, technology, morality and arts `44.
Furthermore, in contrast to Laura Purdy`s evaluation of children being morally undeveloped, Stephen Law proposes an alternative argument based on studies involving philosophy with children in several countries45. He points out that children who were encouraged to think independently, critically and reflective way and debate about philosophical questions reveal that these children developed number of skills like `revealing and questioning underlying assumption` and `taking turns in a debate` and `listening actively without interrupting`46. Law presumes that these skills cultivate not only the level of maturity in children `but a fair degree of emotional maturity too`47. The turn -taking for example necessitates patience and self-control, and `by thinking critically and carefully about your own beliefs and attitudes, children are likely to develop insights to their own character` (Law, 2006, p.35). Law strongly believes learning about philosophy acts as an effective tool in aiding emotional development in children. Therefore, he suggests that the most efficacious way of developing these skills in children is to acknowledge their social agency and respect their equal worth with adults and proficiency to understand the complexity of thought. Law concludes that the number of studies have demonstrated that leaning about philosophical thought is good for children `academically, socially and emotionally` and equips children with skills `we need new citizens to develop`48.
The extensive research with children over the past two decades alongside with the UNCRC have created the need to reconsider the commonly held assumption of childhood as a `rehearsal for adult life, and grant children the recognition and respect their right and in their own terms`49. There is thorough evidence that `children are capable to make decisions about important things that affect their life` and in particular they are `capable in caring for themselves and for others`50. Jeremy Roche for instance, points out that there is approximately fifty thousand young carers under the age of 18 today whose job `is physically and emotionally demanding`51. However, in reality the recognition of these children`s contribution in public discourse has been rather inconsistent. The serious responsibilities of these children while providing the care for their family member /members are often underestimated and undervalued.52 The young carers are often excluded from the `discussions about the provision of care and their opinions are overlooked` despite the fact that these young carers pose ` fundamental challenges to the conventional wisdom of understanding of the care, childhood, dependency, citizenship and children`s rights`.53 The contribution of these children has disappeared as the idea of children being incompetent and irrational is overwhelmingly prevalent in the Western society.54
It can be argued that there is considerable confusion and national anxiety `about what role young people below the age of majority should play in community and political life`.55 On the one hand, the gradual recognition of children as social actors both at local and national levels has encouraged the policy makers and the media to some extent to take more effective measures in providing the voices and representation of the most marginalized minority in society. For example, the children`s television news bulletin and website of BBC Newsround which is the only news programme for children in the UK, recognises children as active and valuable citizens. Its reporters are producing news stories that aim to `equip children to handle their lives better by giving them the information they need about the world around them.`56 With citizenship education in mind, the Newsround actively encourages children to critically engage with a wide array of issues of public interest. Cynthia Carter and Stuart Allan in their research of Public Service and the Market : A Case Study of the BBC Newsround Website recognised that children have a strong interest in events taking place around them. The news stories of the US-led invasion to Afghanistan and Iraq War for example, attracted great concern around the young audience to be more informed by the following news. Carter and Allan note that the analysis of children`s comments around these two conflicts demonstrated children`s increasing `political awareness in a world transformed by ongoing crises of war and conflict`57. In response to the Newsround query of `How has 11 September changed the world?` two young teenagers acknowledged:
`It really made me realise how bad life is for some people and it’s made me pay more attention to what’s going on in the world. It was really, really terrible! (Susan, 13; posted 13 September 2002) It’s made me watch the news more and aware of what’s happening in the world. (Frankie, 13; posted 13 September 2002)`.58
On the contrary, while Newsround actively encourages children to develop the political knowledge and have their voices heard, then the credibility of children and young people in participating in the world of politics is greatly downplayed by the rest of the media.59 Instead of recognising their political agency, the media generally reinforces the dominant model of childhood by simultaneously positioning children as victims of adult abuse (often young and/or female children being killed, abducted or sexually abused) and as dangerous /deviant children who challenge the romantic outlook of western childhood, and pose credible threat to adult`s authority and hegemonic position . Such an unfairly, denigrating portrayal of children however is greatly undermining children`s opportunity to be taken seriously by adults. Their perceived intellectual incompetency and irrationality frames the childhood as an a-political arena of thought and practice in which children are portrayed as being `unable to articulate a set of coherent political views`.60 While on the one hand the Newsround news stories of the Iraq War encouraged children to discuss the war at school and in school assemblies, the actual political participation of children during the youth protests against the Iraq War in 2003 were being greatly downplayed by the media.61 These children were demonized by the British media in which they were portrayed as deviant and out of control.62 The political voices of these school children remained absent in media discourse as they challenged the very essence of the idea of western childhood in which the `political child` is seen as “un-child” that provokes the held expectations of children that are socially constructed and determined mainly by political priorities.63
