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GETTING TO KNOW THE TOEFL (0)

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CHAPTER  1 
GETTING TO KNOW THE 
TOEFL  
WHAT IS THE TOEFL? 
The TOEFL is a comprehensive English language examination required by more than 3,000 
colleges and universities in the United States , Canada , and other parts of the world. In addition , 
foreign born professionals frequently need a TOEFL score for certification to practice their 
profession in the United States or Canada. 
The TOEFL is a timed test that consists  of the three sections listed here . 
 
 THE 
TOEFL 
 
Section 1   Listening Comprehension 
50 questions  
35 minutes 
Part A 
Statements 
20 questions 
Part B 
Short Dialogs 
15 questions 
Part C 
Minitalks and Extended Conversations 
15 questions 
Section 2   
 
 
Structure and Written Expression 
40 questions 
Structure 
25 minutes 
Written Expression 
15 questions 
25 questions 
Section 3   Vocabulary and Reading  
60 questions 
Comprehension 
45 minutes 
Vocabulary 
30 questions 
Reading Comprehension 
30 questions 
 
SECTION 1: LISTENING COMPREHENSION 
This section of the TOEFL test your ability to  understand spoken American English. You will hear  
taped conversations to which you will make responses . Part A and B contain samples of informal  
American English. Idiomatic expressions and two-word verbs are common in these parts. 
Single Statement  
In Part A you will hear a single statement made by a man or a woman . In your test  booklet , there  
are four sentences . You must choose the sentence that is closest in meaning to the one you heard. 
YOU WILL HEAR: 
To get to the post office, cross the street , go three blocks , and you'll see it right on the corner . 
YOU WILL SEE: 
(A) The post office is right on the corner. 
(B) The post office is at the next corner. 
(C) The post office has a cross near it. 
(D) The post office is three blocks away . 
The correct choice is, which most closely gives the  same  meaning as the sentence you heard. It is 
important for you to know that if similar sounding  words or the same words appear in an answer  
choice, that answer choice is seldom correct. 
Short Dialogs 
Part B contains short dialogs followed by a question about what the people said in their 
conversation . Generally, key information is found  in the second speaker's sentence. You will need 
to understand the meaning of the conversation and also the context , such as the time or place in 
which it could occur . The correct choice directly answers the question. 
YOU WILL HERE: 
(Man Did you get to go shopping last night '? (Woman) They'd already locked the doors by the time 
I got there. 
(Man) What does the woman mean ? 
YOU WILL SEE: 
(A) She arrived in time to shop . 
(B) She was too late . 
(C) She locked the doors. 
(D) She had to buy the door . 
The correct choice is. Since the doors were locked when she arrived, she could not have gone 
shopping. Note that the other choices use words heard in the conversation. Choices that contain 
such words are usually not correct. 
Extended Conversation / Minitalks 
In Part C you will hear an extended conversation or a minitalk. The English in this section is 
generally more formal and academic, typical of English conversation or lectures that take place in a 
university or college setting . After each conversation or minitalk, there are between four and eight  
spoken questions about its content. Choose your answer from  among the four choices that appear in 
your test book-let. Look at the example here. 
YOU WILL HERE: 
Man: Good morning, ladies and gentlemen. Welcome to this tour of one of the nation 's most 
important cities, Chicago . Before we begin , I'd like to give you some background information that 
will make the tour more enjoyable for you. The city was founded in 1837. Its strategic location on 
Lake Michigan quickly made it the center of commerce for the Midwest section of the country . It is 
currently the third largest metropolitan area In the United States. The city's site is generally level, 
built mostly on glacial plain. The narrow Chicago River extends one mile inland from Lake 
Michigan, where it splits, dividing the city into North , West , and South sides . Chicago's weather is 
subject to rapid changes , but generally the climate is cold and windy in the winter , and hot and 
humid in the summer . 
Woman: What gave Chicago an advantage over other Midwest cities? 
YOU WILL SEE: 
(A) Its level site. 
(B) Its location on Lake Michigan. 
(C) Its large population. 
(D) Its location along the Chicago River. 
According to the minitalk, would be the correct choice. Remember that you will not have a written 
copy of the speaker's talk or conversation and you will only hear it once . You must concentrate on 
details , such as names , dates, and the main idea of the selection that you hear. Do not read the 
choices as you listen to the talk. Listen care-fully and try to remember what you hear. 
SECTION 2: STRUCTURE AND WRITTEN EXPRESSION 
This section contains two  types of questions, both   designed to test your ability to recognize correct 
style and grammar in written English. The sentences are academic; ones that you typically find in 
college level texts, journals , and encyclopedias. The sentence topics include the social sciences, 
physical and life sciences, and the humanities. 
Structure 
The structure questions test your ability to recognize correct structure and word order . These 
questions consist of a sentence with one or more words missing . You must make the choice that 
best completes the sentence. Here is an example of this type of question. 
YOU WILL SEE: 
__________ a short time after the Civil War, Atlanta has become the principal center of 
transportation, commerce, and finance in the southeastern United States. 
(A)  While rebuilt 
(B) It was rebuilt 
(C) Rebuilt 
(D) When rebuilt
The correct choice is (C). The other choices make the sentence incorrect or awkward. 
Written Expression 
The written expression questions test your ability to recognize errors in grammar or expression. 
These questions consist of complete sentences with four underlined words or phrases. You must 
identify the underlined part of the sentence that needs to be changed in order to make the sentence 
correct. An example follows. 
YOU WILL SEE: 
The Navajo Indians have displayed a marked ability  
A B 
to incorporate aspects of other cultures into a changing , 
C 
 flexibility lifestyle  
D 
The correct choice is (D). Flexibility, a noun , appears where an adjective must appear. In addition to 
inappropriate parts of speech , be  sure to check for missing words and extra words that are 
inappropriate for the context. 
 
