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“The aborigines of Australia
Student :Kärt Erikson
Teacher: Tiia Timma









Tartu 2010
contents


  • History – page 3-4

  • Religion – page 4-7

  • Society - page 7-9



  • Resources – page 11











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Introduction
I selected this theme because it was the most interesting one for me. Aborigines have interested me for a long time now so doing this essay is really fun for me.
Australian Aboriginal culture is one of the world's longest surviving cultures . Australian Aborigines, also known as Indigenous Australians , are the native people of Australia . Many of them suffered when white people from Britain arrived in Australia, because of disease , the loss of their hunting lands, and unfair laws .
Australian Aborigines are those people regarded as indigenous to the Australian continent .
In the High Court of Australia, Australian Aborigines have been specifically identified as a group of people who share , in common, biological ancestry back to the original occupants of the continent.
History
The first people of Australia were nomadic people who came to Australia from south - east Asia . Scientists don't know exactly when they arrived but it is somewhere between 40000 and 60000 years ago. When British came to Australia in 1788, they called these native people “aboriginals”, meaning people who had lived there since the earliest times .
Captain James Cook set the colonization of Australia into motion by exploring and mapping the fertile eastern coast of Australia, but he was not the first to visit Australia. There is evidence suggesting Aborigines in northern Australia maintained trade with some of the Indonesian islands closest to the coast. Chinese and Arab 's may have had contact with the Aborigines in the 15th century .
When British people came to live in Australia, they decided that the land was empty, that there were no people living there. This was called " Terra nullius", Latin words for "empty land".Under British law, all land belongs to the king ,who is then able to sell it to other people. The sacred sites and other land which had belonged to aboriginal people for thousands of years were simply taken from them. If they did not leave peacefully then the new settlers used force to get them to leave. Many aboriginal people were killed during the settlement of Australia. The aborigines that were left were made to live on in special areas , reservations, that the government set aside for them. One of these was at Lake Tyers, Victoria. Many church groups set up missions , to both look after the aborigines, and to
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convert them to Christianity.
With the help of aboriginal lawyers, aboriginal Australians have battled to get some of their land back. In 1976, the Australian government agreed that aboriginal people have rights to their tribal territories, and some land was given back. On 3 June , 1992, the High Court of Australia said that the idea of "Terra nullius" was wrong , and the government brought in new laws, to set up Native Title. If aborigines can prove they have always used particular land, it has not been sold, or changed by government acts , then the land could be claimed as aboriginal land.
Religion
The Aboriginal religion is based heavily on the Dreaming. The Dreaming is the Aboriginal creation story. Aborigines believe that at the beginning of time the world was a shapeless mass of nothing , waiting to be transformed into what we see today . The mythic beings called the ancestors arrived, the ancestors took many shapes, although most commonly they were great serpants. The ancestors began to travel across the world shaping the landscape and creating new life as they went . Every major geographical feature in Australia has an aboriginal story to explain it. The Dreaming gets very abstract, it turns almost into another dimension. Aborigines believe that they are constantly living in the Dreaming and that every time they do something they leave an impression on the other reality. The Ancestor Spirits and their powers have not gone , they are present in the forms in to which they changed at the end of the 'Dreamtime' or 'Dreaming', as the stories tell . The stories have been handed down through the ages and are an integral part of an Indigenous person 's 'Dreaming'.
The ancestors of the aborigines come in all shapes and sizes, in some ways they are very similar to Greek Gods and Goddess ', in that they usually represent a certain theme. Such as the sky, or water. During the Dreaming the ancestors criss-crossed Australia shaping the land into its current state as the went. The Aborigines also consider certain constellations to be ancestors .
Death was always a time of sorrow and supernatural fear among traditional ATSI people(Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.) . Wailing or crying was a common occurrence among the mourners who often painted their bodies with pipe clay, red ochre, or charcoal when
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Aborigeenid-Inglise keeles #1 Aborigeenid-Inglise keeles #2 Aborigeenid-Inglise keeles #3 Aborigeenid-Inglise keeles #4 Aborigeenid-Inglise keeles #5 Aborigeenid-Inglise keeles #6 Aborigeenid-Inglise keeles #7 Aborigeenid-Inglise keeles #8 Aborigeenid-Inglise keeles #9 Aborigeenid-Inglise keeles #10 Aborigeenid-Inglise keeles #11 Aborigeenid-Inglise keeles #12 Aborigeenid-Inglise keeles #13
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