Chapter 2: Citizenship Education in Wales
However, in the midst of this paradox where the recognition of children as active participants of society is clearly overshadowed by the dominating notions of children as objects of social concern/control, it is nevertheless important to recognise that the gradual shift towards the enactment of rights agenda in policy formation in the UK should not be underestimated.64 The major cultural change in the re-evaluation of our traditional understanding of childhood does not happen overnight. The Welsh Assembly Government for instance is the leading nation in the UK which regards children`s rights on the basis of all of its activity. The introduction of The Rights of Children and Young Persons (Wales) Measure in 2011, in particular, placed Wales as the first country in the UK under a duty to have a `due regard to children`s rights when Welsh Ministers exercise any of their functions `.65 Since the devolution and the establishment of the National Assembly of Wales (1999), the Welsh Government has taken a much more comprehensive approach to governance compared with England by placing critical importance around the rights of children and young people in policy making.66 The excessive number of key policies and strategies developed along with NGO`s, local authorities, stakeholders and with children themselves after the adoption of the UNCRC has been outstanding as there is a strong belief within the Welsh Government that children and childhood has always been `more than preparation for adulthood`.67 The Welsh Government believes that children are a` unique and valuable part of life, and the quality of those years is a matter that should concern us all`.68 The Welsh Government recognises children as right bearers where they acknowledge that children and young people are young citizens, `with rights and opinions to be taken into account now. They are not a species apart, to be alternately demonised and sentimentalised, nor trainee adults who do not yet have a full place in society`.69 Thereupon, the Welsh Government is determined to facilitate a cultural change that promotes a greater understanding and increasing awareness of children and young peoples ` rights within society.
In relation to the commitment to education which is based on the UNCRC Articles of 12, 23, 28, 29, and 32, the number of successive efforts in advancing children`s right to education on the basis of equal opportunities and the promotion of active participation in schools, have been developed by the Welsh Government and NGO`s.70 The statutory requirement of school councils in Wales, the inclusion of the UNCRC to the Personal and Social Education (PSE) curriculum and the Rights Respecting School initiative developed by the UNICEF UK, are only a number of initiatives taken by the Welsh Government and NGO`s in respect of protecting children and young people`s rights. The PSE curriculum provides children with the opportunity to access their right to have their voices heard and participate in the matters that affect them through the Active Citizenship element in this framework. The Rights Respecting School programme which clearly fits with the PSE framework is one of the first encouraging signs of change which is crucial to the respectful recognition of children as valuable citizens in their own right.71 The Welsh Government recognises the positive impact the Rights Respecting School programme could provide to the support of their policy strategies developed in relation to the protection of children and young people`s rights in Wales.72
The successful steps taken towards the enactment of children`s rights agenda in education by the Welsh Government is a recent phenomenon in the UK however, this has generated controversy in citizenship education debate. While the primary aim of the education for citizenship is to prepare good citizens, the controversy lies in the notion of what kind of citizenship education schools should promote in liberal societies.73 Along with the respectable body of academic literature in citizenship education that addresses the questions of what types of skills and values should children develop in the context of constantly changing world (broadening globalisation and democracy combined with concerns over the lack of civic and political engagement), the second equally important question lies weather citizenship programmes should teach children as `citizens of today` or ` citizen in making`?74 Current citizenship education for schools in England for instance positions children as pre-citizens who are training for the citizenship in the future. 75 The Citizenship programme of study for England outlines that `a high-quality citizenship education helps to provide pupils with knowledge, skills and understanding to prepare them to play a full and active part in society at local, national and international levels. It helps them to become informed, thoughtful and responsible citizens who are aware of their duties and rights.