SECTION 3: VOCABULARY AND READING COMPREHENSION 
Good reading skills and an ample vocabulary are keys to doing well on all sections of the TOEFL. 
This section of the TOEFL specifically test these skills. Many TOEFL test takers complain that they 
do not have enough time to carefully answer all questions in this section. It is very important that 
you follow the instructions in this book so that you will use all the allotted time to your advantage. 
Vocabulary 
The first questions on this section will test your English vocabulary. There are 30 academic 
sentences, each containing an underlined word. You must choose the word that has the same 
meaning from among the four choices. Here's an example. 
YOU WILL SEE: 
The United States has instituted a set of forest   conservation measures to maintain forest land. 
(A) accepted 
(B) published 
(C)  established  
(D) suggested 
The word that is closest in meaning to the tested word, instituted, is choice (C). Further hints for 
vocabulary questions can be found in Chapter 2. 
Reading Comprehension 
Your ability to read and understand college level reading material is test on this part of the TOEFL. 
You will find five or six reading passages, each followed by four to seven questions. You must 
work quickly and efficiently . Here is a sample passage . 
YOU WILL SEE: 
A lens has one or more curved surfaces that refract or bend, light rays passing through it to form an 
image on a surface beyond the lens. Examples of such surfaces are the retina of the eye or a movie 
screen . The distance from the lens to the focal plane is known as focal length . In cameras, 
telescopes, and similar devices , the lens is turned on a screw -thread mounting to adjust the focal 
length. This action allows focusing of images of objects at various distances. In the human eye, 
focal length is adjusted by muscles that alter the lens curvature. Light rays of different colors are 
bent by varying degrees as they  pass through a curved surface. This causes a distortion of the 
image, known as chromatic aberration. In cameras, sharp images are obtained by arranging two or 
more lenses so that the aberration of one cancels out the aberration of another . Such an arrangement 
of lenses is called an achromatic lens. 
QUESTION: 
According to the passage, what is focal length?  
(A) A curved surface that refracts light. 
(B) The distance from the focal plane to the lens. 
(C) Adjustment by the muscles that alters lens curvature. 
(D) The degree that light rays of different colors are bent by the lens. 
This is a factual question. The information needed to answer this question is directly stated in the 
text. Choice (B) is the correct answer. Some questions will ask you to draw conclusions based on 
material in the passage, other will ask about the main idea of a selection. Some may even ask what 
information does not appear in the passage. 
THE TEST OF WRITTEN ENGLISH 
Most TOEFL test sessions now require the Test of Written English. The TWE will test your ability 
to respond to topics that you may find on typical college level writing assignments. It will test your 
ability to 
express yourself as well as your organizational skills . The score on this test is reported separately 
and is not used to determine your TOEFL score. 
SOME HELPFUL HINTS 
On all parts of the TOEFL, be sure to answer every question. If you must guess , choose choice (B) 
or (C) since they are slightly more likely to be the correct choice than (A) or (D). 
Watch your time! Be sure to wear a watch and be aware of the time you have remaining in each 
section. Do not waste time reading directions or example in your test booklet. You should become 
familiar with these before you take the test. When you are told to begin, go directly to the first 
question. When time has expired on a section, you may not return to it. Work quickly and 
accurately. If it seems obvious that you will not finish a section within the time limit , guess or 
choose answer (B) or (C) in order to complete the section. 
Prepare yourself for the test. In addition to this book, Barron's How to Prepare for the TOEFL 
provides you with practical hints, tapes with sample questions, model test, and a grammar review to 
help you maximize your TOEFL score. 
 
CHAPTER 2 
UNDERSTANDING  
THE TOEFL: 
Vocabulary and Reading 
Comprehension Section 
 
Developing a good English vocabulary is the most important way to prepare for the 
vocabulary you will see on the TOEFL. In addition to developing a good English vocabulary, it is 
very important to know the kind of vocabulary you will see on the TOEFL and to understand how it 
is tested. 
Vocabulary and Reading Comprehension make up Section 3 of the TOEFL. This section 
contains 30 vocabulary questions and 30 reading comprehension questions. Remember that your 
general vocabulary is tested in all sections of the TOEFL. However , it is in this section of the 
TOEFL where your knowledge of  specific vocabulary is tested. 
You will have 45 minutes to complete this section of the TOEFL. Many test takers report that 
they do not have enough time to complete the reading comprehension questions, so you should 
work quickly in order to complete the vocabulary questions as soon as you can. If you follow the 
strategies in this book you will have more time to complete the Reading Comprehension section of 
the TOEFL. 
The Vocabulary Question 
Vocabulary questions are written in a formal, academic style, typical of most college or 
university level texts and journals. The topics of these sentences are those that a first- year college 
student in North America would be likely to encounter . The topics  come from such areas as the 
natural sciences, business, liberal  arts , and the social sciences. Many sentences contain references to 
North American places and personalities. Others  will refer to historical  events and may include 
dates. It is important for you to understand that your knowledge of these areas is never tested on the 
TOEFL. You do not have to be familiar with the content of the sentences to be successful on this 
section of the TOEFL. 
Each TOEFL vocabulary question consists of a single sentence followed by four choices. 
These choices are marked by letters (A), (B), (C), (D). Most sentences have one word underlined, 
and less frequently, some sentences may have a phrase underlined. You must identify the word 
among the choices that has the same or similar meaning as the under-lined word or phrase in the 
question. These words are called synonyms. Let's examine a sample question. 
Many organisms change their role in habitats from one season to another 
(A) 
diet  
(B) 
size  
(C) 
color  
(D) 
function  
 
