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Stonehenge
●One  of  the   best    known    ancient   wonders  of  the 
world, 5000  years old
●Megalith 
monument, 
built  
by 
western  
mediterraneans  during 3000-1600 BC
●Circular 
structure,  large  standing   stones
aligned with rising sun at teh  solstice
●Attlers and bones were sued to dig pits that  hold  
the stones
 
 
The  Celts  in Britain  and their legacy

700-200 BC celts invade  Britain

Gaels or Goehls( Ireland  and  Scotland ),Cymri( Wales ) and 
Brythons( gave  name to  Brittany )

Fierce fighters,superb  horsemen.Most of them  farmers, 
lived in  thatched  houses

Good  at art, craftmanship , used  iron

Divided  into tribes, ruled by kings , only in face of danger  
would they  choose  a  single   leader

Legacy-  hill -forts, farms, churches, field  system, 
woodland, pasture, weapons, iron objects, langugae, 
 
 
culture
Caesar in Britain
● The great Roman Emperor
● Firts  came 55 BC to gather information, celts 
were doing agriculturally well,so  romans  
wanted  to get some food too
● In 54BC Caesar defeated Cassivelaunus
● Actual reasons  why he made expeditions are 
unknown or wheteher he wanted to intend 
conquest
 
 
The Roman Occupation  43-410
● 43 AD Emperor Claudius conquered Britain, it 
was easy , romans were more skilled and 
betetr equipped. 
● Romans faced assaults of Picts, Scots
barbarians.
● 406-7 barbarians begin invasion
● Legacy- new  types  of animals, plants ; miles
feet , inches-roman measurements;christianity; 
Roman basilica  in curches; reading , writing; 
 
 
buildings, roads
Christianity in Roman Britain
●  Until 4th C  christians  were persecuted
● 313 AD Emperor Constantine legalised 
christianity
● 380 AD Emperor Theodosius I made it the 
official  religion of the empire
● Paganism had been eclipsed but continued to 
pose a  politicalreligious   challenge
 
 
Boudicca
●  Queen  of Iceni people of Eastern England , led 
an uprising against Roman forces
● Prasutagus(ruler) was  first allowed to  rule  
when romans conquered England, after his 
death , romans decided to rule Iceni and 
flogged Boudicca and raped her daughters
● 60-62 AD Iceni rebelled, Boudicca´s warriors 
defeated Roman Ninth Legion , destroied 
capital-Colchester
 
 
●  Finally Boudicca was defetated, she poisoned 
herself to  avoid  capture
Hadrian ´s wall
● A defensive barrier builtin 122 AD by Roman 
emperor Hadrian to guard the  northern   part of 
Britain against barbarian invaders
● Most imposing  frontier of Roman Empire, 
controlling  peoples  mobements
●  Building   took   several  years, builders kept  
changing  minds about the  size
●  119 km  lenght , 5m high, 3m  deep
 
 
The Picts, Caledonia
● The painted ones, northern tribes, part of the 
Scots
● Inhabited an area known as eastern and 
western Scotland, until 10th  c
● Mysteriously disappeared
● Constantly fought with Romans
● Teir country - Caledonia- Pictland
 
 
The Scots, Hibernia
● Raiders, Celts  living in Ireland/Hibernia
● Migrated to Scotland
● Raided Roman Britain
● After Kenneth  McAlpin united Scotland all 
inhabitants  became  Scots
 
 
The Venerable Bede
● A  monk  in the Northumbrian  monastery  of 
Jarrow
● In 731 „The Great Ecclesiastical History of the 
English  People“- overshaows all other sources 
of 7th, early  8th C
● Well- founded  scraps of tradition, first work  of 
history, where AD system is used 
 
 
Angles,  Saxons , Jutes. Frisians
● 430´s onwards, Germans  settlers   arrived in 
large numbers. Anglo- Saxon   invasions  in 499
● The Saxons- Saxon country to  South and 
West
● The Angles- Angulus to  East Anglia,
● Jutes in Kent
●  Same  culture as  southern  Scandinavia, 
Germany , northern  France  
 
 
● 600 they had founded their 7 kingdoms 
The Anglo-Saxon kingdoms
● Kent-JUtes,
● Essex, Sussex, Vessex- Saxons
● East Anglia, Mercia , Nothumbria- Angles
● Series of over-kings from various kingdoms

 
 
St  Patrick
● Conversion of Irish - 432-461
● Patron saint of Ireland, originally  pagan , slave
● He escaped, became a Christian priest and 
later bishop. Ireland was largely christian by 
6th C
● Monasteries multiplied, monastic lines, 
provinces were ruled by abbots 
 
 
St Columba
● 6th, 7th C Irish  sent missionaries to Gaul, 
Germany, Scotland and England
● St Columba  went to Scotland, converted Picts, 
● 563 founded a monastery of  island  Iona
● Credited with  major  role in converting 
Scotland to Christianity
 
 
St Aidan
● Irish missionary, King  Oswalds of  Northumbria  
bishop
● Had qualities  to convet Northumbria. After 
monastery of Lindisfarne 635 had built he set 
up a church  in  royal village
● He always travelled on foot, 
● Several monasteries were founded
 
 
St Augustine 
● 597 Christ church influenced  English society 
of kings, warriors ad farmers
● Pope Gregory the Great, sent the first mission 
in 597 headed by monk St Augustine to Kent, 
where he founded a monastery at  Canterbury
● 601 Augustine was enthroned as first 
Archbishop of Canterbury
●  
 
 
St George
● Patron saint of England, soldiers , arcgers, 
cavalry, chivalry, farmers, riders, field workers, 
saddlers, helps those whos uffer from 
leprosy,pleagues, syphilis
● He  killed  a  dragon  to save a  fair  maiden
● The flag of Saint George is in Union Jack
● 1940 King George VI inauguarated The 
George  Cross - acts  of grate heroism 
 
 
St Andrew
● Patron saint od Scotland as well as Creece 
russia
● Was one of the 12 apostles
● Travelled to  Greece  to preach christianity 
where he was crucified on an x-shaped cross- 
saltire, crux decusata
● St Andrews cross on Scotland flag
● Some remains in teh town St Andrews, a 
 
 
place of pilgrimage
St david
● Patron saint of Wales
● Missioanry, ealry saint who travelled to Wales, 
sout-west England and Brittany
● Became archbischop of Wales
● He was preaching to crowd and the  ground  
rise up. To a hill
● David founded monastery where St David 
stands   today
 
 
The Synod of Whitby 664
● 664 Oswy, king of Northumbria, called a 
meeting  at Whitby- The Synod Of Whitby
● Which church practises should have 
precedence in his kingdom- celtic or roman?
● How to calculate day of easter ?
● It was decided to follow  Rome
● Irish clergy  left  Northumbria and returned to 
Ireland
 
 
●  Turning -point: all the Eng kingdoms  could  not 
be united under one primate
Offa´s Dyke
● An enourmous  linear  earthwork, continuous  
barrier betwwen England and Wales, from sea 
to sea
● Constructed in 8th C by king Offa- ruler of 
Anglian kingdom of Mercia
● Dyke was to place boundary between  his 
domain  and  Welsh  kingdom of Powys
●   20 m wide, 8 m high
  ● A defensive work, no  
wadays border still  
folllows the remains of Offas dyke
Redwald  Sutton Hoo
● Redwald was a king ofEast Anglia,  whose  
burial was opened in 1939 at Sutton Hoo of 
the East Anglian coast
● Redwald was  buried  in a ship under a mound, 
with his armour, weapons, treasures
● Ceremonial whetstsone can be scarcely 
anything than a sceptre
●  Treasure  is now in  British  museum  
 
 
Alfred  the Great and the rise of 
Wessex  to cultural  pre- eminence

Alfred the Great was the king of southern Anglo-Saxon 
kingdom of Wessex, stands out for his  social and 
educational reforms and for  military  successes against 
Danes

Improved  the  army and navy, bought vessels bigger than 
vikings

The first town planner

By 880s Wessex was covered with public strongholds, 
grid  of streets, planned fortified towns where landowners, 
traders and crafters  started   marketing
  ●
First English king who wor  
te  books  

