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The Saxons & Vikings (0)

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The Saxons & Vikings
Fragmentary
knowledge of England in the 5th & 6th centuries comes from the British writer Gildas, the Anglo- Saxon Chronicle, saints’ lives ,
poetry, archaelogical findings and place -name studies . British
landlords ruled small, unstable kingdoms and continued some Roman traditions of governance.
In the mid-5th cent , Vertigern, a British leader, hired Germanic mercenaries to help
defend against peoples of the north (Picts & Scots ). In the end
they revolted & the process of invasion and settlement began. The first Saxon „ kings “ were Hengist & Horsa in Kent , Aelle in
Sussex, Cerdic / Cynric in Wessex . So the first „ Englishbecame mainly from Northern Germany & Denmark .
The resistance of
the Celts was long. They were free at the time, not like other Roman
provinces on the Continent .
Around 500, the
Britons seem to have won several victories. One of their leaders was Ambrosius Aurelianus and one of their victories was at the place
called Mount Badon. The main leader of the Britons at this time may
have been the warrior later called King Arthur .
By the 7th cent.
the invaders managed to conquer the greater part of the land . The
invaders came from 3 powerful tribes :

  • The Saxons – settled from the Thames Estuary westwards, in the south of England; they formed the kingdoms of Sussex, Wessex, Essex & Middlesex
  • The Angles – settled in East Anglia, the Midlands & Northumbria
  • The Jutes – settled mainly in Kent, Hampshire & the Isle of Wight

The name Jutes
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Prehistory, Saxon invasion and Celtic Kingdoms

By 300AD all the towns had thick walls. The Romans left about 20 large towns and a hundred of small ones. Many of the towns were at first army camps and the Latin word for it ­ castra ­ has still remained in the names of these towns: Leicester, Chester, Doncaster, Lancaster etc. The Towns were well built and connected with roads. In the countryside there were many large farms called villas. The life expectancy was short ­ 2040 years. The Saxon invasion The Invaders ­ At first the Germanic tribes only raided Britain but after 430 AD they began to settle. The invaders came from three powerful Germanic tribes ­ the Saxons, Angles and Jutes. The Jutes settled in Kent and south coast, angles settled in east and north midlands and the Saxons settled between then. They all drove most of the Celts to Wales and in north to Scotland. Hardly anything is left from the Germanic culture. The AngloSaxons established a number of kingdoms

British history (suurbritannia ajalugu)
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ASPECTS OF BRITISH HISTORY

N. A. Vavilov ASPECTS OF BRITISH HISTORY Н. А. Вавилов КРАТКАЯ ИСТОРИЯ ВЕЛИКОБРИТАНИИ Учебное пособие на английском языке Москва Институт международного права и экономики имени А. С. Грибоедова 2008 2 УТВЕРЖДЕНО кафедрой лингвистики и переводоведения Вавилов Н.А. Краткая история Великобритании: Учебное пособие на английском языке. – 2-е изд., пересмотр. и испр. – М.: ИМПЭ им. А.С. Грибоедова, 2008. ?

Vene filoloogia
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Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajalugu lühikonspekt

Circular structure, large standing stones, aligned with rising sun at teh solstice Attlers and bones were sued to dig pits that hold the stones The Celts in Britain and their legacy 700-200 BC celts invade Britain Gaels or Goehls(Ireland and Scotland),Cymri(Wales) and Brythons(gave name to Brittany) Fierce fighters,superb horsemen.Most of them farmers, lived in thatched houses Good at art, craftmanship, used iron Divided into tribes, ruled by kings, only in face of danger would they choose a single leader Legacy- hill-forts, farms, churches, field system, woodland, pasture, weapons, iron objects, langugae, culture Caesar in Britain The great Roman Emperor Firts came 55 BC to gather information, celts were doing agriculturally well,so romans wanted to get some food too In 54BC Caesar defeated Cassivelaunus Actual reasons why he made expeditions are unknown or wheteher he wanted to intend

Inglise keel
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English literature

