English literature is one of the oldest literatures in Europe; dates back to the 6th century AD. Oral literature, i.e. not written down, spread from person to person. In 449 AD Anglo-‐Saxon tribes invaded England – beginning of the Anglo-‐Saxon period in English literature. The first form of literature was folklore, carried by scops and gleemen, who
He shows a very rich and leisurely portrayal of this Baltic world, providing many customs like the close relationship between lord and man in the war-band and others. All this encouraged the supposition that the unknown author of the poem was himself a bard of the ancient type portrayed within the poem (a lord's scoop). However, many people propose that the author could be Christian poet, perhaps a monk, versed not only in old native traditions, but also in the culture and literature of the Latin Church, and whose purpose of writing was highly moral. For example, the fate is a `providentia' and the monster Grendel is an embodiment of evil fighting against Christian militant. This contrast corresponds to the poem itself. The poet is looking back from his own Christian times to an old society with different customs and beliefs. The poem is set, as it is announced in the very first line: `in days gone by'
means without permission in writing from the publisher, except for the inclusion of brief quotations in a review. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Vogler, Christopher, 1 9 4 9 - T h e writer's journey : mythic structure for writers / Christopher Vogler. ~ 3rd ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 9 7 8 - 1 - 9 3 2 9 0 7 - 3 6 - 0 I. M o t i o n picture authorship. 2 . Narration ( R h e t o r i c ) 3. M y t h in literature. 4. Creative writing. I. Title. PNI996.V64 2007 808.2'3-dc22 2007026844 IV for Mom and Dad TABLE OF CONTENTS I N T R O D U C T I O N : T h i r d Edition ix PREFACE: Second Edition xiii INTRODUCTION: Second Edition ~ Preparing for the Journey xxvii BOOK ONE: M a p p i n g the Journey I
ENGLISH LITERATURE Ancient Britain Lived on the British Isles in the 1st millenium. They most probably came from Eastern Europe and belonged to the Celtic race and also spoke Celtic. They were primitive hunters- gatherers, farmers. Some Celtic words are still used in modern English, however they are used mostly in place names. For example: · avon river · cumb valley · ford shallow place in the river Ancient Britons had their own religion and priests or druids and temples. In the year 55 BC Britain became a Roman province. Romans were highly developed and had their own language latin, which has also greatly influenced English. The military occupation of the Isles ended in 410 AD
profoundly as he stands nearer to the Source of all sources from which all the innermost sublime and substantial ideas stream. In this book Estonian symphonic music is discussed from its starting point, the pathetic overture Julius Caesar (1896) by Rudolf Tobias, up to the works of the young composers of the 1990s. This is the first book that presents a general treatment of the Estonian symphonic music. Other Estonian literature on this subject has offered a broader background. This book should appeal to composers, musicologists, conductors, educationalists, instrumentalists, music students, as well as everybody interested in Estonian symphonic music. The book is divided into 29 chapters where more than 70 orchestral compositions of 32 composers are examined. The background on the developments in music is illustrated through historical data and cultural achievements in literature, art,
Suppletion Present in languages of different families. Present in Old, Middle and Modern English, though the general tendency is towards more regularity/iconicity so the number of suppletive forms has decreased.In the text: goon to go wenden - to turn Gan was suppletive in Old English, past form: eode.Eode was supplanted by went (past form of wenden) at the end of the Middle English period.To wend has survived in Modern English in phrases such as to wend one's way, we wended homewards (ironic usage). Thus: suppletivity- suppletion different parts of one and the same paradigm come from what were originally different paradigms (different words with close meanings or words in different but close dialects).Suppletion embraces verbs, adjectives, nouns. Be was/were been (Old English beon/wesan) (am, art, is, are); in Old English some suppletive
Revision questions for the test on Old English and Medieval Literature. 1.) How is literature analysed and studied? What is the difference between the diachronic and synchronic view? Literature is studied and analysed by reading the piece of work profoundly and work on all the aspects of the piece. Diachronic is development in history Synchronic is particular state at any given moment 2.) Give a general overview of Celtic Britain, Roman invasion in 55-54 BC, Anglo-Saxon invasion and the second Roman "invasion" of Great Britain, who were the leaders, what
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