More learned laity
Danelaw,  Viking territories in the 
British Isles
● During 9th C all  Scottish   Islands  and the  Isdle  
of Man went to the Vikings
● The Danes invaded East Anglia, Northumbria, 
Mercia and  established  their kingdom- 
Danelaw
●  Even  being christianized, they  retained  their 
systems of manorial organization, land  
measurement, law and social differentiations.
● Norwegians captured  Dublin  and established 
 
 
ther kingdom, which lasted 35 years
● Also they captured Danelaw, York

Ethelred the Unready and Danegeld
● Ethelred was the king of England 
● Notorious for payments  for attacking Vikings- 
danegeld, based  on the angient method of 
assessing  land in hides, so much per  hide  
● An inefficial ruler, failed to  prevent England 
being ran over by the Danes
● Ordered a massacre for Danes
● Danish king Swein conquered England and 
 
Ethelred was sent to  
  exile in Normandy, he 
returned and got a victory over the danes, 
soon he died

Canute/Cnut
● Cnut was the king of Denmark,  Norway and 
England, all England in 1016, was set out to 
rule as a rightful king
● Acted ruthlessly to secure the trone: seversl 
elading English killed
● Issued  laws , founded monasterys, was a 
strong , efficient king, after his death the 
empire  fell  apart
● Pointed several English as bishops in 
 
 
Denmark, divided kingdom into 4 earldoms, 
while   abroad
The vikings of Normandy
● 789 first ships to England 
● Big raid in Kent 835. three decades of yearly  
attacks, arrival of a  full -scaled army
● Reasons_ Growth of population in Vikings 
home landin many european countries from 
850´s onwards
● In Ireland, ScotlandWales and Cornwall- 
mainly Norwegian , in English, Frankish lands- 
Danish
 
 
● 9th C invaded England, conquered all nothern, 
central and eastern E, made huge damage  
Feudalismmanor system

Feudalism- social system of  rights  and dutie based on land 
tenure and personal relationship

The  basisholding  land, Main  purpose - economy

King was the  owner  of the  whole  land, land was  held  by 
vassals,  greater  nobles gave part of their land to smal er, 
system  developed  mailny in 9th C,  loyal  dynasties became 
independent and started to  build  up smal  territorial  states

 Manor system- political, economical, social system, peasants 
depended on their land and  lord

The head of the society was the lord of the manor, part of his 
land was rent out or by military
 
 

Peasants who held a land and field, were attached tot heir 
land,  paid  for in  money  or  labour

Edward the Confessor
● The king of England, inherited the srtongest 
government  in  11th  C Europe
● The royal writs  appeared , was a brief  
notification to the shire - earl and the bishop 
that a  grant  of land had been made and 
should be witnessed in  court
● Wax seals, clerical staff
● Highly efficient tax system, real rulers were 
advisors and noblemen
 
 
Harold  Godwinson
● The last Anglo-Saxon king, nominated as 
successor  by Edward
● Strong ruler, skilled general
● Defeated the Norman invaders, was killed in 
the  battle  of Hastings
● William the Conqueror took his place 
 
 
The Battle of Hastings 1066
● Edward had promised his throne to William, 
Harold swore an oathe but was elected as a 
king
● William took a crusade against him with papal 
blessing
● Battle took place betwwen Anglo-Saxon army 
by Harold, and Norman army by William
● Eng army was  exhausted  from fighting with 
Harold Hardrada of Norway and they, strong 
 
 
at first, fell. 
Ther Norman Conquest
● Started in 1066, risings against Norman rule 
every  year from 1067 to 1070
● The Normans had live like an occupation unit, 
build castles
● New ruling  class , culture,  languageFrench
● Higly developed feudals ystem , royal  power
● Lasted  till 1154,  Henry II
 
 
The House of Normandy
● William te Conqueror 11C
● William II Rufus 11C
● Henri I Beauclerc 12C
●  Stephen  12C
 
 
The  Bayeux  Tapestry
● Is 70 m of embroidered linen, describes how 
William the Conqueror invaded England
● In annotated in  latin , made by either Queen 
Matilda  of ordered by Bishop of Bayeux, 
William´s brother
● The most important  pictural image  of 11 C, 
priceless  value 
 
 
The Domesday Book
● Historical record, based on the great survey of 
England which was drwan up on the  orders  of 
King William I
● Describes landholdings, resources of  late  11 

● Was written in latin, consisted of two books- 
Great Domesday, Little Domesday
 
 
The House of  Anjou
● Henry II 12 C
●  Richard I Lionheart 12 C
● John I 12-13 C
● Henry III 13 C
● Edward I 13-14 C
● Edward II 14 C
● Edward III 14 C
  ●
 
Richard II 14 C
● House of  Lancaster
● House of York
● Henry IV 14-15 C
● Edward IV 15C
● Henry V 15 C
● Edward V 15 C
● Henry VI 15 C
● Edward VI 15 C
 
 
Henry II and  Thomas  a Becket
●Henry II was the king of England,  duke of 
Normandy, Aquitaine and count  of Anjou
●Potentially the most powerful ruler in Europe
●The founder of the English Common Law
●Died bc of the revolt of his  sons .
●His dubtious part in the  murder of Thomas 
Becket- the cancellor
●1162 the arcbishop of Canterbury
●Refused to co-operate against the church, was 
murdered at his own altar in 1170, became a 
 
 
saint overnight
The Anglo-Norman invasion of 
Ireland, the Pale
● In 1170 the deposed king of Leinster asked  
help from Marcher Lord
● Earl of Pembroke, who led the invasion in 
Ireland, helped the  kign  to get his trhone  back
● In 1171 Henry II  himself  went to Ireland, 
where he was greeted as protector, actually it 
was invasion of Ireland
● The Pale was the area around  Dublin directly 
subjected to the English  crown
 
 
Richard I and Minstrel Blondel

The Lionheart was the king of England, duke of Aquitane

Sultan  Saladin captured jerusalem, Richard went on The 
Third Crusade with  Philip  from France and  Friedrich  
barbarossa to free Christ´s stomb from moslems

After shipwreck, Richard was captured by Duke of 
Austria and was held as a hostage for a year

Troubadour Minstrel Blondel singing  Richard´s  songs
locvated his whereabout and Richard was  released  for 
ransoms

After, Richard recaptured everything he had  lost
 
 
John Lackland and Magna Carta  
1215

The King of England, an archetype of a bad king

Arthur  of Brittany had a better  claim  to throne, after Richard I 
died, but he was murdered at John´s instignation. This served 
a pretext for France to attack Normandy

He was quarel ing about the church over who should be the 
next arcbishop of Canterbury, clash with Innocent III, later 
made  peace  with church

1215 rebels forced John to accept the  terms  of Magna Carta, 
list of grievances. It required king to proclaim  curtain  rights, 
respect   legal  procedures, accept that his wil  could be  bound  
by the law.
 
 
Henry III and Westminster  Abbey

The kign of England, his  father  died when he was 9, 
minority  council  governed in the name of his

He took teh trone in 1232. He lost several domains, 
faced opposition bc he had  foreign  councellors. 

When Henry agreed to finance Sivily´s conquest and 
meet teh pope´s debts, the barons took over the 
power and rebelled under  Simon  de Montfort. 

He was buried in teh Westminster Abbey that he had 
rebuilt in Gothic style
 
 
Simon de Montfort´s  Parliament  
1265
● The powerful member of the the community, 
earlof Leicester husband  of the king´s sister
● Summoned a parliament of his own 1265, first 
steps to democracy
● 2 burgesses from every town and 2 knights 
form every shire
● Insisted on represantatives elected, ultimately 
failed 
  ●  Had  sown  the  seed  o  f what would beome The 
House of Commons
Model Parliament  1296
● Summoning representatives from Commons to 
Parliament
● To this body King called bishops, barons, 
memebrs of Clergy, two nights from every 
shire and two burgesses from 110 boroughs.
● Nearly 400 people, contained all the 
eleements needed for  assembly
● All political classes were represented, similar  
parliament to  nowadays  
 
 
The Welsh  March  
● 11th C Wales was a  collection  of small 
kingdoms, in a mountaenous country. 
Kingdoms  without stable borders
●  Those numerous lordships were known as 
march of Wales, 
● Marcher lords  had their specific rights and 
were in some extent independent from 
national kings and princes
 
 
Edward I´s conquest of  North Wales
● Edward´s  campaigns  in Wales, he invaded in 
1277 and defeated the Welsh leader 
● In 1282 the Welsh rebelled
● New campaigns subdued North Wales to the 
Crown
● Leader was killed, after 200 years of warefare, 
Welsh had been conquested
The English built  greta  castles like Conwy, 
 