This question is typical of the Vocabulary section. The topic is from the natural sciences and 
the sentence contains a single underlined word. The correct answer is (D) function. Function is a 
synonym for role. As in this example, the word you  select is the one that best matches the meaning 
of the underlined word. Note that all four of the choices make  sense in the sentence. Vocabulary 
questions are written so that the con-text of the sentence seldom helps you to determine the meaning 
of the word. Therefore , you must understand the vocabulary to select the correct choice 
Strategies 
Remember that your reading comprehension skills are not tested on this section of the test. 
Therefore you should not waste time reading the sentences. Simply look at the underlined word and 
choose its synonym from among the four choices. This strategy  will save you time and prevent  
frustration. 
You must choose the word that maintains the original meaning of the sentence. Be prepared 
for unfamiliar vocabulary presented in unfamiliar contexts, but do not waste time reading the 
sentences to determine the word's meaning. You will need this time for the Reading Comprehension 
section. If you do not know the word tested or can't determine its synonym, choose (B) or (C) as 
your answer. On the TOEFL, (B) and (C) answers tend  to be used slightly more than (A) and (D). 
Also remember that answer choices that contain the same  prefix or suffix or are pronounced like the 
underlined word are seldom the correct answers. Examine the following question. 
Swallows are among the most agile passerine birds . 
(A) 
Idle 
(B) 
swift  
(C) 
fragile 
(D) 
frail 
Note that choices (A) and (C), idle and fragile, have sounds similar to agile. Such words are 
not usually the correct choice. Such words are often used to distract you. Unless you are sure of the 
answer do not choose these words. 
Let's see how to use our strategy with a sample item. Look at the sentence and look 
immediately to the underlined word. Do not read any other words in the sentence. Read the four 
choices and make your selection. 
The spider wasp has a slender body  with smokey or yellowish wings . 
(A) 
tiny  
(B) 
long 
(C) 
thin  
(D) 
dark  
The following is an illustration of how you should read the sentences. 
+++ ++ +++ + ++++ +++ + slender ++++ ++++ ++++++ ++ 
+++++' +++ +++++ 
(A) 
tiny 
(B) 
long 
(C) 
thin 
(D) 
dark 
You should pay attention only to the underlined word and the choices that follow. If you 
know the meaning of the word and recognize the synonym, there is no need to read the sentence. If 
you do not know the meaning of the underlined word, you must make an educated guess about its 
synonym. The context will not usually help you to determine the correct choice. All of the choices 
from this example fit into the sentence. 
The spider wasp has a tiny body with smokey or yellowish wings. 
The spider wasp has a long body with smokey or yellowish wings. 
The spider wasp has a thin body with smokey or yellowish wings. 
The spider wasp has a dark body with smokey or yellowish wings. 
These sentences show that the context does not help you determine the meaning of the 
underlined word. If you cannot decide on the answer, read the sentence. It may help you to 
remember any previous experience you have had with the word. If not, guess, and continue to the 
next question. 
 
STRATEGIES TO REMEMBER 
 
‚Äʬ†¬†Do not waste time reading the sentences. Immediately look for the underlined word and¬†
search for a synonym among the answer choices. 
‚Äʬ†¬†The sentence will not help you understand¬†the meaning of the underlined word.¬†
‚Äʬ†¬†Analyze words quickly. Don't spend too much¬†time studying word roots , prefixes , and¬†
suffixes. 
‚Äʬ†¬†Work quickly, but carefully. Conserve time for¬†the second part of Section 3. Try to spend¬†
only 30 seconds on each question. 
‚Äʬ†¬†Words that contain similar sounds and spelling are usually not correct answers.¬†
‚Äʬ†¬†Always answer every question. If you must¬†guess, choose (B) or (C) as your answer.¬†
CHAPTER 3 
IMPROVING YOUR TOEFL 
VOCABULARY 
READ A LOT 
One of the best ways to  build your vocabulary is to read authentic English language material. 
You should read material that a college student would read. Examples of such material are 
newspapers , college textbooks, encyclopedia articles , magazines, and academic books. Any 
material that-has an academic theme will help you get used to the kinds of words and the style of 
writing you will find on the TOEFL. Reading articles on a variety of topics of interest  to you will 
help you develop  your vocabulary. 
MAKE  FLASH  CARDS 
As you read, you will find new words that you will want lo learn. One good way to learn 
words is to make flash cards. Use small cards made of thick paper , like index cards The cards 
should be small enough to fit in your pocket. On one side write the new word, then on the back  
write a synonym for the word. You may also want to note the meaning of the word. Review these 
cards as often as you can,  perhaps with a friend who is preparing for the TOEFL. 
You will be  able to build a large " sight  vocabulary" by using this  method . Do not be 
concerned if you are unable to actually use these words in conversation you have in English. With 
time, they will become a part of your  active  vocabulary. Your ability to use new words is not as 
important as your ability to recognize new words and their meanings. 
MAKE WORD  LISTS  
Another good way to learn new words is to make word lists. Many students use a small 
notebook for this purpose . When you discover a new word, add it to a list of words to be learned. 
On one side of the page, list the new word. To the right of the new word, write a synonym for it. 
Study  the words by covering the synonym,  looking at the new word, and recalling the synonym. It 
is also useful to reverse the process  so that you practice both the new word and the synonym. 
LEARN WORDS FROM OLD TOEFL 
Learn words that have been tested on previous TOEFLs. The under-lined words on previous 
TOEFL tests are sometimes tested  again , but they frequently appear among the four choices 
presented as synonyms for new words that are tested. You can find words to put on your flash cards 
or word lists on any TOEFL tests that you may have. TOEFL tests can be found in the TOEFL test 
kits available  from the Educational Testing Service . 
LEARN THE WORDS IN THIS BOOK 
Include all of the words listed in this book on your cards and lists. These words have been 
carefully selected, and many will appear on the TOEFL. Pay  special attention to the list of 450 
words in Chapter 6. 
You should learn prefixes, suffixes, and word roots, For a list of them , see Chapter 4. 
Suggestions for studying word roots, suffixes, and pre- fixes  can be found in that chapter. 
LEARN TO USE A  THESAURUS  
Become familiar with a thesaurus. A thesaurus is a dictionary of synonyms. When you find a 
word that you don't know, look it up in the thesaurus. Note a synonym for the word on a card or a 
word list. If you find a synonym but still don't know the meaning of the word, look it up in an 
English language dictionary. If you can't find the word in the thesaurus, it will not be tested on the 
TOEFL. The TOEFL tests only those words that have a variety of synonyms. For more information 
about the use of a thesaurus, see Chapter 5. 
 