`76 In this framework, children as Brian Howe and Katherine Covell state are `educated for the roles and responsibilities that they will assume as future citizens and as adult members of their society`.77 Audrey Osler and Hugh Starkey note that in this respect the education for citizenship largely fails to acknowledge the existing citizenship rights of children and therefore places them as `threatening yet politically apathetic`.78 They argue that citizenship education programmes which are built upon such `assumptions may, unintentionally, serve to alienate and exclude `.79 Howe and Covell`s argument trenchantly support Strakey and Olser`s claim where they argue that this concept to citizenship that regards children as citizens-in-making fails to `recognise the citizenship and rights-bearing status of children. Rather it assumes children to be future citizens in need of preparation. It fails to meet any of the specified goals of rights or citizenship education to promote democratic values or values and citizenship engagement`.80
The Welsh approach to the education for the citizenship in the PSE curriculum on the other hand, does not only situate children as future citizens, where they are encouraged to acquire skills and knowledge needed to become active citizens in local and global contexts, but also as mentioned, the Active Citizenship element of the PSE aims to engage learners as active citizens from the onset of their academic journey .81 Pupils are encouraged to lean that they are already valuable citizens, where they are `members of communities, from local through national to global` and that they can play ` a meaningful and active part in them`.82 Along with the inclusive approach to children in governance since the devolution settlement and the establishment of the Welsh Government, there are a number of additional factors that determine the divergent approach of the education for citizenship in the Welsh curriculum compared to England. Firstly, Wales is historically, and is today, home to a number of different cultures and languages. The Welsh Government believes that the divergence of the cultural identity , values and language of these social groupings should be embraced as it contributes `to the cultural richness of Wales`.83 Thereupon, the commitment to the value of diversity forms the very idea of citizenship education for Wales.
Secondly, Wales is traditionally a relatively poor country compared with rest of the UK. According to the Public Health Wales Observatory (2013), there is an increase in the number of children and young people living in poverty today in Wales.84 One in five students who currently live in deprivation has a low academic performance and therefore they are likely to face exclusion, educational under- achievement and impaired life chances.85 Therefore, one of the main priorities of the Welsh Government through the Tackling Poverty Action Plan 2012- 2016 is to ` reduce inequality, improve economic and social well-being` by reducing the educational gap between children living in deprivation and their well-off peers.86 Both the PSE framework and Education for Sustainable Development and Global Citizenship (ESDGC) play a crucial role of providing all children with an equal opportunity regardless of their background to achieve their full potential in life, and develop an understanding of the value of diversity in their own communities and beyond in which they come to understand the `roles, relationships, conflicts and inequalities that affect the quality of life'.87
At a local level, the City and County of Swansea is also in the process of making successive efforts in terms of crushing poverty in the city. Like the Welsh Government, Swansea Council recognises the importance of education in narrowing the poverty gap amongst children from low income families by providing them with the best possible start in life where they can achieve their full academic potential regardless of their background and circumstances. Therefore, in this light the Swansea Council embraces the Rights Respecting School programme in the belief it may have a positive impact to the reduction of the inherent deprivation of its population. Currently there are around 6500 children living in poverty in Swansea and thereupon the Council made recently a conscious decision in adopting the UNCRC (2013) into the Council`s policy in order to tackle this issue.88 By becoming the first children`s rights capital in Wales, Swansea Council, like the Welsh Government, has taken an obligation to have due regard to children and young people's rights.89 In this context, an annual Children and Young People`s Rights Scheme is due to be published to monitor the process of the Council in implementing its `due regard` duty to children`s rights. Moreover, the Council continues working closely with Swansea University which hosts the Wales Observatory on Human Rights of Children and Young People, to act as an external monitoring body for the Council and ensures that everything the Authority does is both working and transparent.90
At present , Swansea Council is working towards the adoption of the UNCRC in every school in Swansea.91 There are currently forty Rights Respecting Schools in Swansea, mainly in the primary sector that has made an explicit commitment to the UNCRC. However, while the number of children who have been educated in the rights based approach are currently making a transition from primary school to secondary school, the Council believes it is important to adopt the same approach in secondary schools to ensure that children continue to be educated in an rights respecting school environment.92 Thereupon, one of the strategies to achieve this is to provide the funding and the training for the schools to work towards the recognition as Rights Respecting School.
