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Grammar Terminology (0)

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Grammatical Terminology 11
PRACTICAL ENGLISH GRAMMAR
FLGR.01.042
Grammatical Terminology
analytic analĂĽĂĽtiline (= uninflected - grammar is focused in the sentence , e.g. English)
synthetic sĂĽnteetiline (= inflected - grammar is focused in the word, e.g. Estonian, Latin , Russian, Old English)
ending lõpp (käände- ja pöördelõpud)
marker tunnus (mitmuse, oleviku , lihtmineviku, tingiva kõneviisi, käskiva kõneviisi, kaudse kõneviisi, umbisikulise tegumoe, ma-tegevusnime, oleviku kesksõna , mineviku kesksõna)
derivational affix liide, tuletusliide , tuletusafiks (e.g. postwar, anti-American, wiser, greenish)
parts of speech sõnaliigid
English
Estonian
Definition
Example
noun ( proper , common, concrete, abstract )
nimisõna , substantiiv
Refers to words which denote classes and categories of things in the world, including people, animals , inanimate things, places, events , qualities , and states . Nouns can be divided into proper nouns and common nouns. Proper nouns give names to people and things (Tony Blair , Greece). Nouns which are not proper nouns are common nouns (table, boy, heat ). Concrete nouns refer to physical entities that can be observed and measured (cat, garage , soldier). Abstract nouns refer to abstractions that cannot be observed and measured (competition, conscience).
book, water, sincerity, Mary , Estonia
verb
tegusõna , pöördsõna, verb
In a clause , the verb is an obligatory and the most central element. It denotes actions , events, processes and states. Verbs are either regular (cough, coughs, coughing, coughed) or irregular (speak, speaks, spoke, speaking, spoken). There are three main grammatical classes of verb: lexical ( walk , put, love), auxiliary (do, be, have) and modal (can, must, will). Lexical and auxiliary verbs indicate contrasts of tense , person and number.
walk, put, do, be, must
adjective
omadussõna , adjektiiv
Describes the qualities, features or states attributed to a noun or pronoun .
a nice room, a happy girl, the blue sky
adverb
määrsõna , adverb
Indicates the time, place, manner , degree, frequency , duration, viewpoint, etc. of an event, action or process . It is mostly realised by the -ly suffix added to an adjective.
beautifully, angrily, now, yesterday , never
numeral
arvsõna , numeraal
one, ninety-eight, tenth
pronoun
asesõna , pronoomen
An item used to substitute for the reference to entities which lexical noun phrases indicate. The main sub-classification include personal (he, you), possessive (his, yours ), reflexive ( himself , yourselves), reciprocal (each other , one another ), relative (who, which, that), interrogative (who, what, which), demonstrative (this, that, those), and indefinite (some, none ).
They are in the kitchen .
Your boxes of photos have been delivered. Mine will arrive tomorrow .
preposition
eessõna , prepositsioon
Class of word used to express relationships between two events, things or people in terms of time, space , and other abstract relations . Prepositions can occur as single words (at, by) or in pairs (out of, next to).
at 2 o'clock, to the school
on, at, under, before , during
postposition
tagasõna , postpositsioon
adposition
kaassõna, suhtesõna, adpositsioon
conjunction, connector
sidesõna , konjunktsioon
Refers to items used to mark logical relationships between words, phrases, clauses and sentences . There are two types of conjunctions : coordinating and subordinating. Coordinating conjunctions (coordinators; and, but, or) join linguistic units with equal grammatical status . Subordinating conjunctions (subordinators; although , after, as, because, before, since , when) indicate the semantic relationship between a subordinate clause and a main clause.
Mary felt ill and could not go to school.
He failed the exam (main) although he worked hard . (subordinate)
interjection
hüüdsõna, interjektsioon
A term for exclamatory words or expressive vocalisations used to express emotional reactions such
80% sisust ei kuvatud. Kogu dokumendi sisu näed kui laed faili alla
Vasakule Paremale
Grammar Terminology #1 Grammar Terminology #2 Grammar Terminology #3 Grammar Terminology #4 Grammar Terminology #5 Grammar Terminology #6 Grammar Terminology #7 Grammar Terminology #8 Grammar Terminology #9 Grammar Terminology #10 Grammar Terminology #11
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