VOCABULARY  BUILDING  STRATEGIES 
 
 
‚Äʬ†
Read often. Choose material that is written for college level readers. 
‚Äʬ†
Make flash cards of new words with synonyms and practice them often. 
‚Äʬ†
Make word lists of new words with synonyms and practice them often. 
‚Äʬ†
Learn words that have been tested on previous TOEFLs. 
‚Äʬ†
Learn word roots, prefixes, and suffixes found in Chapter 4. Study the key list of 450 
words in Chapter 6 of this book. 
CHAPTER 4 
 
BUILDING YOUR 
VOCABULARY 
 
DEVELOPING WORD ATTACK SKILLS 
When readers find an unfamiliar word in a sentence, they are some- times able to determine its 
meaning by reading the other words in the sentence. The other words give the context that allows 
readers to make an educated guess about the meaning of an unfamiliar word. However, we already 
know that on TOEFL vocabulary questions all of the possible answers fit into the context of the 
sentence. Therefore, the success you will have on this part of the TOEFL, depend upon whether you 
can determine word meanings by examining the word being tested, not by studying the context. In 
this chapter, you will learn how to determine the meaning of a word by studying its parts. 
Many English words consist of more than one part. Let's examine three important parts you should 
know in order to improve your vocabulary. 
Word Roots 
Many words in English contain Latin and Greek roots. These roots convey the basic meaning of the 
word and they occur repeatedly through out the language. Knowing these roots will help you deter -
mine the meaning of words with which you are not familiar.  Below is a list of common roots and 
their general meanings. 
Learning these roots will help you recognize the basic meaning of hundreds of English words. Let's 
look at the word manufacture . Manufacture is a combination of two root words, manu and fact . 
Using the list of roots, we can see that manu means " hand " and fact means "make" or "do". 
Therefore, we can infer the meaning "make by hand". 
Let's look at another example, biography. Again, using the list of roots, we see that bio means "life" 
and graph "write". Therefore, we can conclude that the word biography relates to the "writing of a 
life" or the written story of a person 's life. 
 
Root Meaning  Example 
belli war 
rebellion 
biblio book 
bibliography 
bio life 
biology 
cosm order 
microcosm 
cycl  circle  
cyclone 
dic two 
dichotomy 
dict word 
dictate 
duc  carry , 
lead  
conducive 
duct carry, 
lead 
conduct 
fac do, 
make 
facsimile 
fact do, 
make manufacture 
fect do, 
make  perfect  
form  shape  
uniform  
fort  strong   fortify 
geo earth 
geography 
gram  write 
telegram  
graph write 
autograph 
homo same 
homophone 
log 
speech, study of 
dialog  
logy 
speech, study of 
analogy 
man hand 
manage  
manu hand 
manual  
mater  mother , 
home 
maternity 
matri mother, 
home 
matriarch 
medi  middle  
mediocre 
miss   send  
dismiss 
mit send 
submit  
multi  many 
multiply 
nom name 
nominate 
nym name 
synonym 
pater   father  
paternal  
pathy  feeling , 
suffering 
sympathy 
patri father 
patriarch 
ped  foot  
pedal 
port carry 
transport 
scend  climb  
ascend 
scrib write 
scribble 
script written 
language 
postscript  
secut follow 
consecutive 
sent   feel  
consent 
sequ follow 
subsequently 
tact  touch  
contact 
tempor time 
contemporary 
tract  
pull, draw out 
attractive 
vene assemble, 
meet 
convene 
vent come, 
go  advent  
vers   turn  
reverse 
vert turn 
convert  
voc  voice , 
call  
vocal  
vok voice, 
call 
revoke 
volu turn, 
roll  convoluted 
volve turn, 
roll   involve  
 
How to Study Word Roots 
There are several ways to study word roots. One effective way is to make a flash card for each one. 
On this card write the root and a word containing the root. Also, write the meaning of the root and a 
synonym for the example word on the back of the card. As you practice with the cards, first identify 
the meaning of the root, then the word containing the root, Next, give a synonym for that word. As 
you study the roots, set aside those you have learned and concentrate only on those roots and 
synonyms that you have not learned. Save all of the cards for review. 
Make word lists. When you read English material, make lists of words that contain the roots you 
have studied in this section of the book. Identify the root and look up the word in a thesaurus. Write 
the meaning of the root and a synonym of the word. This method will help you identify root words 
and synonyms on the TOEFL. 
Prefixes 
Prefixes are the second important part of words. A prefix is a part of a word that is attached to the 
beginning of a word root. A prefix adds meaning to the base word or word root. Thus, if you know 
the meaning of the prefix, you will be better prepared to determine the meaning of the word. 
Knowing both prefixes and word roots will unlock the meaning of thousands of English words. 
There are many prefixes in English. The following list contains some of the most common prefixes 
found on the TOEFL. 
Let's examine the word contact. We can determine from the list of prefixes that con means "with". 
Upon further examination of the word, we see the word root tact means "touch". Without knowing 
the exact meaning of the word, we can guess that the word is related to "touch" and "with". Indeed, 
contact means communication with another per-son. Referring to the root words and prefixes in this 
chapter we can ascertain that autobiography means "self, life, and write", or the story of a person's 
life written by that same person. 
You can approach your study of prefixes with the same method you are using to learn word roots. 
Make a flash card for each of the prefixes. On this card write the prefix and a word containing the 
prefix. Write the meaning of the prefix and a synonym for the example word on the back of the 
card. As you practice with the cards, first identify the 
 
