Kant, Hume, Hegel, Marx, Descartes. a. Introduction
1. How would you characterize Modern philosophy? Commanding outlook, power, will, Man is God.
2. How would you characterize Classical philosophy? Contemplative outlook, truth, intelligence, God is truth.
3. What is the main question that Descartes is trying to answer? How can I be certain [sure] that I am in the truth?
4. Which are precepts of Descartes' method? Only accept what is self-evident. Analysis. Synthesis. Enumeration.
5. Descartes will only accept one specific kind of ideas: which and why? He will only accept clear and distinct ideas that are indubitable. Because the complex ideas could then be constructed using the simple ideas.
6. How does Descartes call his method and why is it not skeptical? Methodic doubt. Because the goal of this doubt is not to be skeptical but to prove that some things can not be doubted.
7. “I think, therefore I am”. What does this phrase means? If I think, I cannot doubt my own existence.
8. What kind of idea is for Descartes the idea of God? What does it mean? Innate idea. If God is God, he should be perfect.