Active Citizenship in Cadle Primary School: a case study
Cadle primary school is one of the schools which has already received the Rights Respecting School Award (RRSA) and been recognised for their outstanding practice in respect of implementing this and therefore, according to the school`s head teacher, Jamie M. Richards, acts as one of the `heels for the rollout training programme for other schools to train them up on rights`.93 By sharing the rights respecting practise with other schools, the head teacher has also assisted `after school learning sessions for other schools and has offered his time and experience in promoting the impact of RRSA both on a local and regional level`.94
The Cadle Primary School started working towards becoming rights-respecting in 2010 which involved the requirement to meet the RRSA Award. In order to achieve Level 1, it was necessary for the school to work towards the progress of embedding `the values and principle of CRC into its ethos and
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of active citizenship in Cadle Primary School #50 Challenges of childrens participation A Case Study of active citizenship in Cadle Primary School #51 Challenges of childrens participation A Case Study of active citizenship in Cadle Primary School #52 Challenges of childrens participation A Case Study of active citizenship in Cadle Primary School #53 Challenges of childrens participation A Case Study of active citizenship in Cadle Primary School #54 Challenges of childrens participation A Case Study of active citizenship in Cadle Primary School #55 Challenges of childrens participation A Case Study of active citizenship in Cadle Primary School #56 Challenges of childrens participation A Case Study of active citizenship in Cadle Primary School #57 Challenges of childrens participation A Case Study of active citizenship in Cadle Primary School #58 Challenges of childrens participation A Case Study of active citizenship in Cadle Primary School #59 Challenges of childrens participation A Case Study of active citizenship in Cadle Primary School #60 Challenges of childrens participation A Case Study of active citizenship in Cadle Primary School #61 Challenges of childrens participation A Case Study of active citizenship in Cadle Primary School #62 Challenges of childrens participation A Case Study of active citizenship in Cadle Primary School #63 Challenges of childrens participation A Case Study of active citizenship in Cadle Primary School #64 Challenges of childrens participation A Case Study of active citizenship in Cadle Primary School #65 Challenges of childrens participation A Case Study of active citizenship in Cadle Primary School #66 Challenges of childrens participation A Case Study of active citizenship in Cadle Primary School #67 Challenges of childrens participation A Case Study of active citizenship in Cadle Primary School #68 Challenges of childrens participation A Case Study of active citizenship in Cadle Primary School #69 Challenges of childrens participation A Case Study of active citizenship in Cadle Primary School #70 Challenges of childrens participation A Case Study of active citizenship in Cadle Primary School #71 Challenges of childrens participation A Case Study of active citizenship in Cadle Primary School #72 Challenges of childrens participation A Case Study of active citizenship in Cadle Primary School #73 Challenges of childrens participation A Case Study of active citizenship in Cadle Primary School #74 Challenges of childrens participation A Case Study of active citizenship in Cadle Primary School #75 Challenges of childrens participation A Case Study of active citizenship in Cadle Primary School #76 Challenges of childrens participation A Case Study of active citizenship in Cadle Primary School #77 Challenges of childrens participation A Case Study of active citizenship in Cadle Primary School #78 Challenges of childrens participation A Case Study of active citizenship in Cadle Primary School #79 Challenges of 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