Romans were highly developed and had their own language ­ latin, which has also greatly influenced English. The military occupation of the Isles ended in 410 AD. The Romans eventually brought Christianity to Britain. Hadrian's wall on the border of Scotland and England. It began construction in 122 AD. An Anglo-Saxon attack on Rome forced the Romans to leave The British Isles. They were replaced by Germanic tribes ­ Angles, Jutes and Saxons, who drove the Celts to the north (Scotland) and west (Wales). They came from the North and Baltic Seas. Along with them came their dialects, which constitute the basis for Old English. Around 4500 words are still used today. They also had their own religion and Germanic gods. Their names are still used today: Freya ­ Friday, Thor ­ Thursday, Angle-land ­ England. The Anglo-Saxons divided the cuntry into small warring kingdoms ­ Northumbria, Mercia,

Inglise keel
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Inglise keelt kõnelevate maade ajaloo eksamiküsimused

at that time. He is remembered mainly for his "Ecclesiastical History of the English People." This five volume work records events in Britain from the raids by Julius Caesar to the arrival of the first missionary from Rome. Bede's writings are considered the best summary of this period of history ever prepared. Some have called it "the finest historical work of the early Middle Ages." *The coming ofe the Angles, Saxons, Jutes, Frisians to Britain ­ Very little is known about the first several hundred years of the Anglo-Saxon era, primarily because the invaders were an illiterate people. It is known that they established separate kingdoms: the Saxons settled in the South and West, the Angles in the East Anglia, Mercia, Northumbria and the Jutes in Kent. They probably thought of themselves as separate peoples, but they shared a common language and similar customs.

Inglise keel kõnelevate maade ajalugu
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Roman Britain

Richborough landing, on the river Medway, the second on the Thames. One of the Catuvellaunian leaders, Togodumnus, was killed, but his brother Caratacus survived to continue resistance elsewhere. Plautius halted at the Thames and sent for Claudius, who arrived with reinforcements, including artillery and elephants, for the final march to the Catuvellaunian capital, Camulodunum . The future emperor Vespasian subdued the southwest,Cogidubnus was set up as a friendly king of several territories, and treaties were made with tribes outside the area under direct Roman control.Romans built many roads and also many great bulidings like the Hadrians wall. Anglo-Saxons and Normans The history of Anglo-Saxon England broadly covers early medieval England from the end of Roman rule and the establishment of Anglo-Saxon kingdoms in the 5th century until the Conquest by the Normans in 1066.

Inglise keel
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The Germanic Invasions

The Germanic Invasions Anglo-Saxon invasion During the 5th c. a number of Germanic tribes invaded The Angles, the Saxons, the Jutes Different peoples, but common language and customs Advance halted by King Arthur Distortions of popular history In folklore, myth (and films) ­ a great English hero, an example of medieval nobility and chivalry In fact ­ a Romanized Celt, lived before medieval times, fought the Anglo-Saxons (people who became "the English") Predominated by the end of the 6th c. Kingdoms established: Wessex, Essex, Sussex, Mercia, Northumbria, East Anglia etc.

British history (suurbritannia ajalugu)
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Suurbritannia üldkokkuvõte

The capital city, London, was also built during that time. The Romans built the Hadrian's Wall in AD 122 to keep out the 2 raiding Picts from what is now Scotland. Roman soldiers brought Christianity to Britain. In AD 410, Roman forces were withdrawn from Britain. With the Romans gone, the Britons could not protect themselves from invading tribes. The greatest danger came from Germanic seafaring tribes called Angles, Saxons and the Jutes. They established kingdoms in southern and eastern England. The gradual intermarriage of these new waves of invaders and the people already living in Briton created what was called Anglo-Saxon England ­ `Angle-land'. The Angles and the Saxons became the most powerful tribes in England with the Saxons in southern England and the Angles in the north. The language the Anglo-Saxons spoke (Anglo-Saxon German) gradually developed into Old English. Old English was not a written language

Inglise keel




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