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Shakespeare (1)

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Shakespeare

Elulugu


  • Was born in 1564, probably on April 23, in the small country town of Stratford -on- Avon
  • Father was a prosperous glove maker and held several important positions in the town government
  • Mother , Mary Arden, was the daughter of a wealthy landowner
  • By the age of 7, Shakespeare was probably attending the local grammar school
  • In 1582, at the age of 18, he married Anne Hathaway (26), the daughter of a farmer who lived about a mile from Stratford
  • Daughter Susanna (born in 1583) and twins, Hamnet and Judith (born in 1585; Hamnet died in 1596)
  • From 1585 to 1592 , a period some scholars call „the lost years
  • From 1592 the recors about Shakespeare are much fuller.
  • Sometime during the lost years Shakespeare moved to London and became part of the city’s busy theatrical life
  • By 1594 he was a shareholder , or part owner , in one London’s most popular acting companies , the Lord Chamberlain’s Men, and at least six of his plays had been produced
  • In 1599 the company built the Globe Theatre , the most famous of Elizabethan theatres
  • After Queen Elizabeth ’s death in 1603 , the Lord Chamberlain’s Men were sponsored by King James and became known as the King ’s Men
  • In 1608 the company acquired a second theatre in Blackfairs, a fashionable district of London
  • Between 1608- 1613 Shakespeare wrote his last five plays; while writing these , Shakespeare lived mostly in Stratford, where he was regarded as one of the town’s most important citizens
  • In 1607 his daughter Susanna married dr John Hall
  • In 1608 Shakespeare’s granddaughter Elizabeth Hall was born
  • Shakespeare died on April 23, 1616 and is buried in Holy Trinity Church in Stratford
  • Not till 7 years after Shakespeare’s death was „the Folio“; the first attempt at an authentic edition of his works , published
  • The 1623 edition, containing 36 plays, was printed from stage manuscripts od the company to which Shakespeare had belonged. This Folio of 1623 is the most important book in English literature

Theatre


  • The Globe was an octagonal building , with a thatched roof covering only the perimeter of the area
  • Under the roof were 3 levels of galleries that surrounded a yard about 65- feet in diameter
  • The galleries looked down on the stage, a rectangular platform of 27 by 43 feet that occupied about a third of the yard at one end
  • The main stage had a large trap door through which actor who played the parts of ghosts and spirits could rise and disappear
  • At the back of the main stage was a small curtained inner stage used for indoor scenes
  • Above the inner stage were two galleries
  • The first level could be used as a balcony
  • Musicians performed from the second level, and sound effects, such as thunder or the ringing of a bell, came from the hut on top of the stage roof
  • Those who could afford it watched the plays from seats in the galleries
  • For a penny, less wealthy spectators, called groundlings, could stand in the yard
  • The yard was open to the sky, and the stage was lit by daylight
  • Performances were given in mid-afternoon before an audience of about 2000
  • No curtain rose to indicate the start of the play or fell to signal the close of an act
  • To begin the play, actors entered by one of the two doors at the rear of the stage, and when they left the stage, the scene was over
  • Costumes in the Shakespearean theatre were always colourful and elaborate versiond of Elizabethan modern dresses
  • Scenery was almost non-existent: one tree might signify a forest; a chair might represent a throne room
  • The plays moved at a rapid speed
  • Elizabethan actors spoke their lines quicklier than modern performers
  • No woman appeared at the stage; women ’s and children ’s roled were played by boys who were skilful and highly trained
  • In a soliloquy the actor’s alone on the stage, speaking to himself and revealing to the audience his inner thoughts and feelings
  • In an aside the actor speaks words that the other characters on stage are not supposed to hear

Sonnet


  • A sonnet (from the Italian fot „ little song“) is a fourteen -line lyric poem with a fixed rhyme pattern and a regular rhythm, or predictable pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables called metre
  • The basic unit of metre is foot which usually contains one stressed syllable and one or two unstressed syllables
  • The usual metre of a sonnet is iambic pentameter
  • The English sonnet (Shakespearean sonnet) differs from the Italian one on its structure
  • The Italian sonnet has 2 four -line and 2 three-line stanzas, the English sonnet divides into three quatrains, or groups of four lines, and a rhymed couplet, or a pair of lines that usually draws a conclusion or presents a solution to the problems outlined earlier in the poem
  • The usual rhyme scheme is: abab cdcd efef gg

Žanrid


  • Comedies: „As you like it“, „Twelfth night “, „A Midsummer Night’s Dream
  • Tragedies: „ Othello “, „ Macbeth “, „King Lear
  • Historical: „King John“, „ Henry V“ , „ Richard II“



  • Shakespeare #1 Shakespeare #2 Shakespeare #3
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    Autor jaanakr Õppematerjali autor
    Elulugu, teater, sonett

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    The renaissance period in England. Art and literature, development of drama. Dynasties, kings and queens.