Caernavon, Harlech... 
● English Common law was introduced in Wales
Prince  of Wales  1301
● Was the most honured title in the independent 
Wales
● Edward gave this title to his son after the 
conquest. The future Edward II
● He became the first English  origin  Prince of 
Wales.
● It is a title originally granted to the Heir of 
Apparent
  ●
 
Fergus Mor  Marc  Earca and 
Dalriada
● In 498 Mor Mac Earca of the Scots initiates a 
large-sca
I
le  migration from ireland to Scotland
●  Establishment of Scottish Kingdom in Pictland 
called Dalriada. 
● It was a confederation  of tribes, based on a 
system of governement in their native  land
 
 
Kenneth McAlpin and the unification 
of Scotland
● Was the king of the Scots in Dalriada
● 843 he united the Pictish and Scottish 
kingdom and had himself crowned
● United Scotland became known as Kingdom 
of Alba
● For two C-s Scotland developed under Pictish 
rule
 
 
Malcolm III Canmore and Queen 
Margaret
● He was the king of Scotland
● He  married to Margaret of the house of 
Wessex, whose favour secured Anglo-Norman 
secular
● They had several  children
● Queen Margaret became a saint
● Malcolm fought  wars against the Kingdom of 
England, had to acknowledge the overlordship 
 
of the English King
 
● Malcolm´s accession to the throne is the 
climax of Macbeth by Shakespeare
The Anglo-Norman invasion of 
Scotland
● Queen Margaret invited the Anglo-Normans to 
settle in 
● They gave the Scottish king some land, anglo-
normans pledged loyalty to that
● They established themselves in Scotland and 
built castles where Scottish kings would hide 
in trouble
● Some Scottish nobles came to live under The 
English King
 
 
The Scottish Wars of independence 
1286-1371

Edward I was intent to exert his overlordship over 
Scotland 

In 1286 he got the  opportunity when King Alexander III 
died and his heiress

Edward  considered  himself The Lord Paramount of 
Scotland and made John Balliol the king

Edward began  active  interference in affairs, legal cases, 
keeping   taxes

John rebelled against him, Edward went to punitive 
expedition in Scotland, they were defetaed in the battle of 
 
Bannockburn
 

The  treaty  of Northampton  1348
John Balliol
● When Margaret died  there were 12 claims to 
the throne, JohnBalliol was made a king by 
Edward I, who undermined his authority
● Edward treated Scotland as a vassal state and 
humiliated the king
● Scotland remained without a true king until 
Robert Bruce  took the crown

 
 
William Wallace
● A patriot and national  hero of Scotland. 
Wallace led the Scottish rebellion against 
Edward I
● In  1297  he defeated The English at Stirlin 
Bridge
● A year after scots  were defetead
●  1305  Wallace was captured and executed in 
London
 
 
Robert Bruce
● The king of Scotland
● He supported Wallace´s uprising againts 
Edward I
● 1306 he crowned hmself as the king, Bruce 
freed Scotland from English rule by winning 
the battle of Bannockburn and confirmed the 
tresty of Northampton
● Effective, heroic king
 
 
The Hammer of the Scots
● Edward I is known as the Hammer of Scots
● He intended to hammer Scots in to the ground 
and destroy  them, instead he hammered them 
into a strong nation
● Campains to subdue Wales and Scotland
● Legal and administrative  reform  in England
 
 
Eleanor  Crosses
● Series of large stone monuments made for the 
memory  of Edward I´s  wife  Queen Eleanor
● Were erected of the  places where her funeral 
cortege rested on it s  journey  to London
● Only 2 of them have survived 
 
 
Bannockburn  1314
● The battle of Bannockburn 1314 is a decisive 
battle in the Scottish history, English forces, 
led by edward II were crushed.
● It was the culimination of Scottish Wars of 
Independence 
● After that Robert Bruce was recoignized as 
Robert I the king of Scotland 
 
 
Edward II, Queen Isabella, Roger 
Mortimer

Edward II was the first English Prince of Wales

 Conflict with the nobles, was overthworn by his wife in 
favour if his son. 

Opposition, king´s  freedom  of action , control of finance 
and appointments were limited. 

1315 Thomas Lancaster became the ruler of the England

Some years later Edward defetaed Lancaster and started 
to rule

Isabella of France was sent to france on a diplomatic 
mission, where she became the mistress of Roger 
 
 
Mortimer-Edward´s opponent. They invaded England. 
Edward III was crowned.    
The  Hundred  Years War  1337 -1453
● Between British and the Fench over the 
dutchy of Guienne, fro what Edward refused to 
pay homage to Philip IV and part of it was held 
by french
● 1337 Edward claimed the crown, war broke 
out
● The English managed to take  almost all 
France. After Henry´s death the french started 
to win  again . 1453 Henry VI gave up his claim 
 
 
to rule France, England lost all its land in 
France except the port in Calais 
Crecy  1346 Poitiers  1356 Agincourt 
1415

Crecy- important battle in Hundred Years War. First great 
English victory. Small army of Edward III defeated bigger 
French army of Philip VI. Superior  weaponry, tactics. 
Calais was captured by Edward

Politiers. Edward the  Black Prince won over the french 
who had superior forces but english had great tactics. 
John II was captured and demanded a ransom

Aginourt. Henry V claimed the french crown and landed 
in Normandy. English inflicted a humiliating  defeat on the 
french much bigger army. Northern France was occupied 
 
 
 
Edward III and the Black Prince as 
paragons of chivalry
● Edward III-  primary  focus-war with France, 
claimed french crown. Gave up on this in the 
Treaty of Bretigny. Created the  Order of the 
Garter . Faiced military  failure  in France. 
Outbreak of pleague. The Good Parliament- 
heavy  taxes, incapable ministers. New 
councellors were  imposed ,
● Edward, the Black Prince wore black armour, 
never became a king. He died  before  his 
father Edward III. Great military hero, notable 
 
 
victories over France. Military brilliance in 
eraly age.    
The Order of Garter
● Order of knighthood and chivalry in England. 
Edward III founded it in 1348 and put it under 
Saint George´s patronage. 
● The patch  shows St George lsaying a dragon. 
● Included the  monarch  and 25 knights initially. 
●  Membership  marked a royal favour and a 
reward for loyalty. 
● Honi soit qui mal y pense- Shame on him who 
 
thinks evil of it. In go  
lden letters
Black Death 1348-1350, decline of 
the manor system

The first pleague attack occured in southern England 
1348, by the end of the 1349 it had  spread  to central 
Scotland. 

It was carried by black rats from Baghdad who arrived by 
ships in  ports .

Killed off 1/3 population

People were helpless diagnosing its  causes  and dealing 
with  effects

Time after the pleague was for many an age of 
opporunity, ambition anf living standard  rose
 
 

Landowners were facing difficulties. It seemed advisable 
to abandodn high farming and start leasing plots to 
peasants. Manor system started to end
The Peasantś War  1381
●  Poll taxes were imposed during 1377-80 to 
finance war.  Rate higher than usual. 
● Prolonged dislocation of the unsuccessful war, 
recurrent pleagues, anticlerical temper were 
turned into widespread rebellion. Eastern and 
southern englishmen, led by Wat Tyler
townsmen and Londoners ransacked the 
Tower and tried to fightened Richard II into 
broken  the bonds of serfdom. 
  ●
 
Rebellion was poorly organized and lasted 
less than a  month  
Richard II and Henry Bolingbroke

He was only 14 when he crushed down the Peasant
´sRevolt. 

1387 .9 the  five  lords appeallant appeared- they sought to 
dictate kings chioces. King refused and his cloest friends 
were routed. He submitted to the demands. 8 years he 
worked with his  uncle , waiting for  revenge

1397 he arrested three appellants, got his power back. 

