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British history
Roman Britain

Roman Britain was those parts of the island of Great Britain controlled by the Roman Empire between 43 and about 410. The Romans referred to their province as Britannia . Prior to the Roman invasion, Iron Age Britain already had cultural and economic links with Continental Europe , but the invaders introduced new developments in agriculture, urbanization, industry and architecture , leaving a legacy that is still apparent today .
Historical records beyond the initial invasion are sparse, although many Roman historians mention the province in passing. Most of the knowledge of the period stems from archaeological investigations and especially epigraphic evidence .
The invasion force in AD 43 was led by Aulus Plautius.It is not known how many Roman legions were sent ; only one legion , the II Augusta , commanded by the future emperor Vespasian, is directly attested to have taken part . The IX Hispana,the XIV Gemina ( later styled Martia Victrix) and the XX are attested in 60/61 during the Boudican Revolt, and are likely to have been there since the initial invasion. However , the Roman army was flexible, with units being used and moved whenever necessary , so this is not certain. Only the Legio IX Hispana is likely to have stayed there, as it is attested to being in residence at Eburacum ( York ) in AD 71 and on a building inscription there dated AD 108, before its eventual destruction fighting in the East , likely during the Bar Kochba Revolt.
The invasion was delayed by a mutiny of the troops, who were eventually persuaded by an imperial freedman to overcome their fear of crossing the Ocean and campaigning beyond the limits of the known world. They sailed in three divisions, and probably landed at Richborough in Kent , although some suggest that at least part of the invasion force landed on the south coast, in the Fishbourne area of West Sussex.
The Romans defeated the Catuvellauni and their allies in two battles : the first , assuming a Richborough landing, on the river Medway, the second on the Thames . One of the Catuvellaunian leaders, Togodumnus, was killed , but his brother Caratacus survived to continue resistance elsewhere. Plautius halted at the Thames and sent for Claudius , who arrived with reinforcements, including artillery and elephants, for the final march to the Catuvellaunian capital, Camulodunum . The future emperor Vespasian subdued the southwest,Cogidubnus was set up as a friendly king of several territories, and treaties were made with tribes outside the area under direct
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British summarized history



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