English literature is one of the oldest literatures in Europe; dates back to the 6th century AD. Oral literature, i.e. not written down, spread from person to person. In 449 AD Anglo-‐Saxon tribes invaded England – beginning of the Anglo-‐Saxon period in English literature. The first form of literature was folklore, carried by scops and gleemen, who
ENGLISH LITERATURE Ancient Britain Lived on the British Isles in the 1st millenium. They most probably came from Eastern Europe and belonged to the Celtic race and also spoke Celtic. They were primitive hunters- gatherers, farmers. Some Celtic words are still used in modern English, however they are used mostly in place names. For example: · avon river · cumb valley · ford shallow place in the river Ancient Britons had their own religion and priests or druids and temples. In the year 55 BC Britain became a Roman province. Romans were highly developed and had their own language latin, which has also greatly influenced English. The military occupation of the Isles ended in 410 AD
Literature of the 14th century The highpoint of medieval literature, the best writer of late medieval lived then. William Langland 1332-1376 the last important poet of alliterative verse. His masterpiece "The Vision of Piers Ploughman" how important working hard is, the labour of peasants is the base of the welfare of the people. A passionate protest against social injustice. A time when peasants were slowly rising against their feudal lords. Descriptions of different social classes. Religious mysticism
UNO SOOMERE ESTONIAN SYMPHONIC MUSIC. THE FIRST CENTURY 1896-1996. AN OVERVIEW With a Historical and Cultural Summary IN MEMORY OF THE GREAT ESTONIAN COMPOSERS CONTENTS ESTONIA AND THE ESTONIANS FOREWORD IN THE FOLD OF TSARIST RUSSIA. EMERGENCE AND FIRST STEPS ON THE CLASSICAL-ROMANTIC PATH. HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION I. MUSICAL LIFE IN TARTU AT THE TURN OF THE CENTURY. TRAILBLAZERS: ALEKSANDER LÄTE, RUDOLF TOBIAS, ARTUR KAPP. II. THE FIRST DECADE OF THE 20TH CENTURY. ARTUR LEMBA: THE BEGINNING OF ESTONIAN SYMPHONY AND OPERA. III. NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN CULTURAL AND MUSICAL LIFE: THE END OF THE TSARIST PERIOD. THE INDEPENDENT REPUBLIC OF ESTONIA: THE INTRODUCTION OF INNOVATIONS FROM WESTERN ART AND THE EVOLUTION OF NATIONALLY ORIENTED MUSICAL TRENDS. IV. THE TWENTIES. ARTUR KAPP: ROMANTICIST AND DRAMATIST. V
He shows a very rich and leisurely portrayal of this Baltic world, providing many customs like the close relationship between lord and man in the war-band and others. All this encouraged the supposition that the unknown author of the poem was himself a bard of the ancient type portrayed within the poem (a lord's scoop). However, many people propose that the author could be Christian poet, perhaps a monk, versed not only in old native traditions, but also in the culture and literature of the Latin Church, and whose purpose of writing was highly moral. For example, the fate is a `providentia' and the monster Grendel is an embodiment of evil fighting against Christian militant. This contrast corresponds to the poem itself. The poet is looking back from his own Christian times to an old society with different customs and beliefs. The poem is set, as it is announced in the very first line: `in days gone by'
means without permission in writing from the publisher, except for the inclusion of brief quotations in a review. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Vogler, Christopher, 1 9 4 9 - T h e writer's journey : mythic structure for writers / Christopher Vogler. ~ 3rd ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 9 7 8 - 1 - 9 3 2 9 0 7 - 3 6 - 0 I. M o t i o n picture authorship. 2 . Narration ( R h e t o r i c ) 3. M y t h in literature. 4. Creative writing. I. Title. PNI996.V64 2007 808.2'3-dc22 2007026844 IV for Mom and Dad TABLE OF CONTENTS I N T R O D U C T I O N : T h i r d Edition ix PREFACE: Second Edition xiii INTRODUCTION: Second Edition ~ Preparing for the Journey xxvii BOOK ONE: M a p p i n g the Journey I
The making of a new nation. The Enlightenment in America. The emergence of the notion of the American Dream. The great Enlighteners: Crèvecoeur, Jefferson, Paine, Franklin. The American Enlightenment is the intellectual thriving period in the United States in the midtolate 18th century (17151789), especially as it relates to American Revolution on the one hand and the European Enlightenment on the other. Influenced by the scientific revolution of the 17th century and the humanist period during the Renaissance, the Enlightenment took scientific reasoning and applied it to human nature, society, and religion. American Enlightenment a gradual but powerful awakening that established the ideals of democracy, liberty, and religious tolerance in the people of America.
These criminals are doing what nature, environment, their unconscious tells them to do. Naturalists do not judge their characters, they simply report. Try to describe facts like they are. Naturalists depict the lower, coarser forms of life. · Drab, squallid set of scene. Revolting, disgusting · Characters are people with strong animal desires · Neurotic characters unable to understand the forces that control them · By the end of the 18th century the naturalism depicts in europe, but stars to become the literature method no 1 in america · Naturalism appealed American authors because they found it very right to describe what was going on in the turn of century in America · They wanted something fresh, new · They were disgusted by romantics · Showed the harsh tone in moral life · Refleced the development of science · Period of intense urbanisation, the city is in the center of the novel, often