1398 Henry Bolingbroke was banished for settling a 
quarrel with Duke of York. Richard confiscated 
Lancastrian estates that were to become Henry´s. Finally 
king surrened his crown to him and was sent to 
 
 
imprisoned where he died
The War of the Roses  1455-1485
● Series of dynastic wars between the House of 
Lancaster(red rose) and the House of 
York(white rose) for the English throne. 
● Many  battles , huge massacres.  Disaster  for 
nobility. 
● It ended with the  marriage  of Henry VII Tudor  
and Elizabeth  of York which united roses into 
red-white Tudor rose  
 
 
Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodwille
● Edward IV was twice the king. Defeated the 
Lancastrians and became the Lancastrian 
king. Henry VI overthrown, Edward was 
crowned as Edward IV. 
● Earl of Warwick(powerful supporter) was 
furious when king married Elizabeth secretly, 
he allied with kings brother George and led a 
revolt. They joined Henry VI´s wife Margaret of 
Anjou, invaded England. Edward was sent to 
exile, he returned and killed Warwick. Henry 
 
 
VI was put to death. Second reigning time was 
peaceful.
Richard III and the princes of the 
tower
● Last Yorkist king on England. His brother 
Edward IV died. His sons were left under 
Richard´s protector. He (probably) murdered 
them in the Tower. Parliament requested  
Richard to take the throne, which he did. 
● A short rebellion by Duke of Buckingham
● Lancasrtian claimant to the throne, Henry 
Tudor, vanquished and  slew Richard. He died. 
It ended the war of the roses.  Henry Tudor 
 
 
took the throne.  
The House of Tudor
● Henry VII 15-16C
● Henry VIII 16 C
● Edward VI 16 C
●  Lady   jane   Grey  16 C
●  Mary  I 16 C
● Elizabeth I 16 C-17
 
 
Henry VIII and the English 
Reformation
● Henry was confermed catholic , didn´t accept 
Protestantis from  Netherlands . Title Fidei 
defensor. He wanted to devorce from his wife, 
bc they didn´t have a  male heir. Pope was 
against it. 
● The Reformation in England meant a break 
from Rome. 
● Henry became the supreme head of the 
Anglican church
 
 
Fidei Defensor
●  Means  defender of the  faith .
●  Given  to Henry VIII by Pope Leo X in 1521. 
● Henry was against Martin Luther´s  ideas and 
protestantism
●  However , Henry broke with Rome, to  divorce  
his wife  Catherine  of  Aragon  and established 
hismelf the The Church of England Supreme 
head 
 
 
Cardinal Wolsey
● Cardinal and statesman, Henry VIII´s 
chancellor, archbishop of York. 
● Efficient aministrator both  for the Crown and 
the church. 
● Henry VIII delegated more state business to 
him, he was  asked  to use his  influence  in 
Rome to get a papal annulment for the 
divorce. Wolsey was anable to do this, his 
downfall began. He was accused of treason, 
 
 
he died on a journey to trial  
Catherine of Aragon
● A  spanish  princess, Henry´s wife. She had 
borne him 5 children, but only Mary survived. 
King demanded a male heir to protect Tudor 
dynasty. 
● After Henry proclaimed hismelf the Head of 
the English church, he secretly married Anne 
Boleyn  . 
● Catherine was forced to live much reduced 
conditions  and denied access to her daughter .
 
 
Anne Boleyn
● Second wife. She was already  pregnant when 
getting married. They had a daughter 
Elizabeth, alter Elizabeth I. 
● Anne miscarried a deformed male fetus, henry 
was convinced, God had damned this 
marriage. 
● Anne was publicly executed
 
 
Jane Seymour
● 3rd wife. Brought the male heir to the Tudor 
throne. Edward, later Edward VI. 
● Jane herself died  twelve   days  later of Tudor 
surgery
 
 
Anne of  Cleves
● 4th wife. Henry married her to win European 
allies . Thomas  Cromwell persuaded Henry to 
agree  to marry  her, in the hope  of securing the 
north  German  princes against the Holy roman 
Emperor. But Anee, did not suit . The marriage 
was a disaster, the  alliance  failed. The union 
was never consummated, divorce was 
therefore  easy.
 
 
Catherine Howard
● 5th wife. Attractive, lighthearted, fun-loving, 
ahigh-spirited flirt. 
● Had been ammaid of  honour to Anne of 
Cleves. 
● She kept lovers before and after marring 
henry. Few years after the wedding  she was 
executed for adultery.
 
 
Catherine Parr
● 6th wife. Twice  widowed
● Cultivated Erasmian, did much to preserve a 
humanist reform, until it could re- emerge  in the 
reign  of Edward VI. 
● Marriage was harmonious. King´s  death 
ended their marriage. 
 
 
Thomas Cromwell and the 
dissolution of the monasteries

An English statesman and advisor of Henry VII. 

Deeply unpopular in England. 

Pesudaded Henry VIII to marry Anee of Cleves, king 
withdrew  his  support . Cromwell was executed in the 
Tower. 

Major assignment- dissolution of the monasteries. 
Reasons- religious houses had to be faithful to parent 
institutions   outside  England and Wales. Henry had to buy 
the allegiance away from Rome. Cromwell organized an 
ecclesiastical census. The lesser monasteries were 
dissolved in  1536 . The Pilgrimage of Grace interrupted. 
 
 
1539 monasteries had been suppressed. Land and 
money collected from selling  items went to Henry.
The Protestantism of Edward VI´s 
reign

Became a king at the age of 9. Edward Seymour, his 
uncle, took and established himself as a protector. 
Archbishop  Cranmer  was intent to make England 
truly Protestant state, Cranmer´s Prayer Books were 
introduced.

 Altars were turned into tables,curches robbed, 
religious imagery destroied. Religious ortodoxy was 
enforced by Act of Uniformity. 

Northumberland persuaded Edward to  pass  the 
throne to Lady Jane Grey, but she reigned only few 
days, Mary took the throne with overwhelming 
 
 
support
Lady Jane Grey
● Queen of England for only 9 days in an 
unsuccessful bid to prevent the accession of 
the catholic Mary Tudor. Duke of 
Northumberland was desperate to prevent the 
throne  passing  to Mary Tudor. 
● However Mary had widespread  popular  
support and she was proclaimed the Queen. 
Mary imprisoned Jane, her husband and her 
father in the Tower. Jane was sentenced to 
death. 
 
 
The Restored Catholicism of Mary 
I/Bloody Mary

Known as Bloody Mary for her persecution of 
Protestants in an attempt to  restore  Catolicism. 
Wanted to reunite England with Rome. 

Executed many protestants. With Cardianl Pole, tried 
to carry out Catholic reforms. 

She married King Philip II of  Spain . In  1554  she 
crushed a rebellion led by Sir Thomas Wyatt. 

Unsuccessful war against France, deepened 
disillusionment in Mary. She died sick and desterted 
by Philip in 1558
 
 
Elizabeth I and the Church of 
England. Anglican Church

Elizabeth I was the Tudor queen. Nicnames_ 
Gloriana,  Virgin  Queen. 

Priorities:  return  England to the Protestantism faith. 

The  Thirty -Nine  Articles . Historic statements of 
Anglican Church´s doctrine that are based on forty-
two articles drafted by Cranmer. 

She established the Anglican Church. Monarch is the 
Supreme Governor of church. Mary Queen of Scots 
was executed, she was a  threat  to the throne. 

Elizabeth always refused to marry and stayed 
 
 
independent til  the end of her life. 
John Knox
● The Calvinist Leader of Protestants in 
Scotland, also leader of the Scottish 
reformation. 
● During Mary´s execution he went to exile, 
when he returned to Scotland, he led the 
Scots in establishing the Presbyterian Church. 
● Introduced popular Presbyterian and Calvanist 
system. Mary Queen of Scots was 
overthrown. The  Kirk  was established and 
 
 
presbyterialism became the state religion. 
The Scottish Reformed Church
● The Kirk is the national church of Scotland. 
Based on the principles of John  Calvin . 1560, 
the Scottish Parliament adopted 
Presbyterianism. 
● The Kirk has no prayer book but has a hymn 
book and the order of the  Service - Book of 
Comon Order. Parliament can´t play any part 
in Kirk´s affairs without itś consent. 
● The spiritual leader is Jesus  Christ 
 
 
Mary Queen of Scots
● In 1558 she married teh French Dauphin who 
alter became King Francis II. 
● A  widow  at 18, Mary returned to Scotland. 
● In 1565 she married Henry Stewart . They had 
a son James. Her husband died in a house 
exploison, Mary married James Hephurn, a 
suspect in this murder. Scots turned against 
her. After years in  prison  by Elizabeth, she 
was executed. Her son became the 
 
 
successor.  
The defeat of The Invincible Armada 
1588
● Spanish King Philip II wanted to weaken 
England´s growing  maritime  power. He 
decided to conquest England, that would have 
assured  the reconquest of Netherlands. 
● His plan was to win control of the English 
Channel and then invade England.
● The Spanish Armada was destroyed by the 
English Feet. 
 