Prefix Meaning 
Example 
ante before 
anterior 
anti 
against, not in favor    anticipate  
auto self 
autonomous 
hi two 
bisect 
circum circle, 
around  
circumvent 
co with, 
together  coherent 
col with, 
together   collect  
corn  with, 
together 
complex  
con with, 
together  condense 
de down, 
reverse decline 
dis no, 
not 
disregard 
e out, 
from 
emit 
ex out, 
from 
export  
im no, 
not 
improper 
in not 
inactive 
inter between, 
among interact 
it no, 
not 
irrelevant 
micro small, 
tiny 
microscopic 
mis 
wrong , bad, not 
mistake 
mono one 
monotone 
non not 
nonsense  
post after 
postpone 
pre before 
preconception 
prim first 
primary  
pro 
for, in favor of 
promote 
re again 
recover 
sub under 
submit 
sup under 
supposition 
trans  across , 
over 
transmit 
tri three 
triple 
ultra  excessive 
ultrasonic 
un no, 
not 
undeniable 
uni one 
unique  
 
Make word lists. When you read English material, make lists of words that contain the prefixes you 
recognize. Identify the prefix and look up the word in a thesaurus. Write the meaning of the prefix 
and a synonym for the word on your lists. This method will help you identify words with prefixes 
and synonyms on the TOEFL. 
Suffixes 
The final word part is the suffix. A suffix is added to the end of a word. Similar to a prefix, a suffix 
adds meaning to the root word. However, the meaning is often grammatical, telling us the tense or 
the function of the word; seldom does it change the actual meaning of the word in the way that 
prefixes do. Suffixes are attached to verbs, nouns , adverbs , and adjectives. There are not many 
suffixes on this part of the TOEFL, and you may already know many of them from your grammar 
study. Nevertheless, you should become familiar with all the English suffixes in the list here. 
 
ADJECTIVE SUFFIXES 
 
Suffix Meaning 
Example 
able capable 
of 
affordable 
ant tendency 
to 
dominant  
alive  tendency 
to 
innovative 
ent tendency 
to 
persistent  
etic  relating 
to 
sympathetic 
ful  full  
of 
harmful 
ible capable 
discernible 
ical relating 
to 
identical 
less without 
harmless 
ous full 
of 
famous  
ry  occupation  
ministry 
some tendency 
to 
bothersome 
y 
a quality of being 
arbitrary 
 
NOUN SUFFIXES 
 
Suffix Meaning 
Example 
ary place 
library 
ation  process 
population 
cule small 
minuscule 
dom 
state of being 
wisdom  
er 
one who does 
teacher  
hood 
state of being 
manhood 
ist 
one who does 
geologist 
ly like, 
similar 
to manly 
ment 
state of being 
contentment 
ness 
state of being 
happiness  
ous full 
of 
enormous 
ry occupation 
dentistry 
ship  
state of being 
citizenship 
 
ADVERB SUFFIXES 
 
Suffix Meaning 
Example 
ly the 
way 
predictably 
ways the 
way 
sideways 
wise  the 
way 
otherwise 
 
VERB SUFFIXES 
 
Suffix Meaning 
Example 
 
ade 
action or process 
persuade  
ate to 
make 
accentuate 
en to 
make 
broaden 
ish 
action or process 
flourish 
ize to 
make 
emphasize 
CHAPTER 5 
IMPORTANT VOCABULARY 
BUILDING TOOLS  
THE DICTIONARY 
For students of English as a second language, a good English dictionary is essential . It is a source of 
valuable information and if it is used correctly, the dictionary will serve  as a useful tool toward your 
goal of English fluency. 
There are many types of dictionaries that a student may consider ,  including collegiate learner 's, 
unabridged, and bilingual dictionaries. 
For more advanced students, collegiate or college dictionaries are preferred . In addition to the 
standard word entries, collegiate dictionaries often contain sections with abbreviations, foreign 
expressions used in English, and biographical listings. Some also contain geographical listings. 
Learner's dictionaries are highly recommended. This type of dictionary is written specifically for 
students of English as a foreign language. Definitions are written in clear , easy to understand 
English. These dictionaries often anticipate learners' questions with special explanatory sections. 
They also use a standard phonetic alphabet  to indicate pronunciation of entries . 
Unabridged dictionaries are the most comprehensive, but are not practical for second language 
learners because of their size and detail. These dictionaries are often found in the reference sections 
of libraries on special tables to accommodate their size and weight . An unabridged dictionary is an 
excellent source for determining the historical development of words , examples of sentences that 
demonstrate proper usage , antonyms, and synonyms. 
A bilingual dictionary, which contains words both in your native language and in English, should be 
avoided. Often these dictionaries are incomplete and give only basic native language equivalent 
words. These words are frequently out of date or inappropriate for the context of the sentence in 
which you want to use the unknown words; thus entries in bilingual dictionaries can be misleading 
and can actually cause you to make mistakes. It is worthwhile for English language students to 
switch to a learner's dictionary as soon as possible, or to use it in conjunction with a bilingual 
dictionary. You will find that your vocabulary will increase faster by using an English language 
dictionary. 
What You Can Learn 
A dictionary gives you the information required to choose the best word for your needs. A typical 
dictionary entry contains the correct spelling of a word, followed by the word written in a phonetic 
alphabet, which shows how to pronounce it. The word is separated by syllables. These help you 
determine where to separate it at the end of a line when writing. Following the phonetic spelling of 
the word, its part of speech is indicated. The meanings of the word are given in a numerical order, 
sometimes followed by a sentence that shows the proper use of the word. While many modern 
dictionaries list the meanings of words from the most common and current  meaning to the oldest 
meaning, some list their definitions from the earliest meaning to the latest meaning . Therefore, 
before you choose a definition , you should read all the meaning of the entry, then choose the one 
that meets your needs . Some dictionaries provide synonyms, or words with the same general 
meaning, and antonyms, words that have the opposite meaning. Some dictionaries give the 
derivation, an historical development of the word that follows a word back through different 
languages to its origin . 
English language dictionaries contain entries listed in alphabetical order, that is, in an A to Z order . 
Two guide words appear at the top of each page in a dictionary. When the book is open , the word 
on the left page is the first entry of the two pages; the word on the right page indicates the last entry 
on the two pages. You can use these guide words to determine if the word you are looking up is 
contained among those entries on the two pages. 
max¬†‚ÄĘ i¬†‚ÄĘ mum (mak's¬†a¬†-ma¬†m)¬†n.¬†pl. -mums¬†or - ma (-ma) Abbr. max. 1.a. The greatest possible¬†
quantity or degree. b. The greatest quantity or degree reached or recorded; the upper limit of 
variation . c. The time or period during which the highest point or degree is attained. 2. An upper 
limit permitted by law or other authority . 3. Astronomy. a. The moment when a variable star is most 
brilliant . b. The magnitude of the star at such a moment. 4. Mathematics. a. The greatest value  
assumed by a function over a given interval. b. The¬†largest number in a set.‚ÄĒ maximum ¬†adj. Abbr.¬†
max. 1. Having or being the greatest quantity or the highest degree that has been or can be attained: 
maximum temperature. 2. Of, relating to, or marking up a maximum: a maximum number in a 
series. [Latin, from neuter of maximus , greatest.] 
As we see, the entry is for the word maximum. By examining the word entry, we can determine that 
it contains three syllables, each syllable being separated by the mark ‚Äʬ†: max ‚Äʬ†i ‚Äʬ†mum. The word¬†is¬†
followed by a phonetic spelling of the word inside parentheses, (mak' sa - ma m). At the bottom  of 
every page of the dictionary, you will find a pronunciation key that will give you the speech sounds 
of the symbols . After the pronunciation, you will find a part of speech label. Here are the traditional  
speech labels found in most dictionaries. 
 
