The Middle Ages The Middle Ages are one of the most turbulent periods in English history. The Middle Ages are so called as the middle period between the decline of the Roman Empire and the Renaissance. The Middle Ages started in 1066. with the Battle of Hastings and the Norman Conquest. William the Conqueror took all the lands from the Saxon English and gave these to French nobles. Normans were known as great builders. This is assured by the fact that many great castles and other buildings, including the Tower of London, were built during the Norman Conquest. In 1086. Domesday Book was compiled. It is a detailed survey of England ordered by William the Conqueror. The
The Saxons & Vikings Fragmentary knowledge of England in the 5th & 6th centuries comes from the British writer Gildas, the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, saints' lives, poetry, archaelogical findings and place- name studies. British landlords ruled small, unstable kingdoms and continued some Roman traditions of governance. In the mid-5th cent, Vertigern, a British leader, hired Germanic mercenaries to help defend against peoples of the north (Picts & Scots). In the end they revolted & the process of invasion and settlement began. The first Saxon ,,kings" were Hengist & Horsa in Kent, Aelle in Sussex, Cerdic / Cynric in Wessex. So the first ,,English" became mainly from Northern Germany & Denmark. The resistance of the Celts was long. They were free at the time, not like other Roman provinces on the Continent. Around 500, the Britons seem to have won several victories. One of their leaders was Ambrosius Aurelianus and one of their victories was at the place called Mount Bad
had been conceived in the fertile brain of Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto, Commander-in-Chief Combined Fleet, Imperial Japanese Navy. Early in the year, he had ordered a study of the operation, contending that "If we have war with the United States, we will have no hope of winning unless the United States fleet in Hawaiian waters can be destroyed." By May 1941, studies had shown the feasibility of a surprise air attack, statistics had been gathered, and operational planning was under way. In the middle of that month, the U.S. Navy took an important step in the radio intelligence field. It detached a 43-year-old lieutenant commander from his intelligence berth aboard U.S.S. Indianapolis and assigned him to reorganize and strengthen the radio intelligence unit at Pearl Harbor. The officer was Joseph John Rochefort, the only man in the Navy with expertise in three closely related and urgently needed fields: cryptanalysis, radio, and the Japanese language. Rochefort, who had
It also paved the way for further Norman invasions in Wales and Ireland. *The House of Normandy (kings, centuries) William I Conqueror (11th century), William II Rufus, Henry I (12th century). To claim the English crown, William I invaded England leading an army of Normans to victory over the Anglo-Saxon forces at the Battle of Hastings. His reign brought Norman culture to England and had an enormous impact on the course of England in the Middle Ages. William II was an effective soldier, but a ruthless ruler. Henry I had scholarly interests. His reign is noted for its political opportunism. *The Bayeux Tapestry It is a 50 cm by 70 m long cloth which explains the events leading up to the Norman invasion of England as well as the events of the invasion itself. The Tapestry is annotated in Latin. It is presently exhibited in a special museum in France.
consult the nearest woman.) THE C O M P U T E R CHALLENGE S h o r t l y after the first edition o f this book came out, a few people (threshold guardians) jumped up to say the technology of the Hero's Journey is already ob solete, thanks to the advent of the computer and its possibilities of interactivity and nonlinear narrative. According to this batch of critics, the ancient ideas of the Journey are hopelessly mired in the conventions of beginning, middle, and end, of cause and effect, of one event after another. T h e new wave, they said, would dethrone the old linear storyteller, empowering people to tell their own stories in any sequence they chose, leaping from point to point, weaving stories more like spider webs than linear strings of events. It's true that exciting new possibilities are created by computers and the non linear thinking they encourage. However, there will always be pleasure in "Tell me a story
The Renaissance In the history the Middle Ages were followed by the Renassance period. During this period a new class called bourgeoeisie came into being. This is the period when monarchies based on nationality were estabilished. The Renaessance started in Italy In the 14th century. Then it spread all over Europe, reached England in 16th century. The struggle for power culminated in a war called The War of Roses. It was a civil war between two dynasties, families. They had different emblems on one side the Yorks
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Book 3) Conventicle Act 1665 prohibited public worship outside State Church 4) Five Mile Act 1665 prohibited the expelled ministers and teachers from coming whithin 5 miles of any corporate town The emergence of the two-party system 1) The exclusionists or Whigs (from Whiggamore, an insulting name), they wanted to exclude James from the succession of throne. Supporters were merchants, capitalists, landed magnates and Puritan lower middle class. 2)The Anti-Exclusionists or Tories were in favour of James´succession. Their supporters were Royalists, Cavalier genrty, monarchy and its alliance wih the Anglican Church and rural masses The Glorious Revolution 1688 It replaced the reigning king, James II with Mary and her dutch husband, William of Orange James was chatolic. Whigs rose up against him, they made a contact with Orange which dashed the hopes of Mary´s son passing a throne.