 
The House of  Stuart
● James I of England, james VI of Scotland 17C
● Charles I 17 C
● Charles II 17 C
● James II 17 C
● William III & Mary II 17C
● William III alone  17-18 C
● Anne 18 C
 
 
The Stuart „devine right of kings“
● The doctrine according to what a monarch has 
a divine right to the throne and a rebellion 
against him is sin. 
● King is next in the line after God. 
● He derives his authority directly from God and 
is aserable to Him alone. The theory came to 
the  fore  during the reign of king James I
 
 
Charles I´s tyranny
1629-1640
● The Personal Rule, „ Eleven  Years Tyranny“
● King Charles I of England, Scotland and 
Ireland ruled without recourse to parliament.. 
● His actions  caused discontent among the 
ruling classes, where more popular among 
common people  
 
 
Arcbishop William Laud´s 
controversial church reforms
● A right-wing Anglican religious adviser to King 
Charles I. He imposed religious uniformity, 
tried to impose Anglican practises on Scots. 
His persecution of Puritans and other eligous 
dissidents resulted in his execution. 
● He wanted to return a more realistic church 
with vestments and ornaments, to return 
bischops high Church not the presbyterian 
individual congreagtions. 
 
 
The Long  Parliament. 1640-1653
● Summoned in 1640 by King Charles I after the 
dissolution of the Scots parliament. It sat 
alomost continuously during the English  Civil  
War. 
● Wanted to establish control over the arbirtary 
rule of king. Its first session abolished all 
prerogative courts and declared illegal any 
taxation  without parliamentary consent. 
Declared king unfit to command the army.  
Tension between king and the parliament 
 
 
increased until Civil War broke out.
The Civil war

An  armed  conflict between English royalists and 
Parliamentary forces bc of constitutional,  economic
religious differences between Charle I and Long 
Parliament. 

Oliver Cromwell refored parliamentary army

The  fall  of the  Oxford  marked the end of the war. 

King escaped and surrended to the Scots at 
Newcastle. He was later handed over for a huge 
money. He was executed. 

The  creation  of  Commonwealth , and the a 
 
 
protectorate under Oliver Cromwell
The Cavaliers
● In Italian knights, were the long-haired 
member sof the loyalist counrty gentry who 
fought for King Charles I in 1642-52
● Later they supported  Tory   party .
● Came fro among old aristocracy in the North 
and West, counrty squires, cathedral and 
small towns. 
● All were Roman Catholics. Their  headquarters  
was at Oxford. They had  regular  cavalry under 
 
 
Prince  Rupert - kings  nephew  of some military 
experience. 
The Roundheads
●  Puritan  supporters of Parliament during the 
Civil War. Name comes fro the closely 
cropped  hair  of the supporters of 
parliamentary party.
● Came from among newly rich in the East and 
London. The  merchant  class, new 
landowners, 
● Keywords: The reformed church, The Royal 
Navy, merchant  fleet  and infantry. 
 
 
● Headquarters in london  
Oliver Cromwell

An English  soldier , a statesman who helped to make 
England a  Republic

The New Model Army

He undertook the most brutal military conquest ever 
undertaken.  Prime  mover in the trial and execution of 
James I. 

He reorganised national church, established 
puritanism , presided over a curtain  degree  of 
religious  tolerance

Refused to become a king. 
 
 

Could not reconcile political, military and religious 
actions and soon lost the support of the army
The New Model Army
● Grew out of and around Oliver Cromwell. 
● Created by the parliament. Was based on a 
person´s ability   rather  than on his  position  
within society. 
● Soldiers became full-time professionals, they 
were paid. 
● Helped the parliament to win Civil War
 
 
Marston Moon 1644 , Naseby 1645
● Marston Moon- a battle during Civil War. 
Secured a triumphant for Cromwell. Fairfax 
and the Scotts got the victory over Royalists. 
● Naseby- key battle. Confident that his veteran 
troops would outfight parliamentś newly-raised 
forces, King Charle I launched his main field 
army against Fairfaxś at Naseby. The  result  
was a disaster for him, he lost all  changes  of 
winning the war
 
 
The Independents
● New Model Army developed into a political 
force
● Congregationalist principle: every 
congregation or local church is independent. 
● Demands for religious toleration except for 
Roman Catholics and High Anglicans on the 
right and Freethinkers and Unitarians on the 
left. 
● Adcovćated for complete  separation of Church 
 
 
and State
Pride ´s purge and the  Rump
● Enraged by the Parliaments opposition to the 
New Model Army, officers dicided to  remove  
those  members  of parliament they regarded 
untrustforthy. 
● Acting on the orders of Thomas Pride, they 
kicked  out 143 prebyterian members. The 
resulting less 100 member parliament is 
known as Rump
● They abolished the house of Lords. 
 
 
Confiscated the crown. Set up a commission 
to try the king. The Rump was dismissed by 
Oliver Cromwell
Regicide 1649
● Was the public execution of Charles I in front 
of Banqueting Hosue, Whuitehall in 1649
● He was found  guilty of 68 votes to 67. 

 
 
The Comonwealth 1649-1660

Was the republican government of England, between 
the execution of Charles I and the restoration  of 
Charles II and monarchy in 1660

Consisted of army officers and memberso f the 
Rump

Rebellion against the new rule was put down very 
bloodily

Rump was dissolved after becoming corrupt.

Cromwell became the Lord Protector
  ●
 
The restoration took place
George Monk 

Was a commander of the garrison in Scotland, he 
was one of the Cromwell´s  best generals.

After Cromwell´s death, the republic col apsed. His 
son lacked his qualities, senior military commanders 
turn  fell out amongst themselves, disintegration of 
the army

General Monk went to London, to force the Rump 
into dissolving itself. 

Charles II was recalled in conditions of religious 
toleration,  liberty  of consience, general amnesty and 
 
 
respect for existing property realtions
Restoration 1660
● An episode in the history beginning in 1660 , 
when the monarchy restored under king 
Charles II after the English Civil War. After 
Cromwell´s death General Monk forced the 
Rump to dissolve itself. 
● The newly assembled parliament invited 
Charles II to return which he triumphantly did. 
 
 
The Clarendon Code

Measures  adopted to destroy Royalist party

Named after Edward Hyke, Earl of Clarendon, Charles II´s 
advisor, chancel or

1)  Corporation  Act 1661 which recognized those  governing  
bodies who accepted the  dogma  and discipline og Anglican 
Church. (most towns were stil  puritan)

2) Act of Uniformity 1662 which robbed 2000 puritan clergy of 
their  jobs . They refused to accept the Anglivan Church  Pray  
Book

3) Conventicle Act 1665 prohibited public worship outside 
State Church
 
 

4) Five Mile Act 1665 prohibited the expel ed ministers and 
teachers from  coming  whithin 5 miles of any  corporate  town
The emergence of the two-party 
system
● 1) The exclusionists or Whigs (from 
Whiggamore, an  insulting name), they wanted 
to  exclude  James from the succession of 
throne. Supporters were merchants, 
capitalists, landed magnates and Puritan 
lower middle  class.
● 2)The Anti-Exclusionists or Tories were in 
favour of James´succession. Their supporters 
were Royalists, Cavalier genrty, monarchy 
and  its alliance wih the Anglican Church and 
 
 
rural masses
The Glorious  Revolution  1688

It replaced the reigning king, James II with Mary and 
her  dutch  husband, Wil iam of Orange 

James was chatolic. Whigs rose up against him, they 
made a contact with Orange which dashed the  hopes  
of Mary´s son passing a throne.

James agreed on  Williams  demand to  call  a free 
parliament. He himself fled to France. 

The revolution limited royal authority, established the 
supremacy of parliament over the crown. 
 