  WORD 
LABELS 
   
abbr.  
abbreviation 
n. 
Noun 
adj.  
adjective 
pl.  plurial 
adv.  
adverb 
prep.  preposition
ant. ..  antonym 
pron.  pronoun  
arch .  
archaic 
sing.   singular  
conj.  
conjunction 
syn.  synonym 
interj.  
interjection 
tr. 
transitive 
intr.  
intransitive 
v. 
Verb 
mod.  
modifier 
 
 
 
Following the pronunciation entry for the word maximum, an n. and the plural forms  (identified by 
the abbreviation pl.) pl.-mums, or - ma appear. According to the labels, these abbreviations mean 
that the word is a noun and its plural can be formed two ways: by replacing the last syllable mum 
with mums (maximums) or ma (maxima). The plural forms are followed by the abbreviation of the 
word, identified by abbr. max. Each definition of the word is marked by a number. 
In many dictionaries, the order of the definitions reflects the frequency of use of each meanings of 
the word . The definitions that follow the first definition reflect more specialized uses . Your 
dictionary will explain  the order in which the meanings are presented. When the numbered 
definition has closely related meanings , they are marked with 1.a., b., and c. as in the example 
shown. Also note that words with specialized definitions in academic disciplines are identified. In 
the sample entry, there are two specialized uses of the word maximum, one in Astronomy, 3.a. and 
b., and another in Mathematics, 4.a., and b. After all meanings of the noun form are defined, the 
entry continues with the definition of the adjective form. The last item of the entry gives the 
derivation, or word origin, inside brackets[]. 
Please note that several styles of usage arc normally indicated in a dictionary entry. These styles are 
typically identified in the following ways: 
 
Nonstandard - Words that do not belong to any standard educated speech 
Informal 
- Words that are often used in conversation and seldom in
formal writing 
Slang 
- Usually a highly informal word that is often figurative in
use . Its meaning is usually short lived  
Vulgar 
- A word that is taboo or not socially acceptable in most
circumstances 
Obsolete  
- A word that is no longer in common usage  
Archaic 
- A word that was in common usage, but is now rarely used 
Rare  
- Words that have never been common in the language 
British  
- Words that are in common usage in British English 
Regional 
- Words that are used in a limited geographical area  
 
THE THESAURUS 
A thesaurus is a collection of words with similar meanings, usually presented in alphabetical order. 
These words are called synonyms. A thesaurus is useful when you want to change a word to another 
word with a similar meaning. The entries in a thesaurus typically contain the synonyms in most 
frequent to least frequent occurrence. In a modern thesaurus, guide words also appear at the tops of 
pages. They function the same way as guide words in dictionaries, indicating the first and last words 
of the pages. All words on the page appear in alphabetical order. Not all words have synonyms, yet 
almost all words on the TOEFL are words with many synonyms. Therefore, regular use of a 
thesaurus will build your vocabulary and help you prepare for the TOEFL. 
Most of the same word labels used in dictionaries appear in a thesaurus. Many entries do not specify  
the difference between adjective and adverb, since the same forms can often appear both as 
adjectives or adverbs. The abbreviation mod. is used to mark such a word. Let's examine an entry 
for the word maximum. 
maximum, mod. -Syn. supreme, highest, greatest; see best 1. maximum, n.-Syn. supremacy, height , 
pinnacle, preeminence, culmination, matchlessness, preponderance, apex,  peak , greatest number, 
highest degree, summit , nonpareil; see also climax: Ant. minimum*, foot, bottom. 
There are two entries for this word. The abbreviation mod. in the first entry indicates that the word 
could be used as a modifier of other words. Following this, syn. indicates that synonyms for the 
word follow. At the end of the listing appears the  suggestion see best 1. This suggestion refers us to 
the first entry for the word best if we wish  to see more words with meanings related to maximum. 
The second entry gives the synonyms for the noun form of the word. The n. indicates that the word 
is used as a noun, and syn. indicates that synonyms follow. This entry also refers the reader to the 
word climax for additional words related to maximum. At the end of the entry, antonyms, marked 
with the label ant., are listed. 
The dictionary and thesaurus are two powerful learning tools that you should have for reference. 
They are essential for a good vocabulary building program . 
CHAPTER 6 
THE ESSENTIAL TOEFL 
VOCABULARY 
This chapter contains 30 lessons. Each lesson contains entries for 15 key TOEFL words. After these 
entries, there are 10 matching exercises . At the end of each lesson, there are five TOEFL -like 
vocabulary questions that contain all of the words in each lesson. The TOEFL-like questions are an 
excellent vocabulary review as well as thorough preparation for the vocabulary section of the 
TOEFL. 
You should study the lessons in order, For example, after studying lesson 1, go directly to lesson 2. 
The book is designed to provide systematic review of words in previous lessons. By studying the 
lessons out of order you will be defeating the purpose of the review system. 
Let's examine a sample entry to see the kinds of information you will learn. 
 