    1476 a man called Caxton opened the first printing shop in London. Books became cheaper. Until that books were copied by clergyman. More books could be produced. Literacy spread, knowledge of reading. By te end of Renaissance half of the people could read. Monasteries wasn't so important anymore. Grammar schools came. Students are taught English, Latin, Ancient History, Greek, Religion and Arithmetic. One of the oldest schools was Stratford, Shakespeare taught there. Art and Literature The word Renaissance means the rebirth of ancient Rome and Greek art and literature. Ancient artists showed man as a creature full of joy of life and they glorified the beauty of man. The learned man tried to arouse (äratada) peoples interest in the origin of nature. A group of scientists called humanists came into being. Were gratelyinterested in science. Especially natural science, fond of experimenting (alkeemia). Leonardo da

    British culture (briti kultuur)
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    The Globe Theatre

    Globe Theater The Globe Theatre was a theatre in London associated with William Shakespeare. He wrote there many of his greatest plays. It was first built in 1599 by Shakespeare's playing company, the Lord Chamberlain's Men, and was destroyed by fire on 29 June 1613. It was rebuilt in June 1614 and closed in 1642. It stood on the bank of the River Thames in Southwark, London, England, UK. In 1987, though, after many years of careful research, work began to build a new theatre as much like the original as possible. The New Globe was built with the same materials and

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    Great Britain

    The chief debt owed to him by English literature is for his translations of and commentaries on Latin works. Art, culture and literature flourished during the Elizabethan age, during the reign of Elizabeth I; it was the period of English domination of the oceans and colonies, and, due to the strong political and economic position of the country, there were few obstacles in the way of the cultural development. This time is also famous for the fact that William Shakespeare lived and worked then. The empire, which was very powerful under Queen Victoria, saw another cultural and artistic hey-day as a result of industrialisation and the expansion of international trade during the so- called industrial age. However, German air raids caused much damage during the First World War and then during the Second World War. The madness of the wars briefly inhibited the development of British culture. 5

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    English literatutre - Authors, history

    appearance at this time. Throughout the Middle Ages ballads, short folk tales that tell stories, were very popular. THE RENAISSANCE: The Literary Background 16th century, - humanism. Thomas More- brought it to England and he was arrested because he refused to acknowledge Henry VIII as the Head of the Church. Elizabeth's reign was a period of unprecedented prosperity, and both the court and the emerging middle class dedicated a lot of time to art and literature. W. Shakespeare wrote 154 sonnets, E. Spencer 88. . Spenser's belief that poetry should deal with subjects far removed from everyday life and should be written in refined language ­ unlike that which was used by common people ­ became the basic principle for poetry throughout much of the Elizabethan period. CHRISTOPHER MARLOWE 1564-1593, born in Canterbury, was working for the government. Also wrote plays ­ where he was successful. In the end got stabbed to death.

    British literature
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    English literature

    At night Grendel's mother come for revenge at night, Beowulf defeats her as well with a magic sword. At the beginning of part II 50 years have passed. Beowulf is a wise king of Jutland when a fire dragon comes to exact revenge for the theft of its precious cup. B. summons his men to battle the dragon, but only one man shows up. Despite that Beowulf manages to defeat the dragon. However he is badly injured and dies. He is buried. THE END. William SHAKESPEARE (April 23, 1564 ­ April 23, 1616) He was baptized on the 29th of April. His father, John, was a merchant, bailiff and leading citizen; his mother, Mary Arden, was a rich farmer's daughter. He attended the local grammar school. He wed his older wife, Anne Hathaway at the age of 18 and they had 3 children - Susanna, and twins Judith/Hamnet. Susanna later became William's caretaker after the death of his wife and the twins.

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    English literature from the Baroque to the Romanticism

    Samuel Johnson was one of the most well-known literary figures of his time. He evidently focused more on sensibility, rather than reason, often discussing the nature of different passions. One of his most distinct achievements was creating the first systematized Dictionary of the English Language. Johnson was a prolific writer, releasing many essays during his lifetime. In these, he discussed mainly morality, ethics, and religion. In terms of constructive criticism, even Shakespeare was not safe from Johnson, as the latter criticized his work in detail. (Sanders, pp. 283-295, 298-299, 333-337) 25. Evolution of the novel in the 18th century (Defoe, Richardson, Fielding, Smollett, Sterne, Goldsmith) Daniel Defoe was an English writer known for his great topographical account A Tour through the Whole Island of Great Britain, which possesses heavy themes of pride, especially over the growth of the prosperity of the newly united kingdom

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    The Renaissance

    a Turkish rug used as a tablecloth, and a selection of mathematical instruments. These things speak of a widening world, in which Britain during the reign of Henry VIII was starting to play a bigger part. But something smears across the lower part of the painting, grisly and absurd: looked at from the correct angle, this distorted image reveals itself as a skull. Death haunts the age of discovery. Sir John Gilberts 1849 painting The plays of Shakespeare containgin scenes and characters from several of w.s plays-

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    Renaissance

    The popularity of sonnet led to the writing of sonnet sequences, usually telling the story of unrequited love. Lyric poetry also flourished as courtier and commoner alike found in song an outlet for the exuberant Renaissance spirit. 12. What was the leading genre in English literature at that time? How did it develop? Beyond question, the Elizabethan period was the golden age of English drama, including among its dramatists Christopher Marlowe, William Shakespeare and Ben Jonson, along with more than a dozen other first-rate playwrights. Under the skillful handling of these dramatists, blank verse, introduced into the lg by Surrey, became the main vehicle for tragedy and comedy. Native English drama, which had existed at least since medieval times, was the wellspring of Elizabethan drama. Although Classical drama had been known earlier, its initial influence came in the 1560s, with the translation of Latin drama, especially the revenge

    Inglise kirjandus




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    pilveslaika profiilipilt
    pilveslaika: Inglise keelne..

    Pähh-pähh
    21:58 14-04-2009



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