 
The  Bill of Rights 1689, The Act of 
Settlement 1701
● The Bill of rights was the constitutional 
outcome of the Glorious Revolution, which 
established that only a protestant could 
become a king. Political, civil rights to people. 
It was supplemented by The Act of Settlement. 
Which  provided  that should William III and 
Anne die without heirs, succession should 
pass to Sophia, electress of Hanover 
 
 
The war of the Spanish 
succession/The Marlborough wars 
1701-1714
● The Duke of Marlborough was the commander 
of the English, Dutch and German forces.
● The War of the Spanish Succession (1701–
1714) was fought between European powers, 
including a divided Spain, over who had the 
right to succeed Charles II as King of Spain
●  The war concluded with the Peace of Utrecht 
(1713), in which the warring states recognised 
the French candidate as King Philip V of Spain 
 
 
in exchange for territorial and economic 
concessions
The act of Union with Scotland 1701
● A politcal act that completed the union of 
England and Scotland. England opened its 
colonial  markets  to Scotland, that in return 
gave up its independent Parliament and  Privy  
Council in  Edinburgh
● Scotland retained its legal system, established 
church and gained free trade with England
 
 
The House of Hanover
● George Louis I 18C
● George Augustus II 18 C
● George III 18-19 C
● George IV 19 C
● William I IV 19 C
● Victoria 19 C
 
 
Robert  Walpole  and the Cabinet 
System
● Was a British Whig statesman and is 
considered to be 1st prime minister. 
● Poliy of peace abroad, low taxation, reducing 
the national dept, knew the importance  of 
keeping parliament on his side.
● The Caninet is a group advisers to the head 
government.  Usually  drawn from House of 
Commons and Lords. The ministers have to 
defend their cabinet desicions in public, 
 
 
whatever their own  views
The Jacobite rebellions 1708,  1715
1745
● Supporters of the Stuart in exile, James II and 
his son, mainly in Scotland.
● Rebelled also out of economic onditions, the 
superiority of the English
● Unsuccessfully under the Old Pretender 1708, 
15
● 1745 rebellion was the last effort to restore the 
Stuarts . The Young Pretender was successful 
but he refused to set sail for London without 
 
 
French support
The Old Pretender, the  Chevalier  St 
George
● The son of the exiled James II Stuart had 
been proclaimed as James III. He didn´t 
realise the situation and wanted to restore his 
dynasty
● Attempted an unsuccessful invasion of 
Scotland in 1708, in 1715 Jacobite rising he 
landed safely after the victory of his followers 
at Sheriffmuir. 
● By Feb 1716 he settled peacefully in Rome
 
 
The young pretender/ Bonnie  prince 
Charlie
● Was the grandson of James II
● The son of the Old Pretender, France agreed 
to support him in order to control England.
● He landed in Scotland in 1745.
● Supported by his highlanders and Jacobites 
he had some success, was  afraid  to act alone, 
returned  half -way, was never recognised by 
the pope, became the man on the run, drank
 
 
The War of the Austrian Succession 
1740 -1748
●  Struggle between Prussia and Austria for 
mastery of the German states.
● Maria Theresa was challenged by Philip of 
Spain and Augustus III of  Poland .
● The fighting involved even the New World and 
India, but the  final balance of power was 
decided only after  Seven  Years War
 
 
The Seven years War 1756- 1763
● England and France fought for supremacy in 
Indiain the Seven Years War. World-wide 
conflict in Europe, North America, India 
between France, Austria, Russia, Saxony, 
Sweden , Spain vs Great Britain, Prussia, 
Hanover
● The war confirmed Prussia´s European power. 
It made Britain the worldś chief
● France lost its overseas posessions
 
 
● The Treaty of Hubertsburg 1763
The British East India Company and 
the British expansion in India
● It was founded in 1600, first factory at Surat, 
others  Madras, Bombay, Calcutta
● Traded in  coffee , textiles, later tea from China
● After Regulating Act and India Act, the 
company lost independence, monoply was 
broken, power handed over to British Crown in 
19 C
● The biggest  rival of the English were french
  ● They fought the Seve  
n Years War which the 
britsih won 
The American War of Independence 
1775-1783

Anti-British patriots were eager to break upn with Britain. 
The Loyalists wanted to be under English Flag

The Stamp Act demanded colonists to pay extra -taxes, 
which ended in protest

1773  Boston  Tea Party- a cargo was destroyed because 
the colonists didn´t want britain to show its power

The  Quebec Act made thing  worse .

The Continental Congress  severed relations with UK

George Washingotn was appointed a commader of 
military forces.
 
 

80 000 loyalists left for  Canada
Canada as a british colony

In 17 C Henry  Hudson   explored  Hudson Bay

The English fur traders established posts at the 
mouths of Rupert and Moose Rivers on James Bay 
and Hudson river on Hudson Bay

Hudson Bay Company. Drained all the land by the 
waters  flowing into Hudson Bay

18 C  Upper  C belonged to Britain and lower to 
French

1848 Act of Union- 2 provinces were united into one 
and given internal government
 
 
Australia  as British colony 

1770 Captain James  Cook  landed at Botany bay and 
claimed the East coast of Australia for Britain

British government decided to dump  its  surplus  
felons there, established a penal colony

Merino sheep,  gold

Transportation of convicts ended in 1840 to east 
Australia but continued in tasmania and western 
Australia

Sep  colonies  set up their governemnts in 19 C
  ●
 
Established the Commonwealth of Australia with 
capital in  Canberra
New  Zealand as british colony

18 C captain Cook visited the islands 

Missionary conquest in 19 C 

First  permanent  european settlement in Wellington

Maories recognised british sovereignty for 
guaranteed posession of the land. New Zealand 
became a separate colony, from Australian

Several wars between settlers and  Maoris

Gold was  discovered

In 20 C New Zealand was given dominion  status
 
 
1947 full independence
The British expansion in South 
Africa
● In late 15 C Portuguese reached the  Cape of 
Good Hope
● In 17 C permanent colony, Cape colony, by 
the Dutch
●  1814  British annexation was formalized. Slave 
trade and slavery was abolished by Act of 
Parliament 
● First Boer  republic founded
  ● Diamonds and gold
 
 found
● Wars between british and Boers
The great Trek and the foundation 
of the two independent Boer 
republic
● In about 19 C many Voortrekkers, dutch origin 
people who live in South  Afrika , the Afrikaners 
moved out of British Cape Colony 
● Their Great Trek- journey by ox wagon, a  sign  
of discontent with the English authorities who 
had forbidden slave trade and postulated the 
equality of whites and blacks. 
● Two boer republics- Transvaal, the Orange 
Free State
 
 
●  
The Napoleonic Wars 1793-1815

The Napoleonic Wars were a series of conflicts fought 
between France under the  leadership  of  Napoleon   Bonaparte  
and a number of European nations.

Riflemen, congreve rockets. British army under leadership of 
Duke of Wel ington

 Napoleon decide to invade Russia in  1812 , was forced to 
retreat due to  weather , he was  surrounded . He abdicated in 
1814.

Napoleon staged a daring return to power and tried to reverse 
the outcome of the war at the battle of  Waterloo  (18  June  
1815). 
  ●
Napoleon exiled to St Helena   from where he was never to 
return, marking the end of the Napoleonic wars. 
Viscount  Nelson and Trafalgar 1805
● Nelson was a British 1st viscount, naval 
comander and national hero, victories over 
French during Napoleonic Wars.
● Destroyed Napoleon´s fleet, France´s  and 
Spain´s
●  He made Britain the undisputed master of the 
seas and saved it of invasion by Napoleon
● He was killed in the same battle
 
 
The Duke of Wellington and 
Waterloo 1815
● Arthur Wellesly was a general and statesman, 
victor at the battle of Waterloo and British 
prime minister. His opposition to parliamentary 
reform gave him the  nickname  The Iron Duke, 
he erected iron shutters on the  windows  to 
prevent smashing in by angry crowds
● British army under Wellington defeated 
Napoleon after his rule of Hundred Days
 
 
The Congress of Vienna 1815
● A conference of ambassadors of European 
states. Its  objective  was to withraw continent ´s 
political map and settle many other issues 
arising from the French revolutionary Wars, 
The Napoleonic Wars and dissolution of the 
Holy Roman Empire
● Britain was not even to discuss maritime 
rights, new territories like Trinidad, Tobago, 
Mauritius, Ceylon
 