intricate  
adj. having many parts; finely detailed 
adv. intricately  
syn. complex 
n. intricacy 
 
The intricate design of the vase made it a valuable  piece for her collection. 
I cannot begin to understand all of the intricacies of modern  automobile motors. 
 
The entry features the word intricate. Directly under the word, you will find other forms of the same 
word. These words have the same general meaning; they  represent  the different parts of speech of 
the word. For each of the forms, the part of speech is given. The following abbreviations for parts of 
speech are used in the word entries. 
adj. 
) 
adjective 
adv. 
) 
adverb 
conj. 
) 
conjunction 
v. 
) 
verb 
n. 
) 
noun 
In the  case  of intricate, the adjective form, adj., is presented as the key word. Other forms of the 
entry, intricately and intricacy, are listed below the main entry. 
The key word is then defined in clear, easy to understand English. In this example, we see that 
intricate means something having many parts or something that is finely detailed. 
Under the definition you will find a synonym for the key word. The synonym is a word that has the 
same or a similar meaning and it is marked with the letters syn. In the example  above , the synonym 
given for intricate is complex. 
Below the synonym, there are two sentences that show the usage of two different forms of the word. 
The sentences are  rich  in context; that is, the words surrounding the key word tend to  support and 
clarify the meaning of the key word. Let's look at the two sentences in the example. 
The intricate design of the vase made it a valuable piece for her collection. 
 
I cannot begin to understand all of the intricacies of modern automobile motors. 
 
The key word will always appear in the first sentence. The key word sentence is followed by a 
second sentence illustrating the use of one of the related words, but with a different part of speech. 
If no related words are given, then the second sentence serves as another illustration of the meaning 
of the key word. 
Some word forms are not included in the entries. These are words that are not in common usage and 
not likely to appear on the TOEFL. 
The word entries provide you with all the information you need to build a powerful TOEFL 
vocabulary. 
STUDYING THE WORD ENTRIES 
In order to study vocabulary efficiently, you must have a study plan and follow it carefully. The 
following plan has been useful to many students who are building their TOEFL vocabulary. 
Plan to spend at least an  hour studying the words in each lesson of this book. Do not study words 
that you already know. 
Read 
First, read the 15 entries of the lesson carefully, including the definition, different forms, synonym, 
and example sentences. It is important for you to associate the key word with its meaning and 
synonym. These are the three most important parts of the word entry. 
Reread 
Next, read each word entry again. Look up unfamiliar words that appear in the example sentences. 
This time when you study the entry,  cover the key word, then look at the meaning and its synonym. 
Then identify the key word. When you are able to identify the key word, reverse the process by 
identifying the covered synonym.  Finally , cover everything in the entry, except the meaning, and 
identify the key word and its synonym. 
Find the Synonyms 
You are now  ready for the matching exercise at the end of the word list. Let's look at a typical 
matching question. 
1.  intricate 
(A)  functional  
(B) complex 
(C) predominant 
(D) inordinate 
The purpose of the question is to test your knowledge of synonyms, a key skill for the TOEFL. You 
will see four choices. In this example, you must choose the synonym for the word intricate. The 
correct answer is , complex. Nearly all the words that appear as answer choices are key words 
introduced in the same and previous lessons. Check your answers by referring to the Answer Key at 
the back of this book. 
You are now ready to test your skill on actual TOEFL-like questions. Let's look at the following test 
question. 
The intricate design of the building's facade is typical of buildings of the nineteenth century . 
(A) functional 
(B) accurate 
(C) standard 
(D) complex 
This test question is typical of the questions on the vocabulary section of the TOEFL. You must 
choose the word that has the same or similar meaning as the underlined word in the sentence. Most 
TOEFL, questions do not use the word in a sentence context that will help you with word meaning. 
Therefore, as we learned in Chapter 2, you will probably not be able to determine the meaning of 
the word by reading the sentence. Look directly at the underlined word and do not read the 
sentence. Look for its synonym among the four choices. The correct answer is , complex. Most of 
the answer choices for the test questions at the end of each lesson are key words introduced in that 
lesson. 
Make Flash Cards 
After you have studied the 15 words and their synonyms, and have completed the practice 
exercises, make flash cards. On one side of the card, write the key word and its related forms. On 
the other side of the card, write its synonym. Review these cards several times during the weeks 
before your TOEFL test session. If you are preparing for a specific TOEFL test date, make a study 
schedule based on how much time you have before the TOEFL. For example, if you have six weeks 
before your test date, plan to study five lessons each week. 
Be sure that you organize your cards. It is suggested that you organize your cards by alphabetical 
order of the synonyms or by the lesson number. Keep  two groups of cards: one group for the words 
you have learned, and the second group for those words you need to learn. Re-view the second 
group more often than the first group of words that you already know. 
As your vocabulary grows , return to the exercises and test questions in each lesson. 
By following this study plan you will be better prepared for the important day when you hear the 
words You may now open your TOEFL test booklet ". 
Now begin Lesson 1 following the directions you have just read. 
CHAPTER 7 
THE PRACTICE TESTS 
GENERAL DIRECTIONS 
Essential Words for the TOEFL provides you with two TOEFL Vocabulary Practice Tests on the 
pages that follow. After you have studied the vocabulary lessons in this book, take both of the tests 
on separate days . 
When taking each test, circle the correct answer in your book. Allow yourself no more than 15 
minutes to take each test. Although on an official  TOEFL you will be given 45 minutes to complete 
Section 3 of the test, you should complete the vocabulary items in less than 15 minutes, in order to 
give yourself ample time to answer the longer Reading Comprehension items. Thus, allow yourself 
no more than 15 minutes to complete each of the Practice Tests that follow. 
After you take each test, score it using the answer key provided  on page 197 of this book. For each 
item you answer incorrectly, look up the word tested in this book. Try to understand why you made 
the mistake so you won't make it again. If necessary , look up the tested word or the options in your 
English dictionary. This will provide you with additional information on the meaning of the word in 
different contexts and perhaps other ex-ample sentences demonstrating its usage. 
For information on interpreting your performance and converting it to the TOEFL scale, follow the 
directions in Scoring Your TOEFL Vocabulary Practice Tests, at the end of this Chapter. Now take 
the TOEFL Vocabulary Practice Test 1. 
TOEFL VOCABULARY PRACTICE TEST 1 
 