 
Regency
● During the reign of George III who became 
irrevocably insane, George, Prince of Wales, 
was made Prince Regent  in 1811 by the 
Regency Act
● He later became George IV
●  Period  of excess  for the aristocracy, the 
Brighton pavilion, distinctive era for litearture, 
architecture, fashions and  politics
● Periodic  riots , concern for british might imitate 
 
 
the upheaval of the French Revolution
The Peterloo Massacre 1819
● 50 000-60 000 peaceful petitioners gathered 
on St Peter´s field in Manchester for the 
repeal of the Corn Laws
● Demonstration was crushed down by cavalry, 
11 killed, 400 wounded
● Corn Law artifically raised the price  of 
imported corn to keep it out of British Markets
 
 
The campaign for parliamentary 
reform from mid C18 to C20
● Parliamentary representation used to be in the 
hands  of large land families
● New interests had to buy votes – all interests 
in the society would be represnted.
● A wider franchise was needed to withstand the 
House of Lords
● Reform Billl 1832  gave  vote  to freeholders, 
and almost all middle class
 
 
The Free Trade and Corn Law 
debates
● Trade without imposition of tariffs. 
● Corn law had been applied  since  12 th C, to 
protect English agricultury
● Repealers supported economic liberalism: no 
monopoly , use of economic resources should 
follow the actual demand
● Anti-repealers: favoured better  working  
conditions for poor , not  bread   
 
 
The  Industrial  Revolution
● The economic and social transformation of 
Britain in 18 and 19 C
●  Change  for domestic  production to factories, 
steam power, knitting, spinning, other 
machinery
● A new working class, peopel moved to cities.
● Canals and railways
 
 
The emergence of the Conservative  
Party

Was created by Sir Robert Peel after the refrom bil  
of 1832.

It continued the  protection  of Tory  policy  of 
agricultural  interest   and defence of Church of 
England against Dissent

Dominant party under  Stanley  Baldwin 1920´s 30´s 
lost privilege with the failure of Chamberlain´s 
appeasement of Nazi Germany

Heavily beated by Labour, the turned to power in 
1951 being led by  Churchill  till 1955
 
 

Went into opposition in 2974 returned to power 1979 
under  Thatcher
The emergence of the Liberal Party
● Grew out of the Whig party, after the Reform 
Bill of 1832 as represenative of industrial and 
business classes
● Under David Lloyd George led a coalition 
govern during WW II
● By 1930´s the liberals had become small third 
party
● In 1988 the Party emerged with the Social 
Democrats, Social and Liberal democrats
 
 
The emergence of the Labour Pary
● Grew out off Labor representative  Committee
● Rose to official oppoisition status in 1922, 
minority governments in 1924 and 1929-31 
under Ramsay  MacDonald
● Won overwhelmingly in 1945 under Clement 
Allee
● In opposition from 1951, returned to power in 
1964, lost power in 1979, returned in 1974, 
lost again in 1979, returned in 1997 under 
 
 
Tony  Blair
The Great  Exhibition   1851
● Was an exhibition, held in Crystal Palace, 
Hyde Park, London, England in 1851
● A celebration of modern industrial technology  
and design
● Reflected Britain´s commitment to economic 
progrees  hence  to Liberalism
● Over six million tickets had been  sold
● The huge crowds were well-behaved and 
 
openly monarchic 
 
The Crimean War 1854-1856
● Russia had pro-claimed himself as protector of 
Slav Christians under Turkish rule, occupied 
by Ottoman empire
●  Turkey  declared war and was followed by 
Britain and France
● Fighting took place in Crimea, Russia 
withdrew its forces
● Treaty of Paris  ended war
 
 
Pax  Britannica
● Peace according the maintenaence of peace 
under British rule
● Was populised in 1840´s by the British 
government
● PB was Britain´s monopoly of world trade 
under the name of Free Trade
● Traders of all nations could  move  without 
hindrance on the surface of seas
  ● All markets (UK and c  olonies) were  open  to 
verveybody who stimulated general economic 
activity
The British expansion in the Pacific  
sea
● In 19 C London Missionary Society sent 
missionaries to Tahiti and  Tonga
● Undertook the conversion of Melanesia, 
Bishop Patterson was killed in one of these  
islands
● High Commission authority extended to 
several areas like Tonga, Phoenix , Gilbert 
Islands, the Carolines, The Salomons, Santa 
Cruz, New  Guinea , New Britain, New Ireland 
 
 
and others- new colony of Southern Oceania
The british presence in Egypt and 
Sudan
● Britain and France controlled the Suez canal 
and Egypt
● Britain became the sole occupier
● Sudan was controlled for 13 years by mahdi 
followers but was reconquered and jointly 
governed by Egypt and Britain until 1956
 
 
General  Gordon and Khartoum 
1885
● British general, the hero of Crimean and 
Chiense wars 
● In 1881 Muhammad Ahmad, Mahdi, a Muslim  
leader and founder of the Mahdiya 
brotherhood in  Islam , proclaimed holy war to 
purify Islam and overran Sudan
● General Gordon went to Sudan to ecacute 
Egyptian force, was revolted and died martyr´s 
death 
 
 
The British Expansion in East Africa 
● In 19 C the Sultan of Zanzibar  received  a strip 
of ten miels broad  along  the coast which 
British east Africa Company leased
● Zanzibar (an island) was annexed and 
recoginsed as British protectorate. In following  
years protectorate was established over 
Uganda
● In 1895 British east Africa became a 
protectorate
 
 
The British expansion in West Africa
● In 19 C the Dutch governments sold their Gold 
Coast forts to Britain and along with hinterland
● In 1885 The  Berlin  Conference attempted to 
regularize the  process  of occupation in Africa, 
on the contrary opened the continent to 
European invaders
● The Royal Niger Company, was later taken 
over by the crown 
● In 1914 two  regions - Northern and Southern 
 
 
Nigeria- were united into the colony and 
protectorate of Nigeria 
Cecil Rhodes  and the British 
expansion into the Southern Africa 
interior
● An English-born businessman, mining  
mangate, politician in South Africa
● He had made huge treasure in diamond and 
gold mines, founded de Beer Company
● 1889 British South Africa Chartered Company, 
Cape to Cairo railway, region  over Transvaal, 
new colony, administered by Rhodes 
company
● The southern Rohodesia became a self-
 
 
governing colony and Northern Rhodesia 
became a protectorate
The Boer Wars 1880-1881, 1899-
1902
● 1880-1881, Transvaal rebelled against the 
British government, after which Britain 
recognised Transvaal´s independence
● 1899-1902 British gold miners were denied 
political rights in Transvaal. Finally  piece  in 
1902 after many battles
 
 
The  Indian Mutiny 1857-1858

Also known as  Sepoy  rebellion

Was the revolt of the Indian soldiers in the British army in 
Bengal

It developed into a wide-spread uprising

Soldiers were angered by the issuing of cartridges 
coated in beef and  pork  fat- taboo to Hindu and  Muslims

Soon the civil population was involved in the rising, teh 
rebels besieged Lucknow, and conquered Cawnpore and 
Delhi , British reconquest 1858

Reforms: rule went to British Crown
 
 

First Indian War of Independence 
The British Raj in India
● The process of expansion involved continual 
conflicts between native rulers and the 
Company was forced into becoming a 
governing organisation
● The Company conrtolled the whole India while 
last  persistent Marathas was defeated
● When a ruler died without children, the 
Company would be inheritor
● The end of the British raj may have been 
 
 
blessing for 300 million Indians who gained 
independence
The British expansion in  Asia
● Several Malay states were added under british 
suzerainty and treaties were concluded with 
many other states under British protection
● By 1881 as aresult of the British north Borneo 
Company, the whole of the north-east coast of 
the islands had  passed  under british  control 
and continued to be administrated by the 
Company
 
 
The House of Wettin
● Edward VII 20 C
 
 
The  movement  for women ´s 
emancipation and suffrage in the 19 
C and 20 C

The movement for women´s emancipation started in 18 C 
claiming legal and civil equality for women. In 19 C II half 
women were given the right to retain separate income after 
marriage and to possess tjeir own property. They as wel  
could not be treated as chattels of their husbands, women 
were leagl guardians of thier children after divorce or death of 
a husband. 19 c also focused on wife beating,  physical  
cruelty, white slavery of prostitution, relation between the 
sexes

The campiagn for  female  suffrage  dated  from 1860´s. More 
active involvement in politics, right to vote- In 20 C after the 
WW II women over 30 ratepayers, got the right to vote, later 
al  over 21
 