1. 
It is evident that animals played a predominant role in the world of the upper Paleolithic 
Period. 
(A)  hazardous  
(B) principal 
(C) minuscule 
(D) misunderstood 
2. 
Some experts believe that the functions of the print media will be replaced by audio or visual  
media. 
(A) distribution 
(B)  influences  
(C) roles 
(D)  popularity  
3. 
A central  issue in probability is predicting the value of a future observation . 
(A) recording 
(B) interpreting 
(C) observing 
(D) foretelling 
4. 
The modem world is inundated with competing propaganda and counterpropaganda. 
(A) balanced 
(B) sustained 
(C) overwhelmed 
(D) contaminated 
5. 
The expansion of public services has caused concern that the civil service branches are 
becoming autonomous powers. 
(A) independent 
(B) advanced 
(C)  superior  
(D) perilous 
6. 
A deep rock tunnel between Washington, D.C. and Boston that employs an entirely new type 
of rapid conveyance is receiving serious consideration from civil planners. 
(A) an outlandishly 
(B) a comparatively 
(C) an intrinsically 
(D) a completely  
7. 
Women 's magazines reflect the changing view of women's role in society. 
(A) distort 
(B) show 
(C) accentuate 
(D) promote 
8. 
Courtship is a widespread prelude to mating among modern reptiles. 
(A) a tedious 
(B) an uncontrolled 
(C) a common 
(D) an essential 
9. 
The elimination of carbon dioxide is a necessary process in all animals. 
(A) rejection 
(B)  accumulation  
(C) deletion 
(D)  production  
10. 
In contrast  to traditional rhetoric, modern rhetoric has shifted its  focus to the audience  or 
reader. 
(A) intensified 
(B) narrowed 
(C) maintained 
(D) altered 
11. 
The enormous rigid plates that make up the outer  shell of the Earth continually move relative 
to one another. 
(A) vast 
(B)  ancient  
(C)  dense  
(D) deep 
12. 
The process of eutrophication involves a sharp increase in the concentration of phosphorus 
and nitrogen and promotes the growth of algae. 
(A) conceals 
(B) boosts 
(C) disrupts 
(D) halts 
13. 
Evidence that harmful effects may result from small amounts of radiation has prompted 
concern about low level irradiation from various sources . 
(A) minimized 
(B) exaggerate 
(C) generated 
(D) sustained 
14. 
Large sponges often harbor smaller organisms. 
(A) shelter 
(B) reject 
(C)  avoid  
(D) consume 
15. 
Most varieties of squash were cultivated by American Indian civilizations. 
(A) bartered 
(B)  grown  
(C) eaten 
(D) gathered 
16. 
The sugar maple grows to a height of 120 feet  and has a dense crown of leaves that turns 
bright red in the fall . 
(A) vibrant 
(B) thick 
(C) remarkable 
(D) large 
17. 
The sumacs grown for landscape use display a graceful style with spectacular fall colors and 
colorful fruit clusters. 
(A)  elude  
(B) maintain 
(C) develop 
(D)  exhibit  
18. 
Tadpoles typically dwell at the bottom of bodies of fresh water. 
(A)  swim  
(B) feed 
(C)  live  
(D) reproduce 
19. 
John Quincy Adams was a conspicuous opponent of the expansion of slavery. 
(A) consistent 
(B) noticeable 
(C) distinguished 
(D) formidable 
20. 
The Indian civilizations of  Alabama spanned over 10.000 years . 
(A) declined 
(B)  developed  
(C) covered 
(D) prospered 
21. 
The banana is a gigantic herb  that springs from an underground stem to form  false trunks up 
(3) to 20 feet high. 
(A) an immense 
(B) a striking 
(C) an attractive 
(D) a plentiful 
22. 
The evolution of agriculture in the early years of the twentieth century was characterized by 
the partial mechanization of the sowing and reaping processes . 
(A) created 
(B) enriched 
(C) accelerated 
(D) typified 
23. 
One of the most striking aspects of Indian cultures was the production of ceremonial 
costumes and ornaments worn during religious rituals. 
(A)  absurd  
(B) remarkable 
(C) arbitrary 
(D) spontaneous 
24. 
The innovative use of iron and steel in construction represented an important advancement in 
the building industry of the 1800s. 
(A) improvement 
(B) element 
(C)  influence  
(D) occasion 
25. 
Professional interior design assignment are typically complex endeavors that begin with an 
interview with the client . 
(A) personal 
(B) intricate 
(C) orderly 
(D) gratifying 
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Vasakule Paremale
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