 
The House of Windsor
● George V 20 C
● Edward VIII 20 C
● George VI 20C
● Elizabeth II 20-21 C
 
 
World War I 1914-1918

Antanta- England, France, Russia;  triple  alliance- 
Germany,  Italy , Austria

1914 4 august Britain was forced into war

Cause - rivalry in the balkans between Austria-
Hungary , and Russia

Austria-Hungary declared war on  Serbia , Germany 
declared war on Russia and its ally France 

10 mln dead, USA new world power, germany, 2nd 
rate counrty, 3 other empires Russian,  Austrian, 
Osman declined
 
 
The Callipoli campaign
●  In 1915 following the Turkish attack on 
Russia, the allies-Britain, France and Russia 
launched unsuccessful campaign
● It was a British attempt to end  deadlock  of 
french  warfare  by forcing a passage   through  
the Dardanelles, forcing Turkey out of the war. 
Operation  failed
●  Expeditionary  force witdrew  
 
 
The Mesopotamian campaign
● Began in 1914, when an Indian force landed 
at Abadan to protect oil installations. It was a 
British campaign, aim was to secure Persian 
oil supplies. 
● 1916 10 000 soldiers were captured by the 
Turks. Baghdad fell. The Tyrks were defeated, 
adied by the  Arab revolt. 
● Jerusalem was taken in the end of 1917 and 
Damascus and Aleppo fell in 1918
 
 
The campaign on the West Front
● Britian always tried to seize the initiative but it 
resulted in huge casualties. Several battles. 
Huge damages, failure. 
●  Poison  gas used for the first time.
● German defences were last broken through by 
the allies.
● The german leadres agreed to armistice, war 
became to a sudden end  
 
 
The campaign for the irish 
HomeRule in the 19 C and 20 C
● A movement to repeal the Act of Union 
between britain  and Ireland, gave ireland 
parliament  responsible  for domestic affairs. 
● In the 1870´s irish party held the balance of 
power in the parliament several times , trying to 
get the Act repealed, but the acts never 
passed through House of Lords.
● In 1920 finally separate parliaments for 
northern and southern Ireland were 
 
 
established
The problem of Ulster in the 20 C
● Campaign of Home Rule began, the 
protestant population in north was afraid of the 
domination under catholic majority Home 
Rule, danger for civil war
● In 1920´s The Governemnt of Ireland Act  
divided Ireland into two states
● Ulster counties  formed  the state of Northern 
Ireland
● Southern Ireland rejected the act and 
 
 
continued to fight for indepnedence
Edward VIII and Wallis  Simpson 

King of England, abdicated voluntarily. 

Undertook foreign  tours , visited high unempolyment 
areas, became popular

Had many affairs with married women, fell in love 
with Wallis Simpson, the american businessman´s 
wife. Advisors did not believe that Edward, the Head 
of the Church should marry a divorced  woman
Edward abdicated the throne in favour of his younger 
brother George VI

He became the Duke of Windsor and went to exile in 
 
 
France, there was much bitterness between him and 
his family. He died of  throat  cancer 
World War II 1939-1945

Hitler ´s invasion of Poland in September 1939

Great Britain and france declared war to Germany

In 1940 Churchil  became prime minister

Germany conquered France in summer, Uk  stood  alone

German bombed UK nightly, british were not  beaten , Hitler gave up the 
invasion  plans

June 1941 Germany invaded  Soviet  Union

Japan  attacked  Pearl  Harbour, United States entered the war

The UK, Soviet Union, United States and other Al ies final y beated the 
Axis  Power- germany, Italy, Japan)

360, 000 Britons died of war
 
 

The Uited States and The Soviet union came out of the war as the world´s 
most powerful nations
The phoney war 
● A phase in early WW II during which the 
fighting seemed remote. 
● Massive air-raids, trenches in public parks, 
anti-aircraft weaponry, 38 million gas masks 
were distributed to the population. 
● Rationing on food, clothing and  petrol , and 
other commodities was introduced.
 
 
Dunkirk  1940, the Battle of Britain 
1940, El Alamein 1942, Singapore 
1942
● Dunkirk 1940. British were  cut off French, 
they were retreating to Dunkirk, surrounded by 
germans. Royal Navy organised emergency  
evacuation, 30, 000 soldiers escaped
● The Battle of britain 1940. German attack  on 
Britain. German Luftwaffe raids. Battle of 
Britain raged, became a legend. By  Christmas  
immidate threat was past, bombing continued
 
 
● El Alamein 1942. Rommel attacked to finish 
off British army and break out int the Nile 
delta. First battle raged 3 weeks. Montgomery  
reorganised the army. Second battle raged for 
12 days, british were victorious
● Singapore, 1942. British were defending 
Singapore, which Japanese overran, captured 
the  bulk  of the British army, the worst military 
disaster. 
 
 
D-Day 1944, Operation Overlord

Allied invasion of normandy on the western front during 
WW II. Greatest operation in war history

6 June 1944 the thousands Allied troops parachuted from 
the  skies , landed by glider and stormed the  beaches
Landing was a  brilliant success. 

Near  200, 000 participated one way or  another

The Second front was launched against the main enemy

The Americans captured Cherbourg, British Caen, 
canadians distroyed German army at Falaise. The Allies 
took Paris. On 8May the war formally ended
 
 
Winston  Churchill

A politician, wartime prime minister, he had an army career, 
also worked as a journalist. 

First became conseravtive Member of Parliament, soon joined 
Liberal party. 

1939 first Lord of Admiralty

1940 Prime minister

Maintained a difficult al iance with Soviet Union. 

Lost power in post-war elections

Remained opposition, voiced apprehensions about  Cold  War, 
in 1951 became Prime Minister again
 
 

1953  Nobel  prize for litearture.

Died 1965 
The establishment and breakdown 
of the  welfare  state
● Established in 1946 by national  Insurance  Act 
● A system of national insurance, 
comprehensive welfare, maintenance of 
employment
● National Health Service Act provided a free 
medical service, free hospital treatment, 
dental care, optician´s  services
● The aim of the welfrae state was to cut state´s 
expenditures but instead they increased and 
 
 
led to financial problems. Welfare state lasted 
until 1970
●   
Margaret Thatcher

Britain´s first female prime minister and first to win 3 elections

Has had many occupations like research chemist, Member of 
Parliament, junior inister for pensions, secretary for education. 

Became the leader of the conservative si 1974

Succeeded in reducing inflation, uneployment increased, a close 
political realtionship with Ronald  reagan

Nicknamed the Iron lady by soviets.

Controversial policies, including poll taxes and her opposition to 
integration with Europe produced divisions whithin the Conservative 
Party which led to a leadership challenge

Resigned 1990
 
 

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Vasakule Paremale
Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #1 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #2 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #3 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #4 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #5 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #6 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #7 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #8 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #9 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #10 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #11 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #12 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #13 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #14 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #15 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #16 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #17 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #18 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #19 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #20 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #21 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #22 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #23 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #24 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #25 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #26 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #27 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #28 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #29 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #30 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #31 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #32 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #33 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #34 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #35 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #36 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #37 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #38 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #39 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #40 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #41 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #42 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #43 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #44 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #45 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #46 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #47 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #48 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #49 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #50 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #51 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #52 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #53 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #54 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #55 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #56 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #57 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #58 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #59 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #60 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #61 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #62 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #63 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #64 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #65 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #66 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #67 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #68 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #69 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #70 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #71 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #72 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #73 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #74 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #75 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #76 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #77 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #78 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #79 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #80 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #81 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #82 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #83 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #84 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #85 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #86 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #87 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #88 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #89 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #90 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #91 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #92 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #93 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #94 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #95 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #96 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #97 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #98 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #99 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #100 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #101 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #102 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #103 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #104 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #105 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #106 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #107 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #108 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #109 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #110 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #111 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #112 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #113 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #114 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #115 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #116 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #117 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #118 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #119 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #120 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #121 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #122 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #123 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #124 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #125 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #126 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #127 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #128 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #129 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #130 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #131 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #132 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #133 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #134 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #135 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #136 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #137 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #138 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #139 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #140 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #141 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #142 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #143 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #144 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #145 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #146 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #147 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #148 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #149 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #150 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #151 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #152 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #153 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #154 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #155 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #156 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #157 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #158 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #159 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #160 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #161 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #162 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #163 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #164 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #165 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #166 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #167 Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt #168
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