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Handbook of
Meat Processing
Handbook of
Meat Processing

Fidel Toldrá

EDITOR



A John Wiley & Sons , Inc., Publication
Edition first published

© 2010 Blackwell Publishing

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Library of Congress Cataloging - in-Publication Data
Handbook of meat processing / edited by Fidel Toldrá.
p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-0-8138-2182-5 (hardback : alk. paper ) 1. Meat—Handbooks, manuals, etc. 2. Meat
industry and trade—Handbooks, manuals, etc. I. Toldrá, Fidel.
TS1960.H36 2010
664′.9—dc22
2009037503
100% sisust ei kuvatud. Kogu dokumendi sisu näed kui laed faili alla
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lactobacillus plantarum, freeze, perez, gasparik, bover, in micro, bover, veciana, positive catalase, ruiz, nisin, bover, vidal, gasparik, perez, siderable effect, numerous studies, morot, cultures based, generally based, gram, intra, coccus, casein, cerevi, the genome, jgi, gram, genome, the inacti, physiological proper, nine, the char, dotted, staphylococci modu, heme, considerable influence, ing, proteolytic activity, low, bial compounds, rhamnosus lc, rhamnosus e, dry, bover, sages depend, bover, antibiotic, vernozy, the coagulase, antimicrobial sus, agvald, multiresistant coagulase, collins, 169, chromosomally, vidal, campbell, other catalase, leroy, champomier, intra, champomier, champomier, morel, bover, bover, bover, 210, bover, bover, vidal, tures, 1494, springer, concentrations, simon, izquierdo, izquierdo, oxygen, antibiotic chal, crutz, faecalis jh2, positive catalase, perez, gaillard, rousset, of micro, litopoulou, car, rossello, latorre, becke, tions, de graaf, mattila, fat, depends, depends, ity, the perme, the air, fat, in one, drying, the tem, chapter 21, the super, rancidity, verfahren unter, ripening, ruiz, a sug, ruiz, at 23, ents, the tem, smoke depends, out, depends more, access than, in electro, high tem, or lime, at 450, hydrolysate, and trans, in cold, uum, committee, and 2, the tempera, friction, smoldering, frames, ing, depending, alkaline deter, the pre, the pre, in man, studies, scientific committee, 305, estrada, chromatography, phenolic compo, is short, impact negatively, dioxide, negatively, term warmed, high o2, mercial ultra, vacuum, most cost, vacuum, depending, modified atmosphere, various bacte, effect, champaign, jimenez, consumer per, modified atmo, low, the inhibi, surface chem, modified atmo, sensory evalua, food packaging, branded beef, effect, mediated off, studies, colour, cruz, hernandez, 592, focus, close, ide, dietary sup, brief commentary, for long, anaerobic co, ger alone, slow, most reports, were performed, ther, from vacuum, of phages, although psychotro, focuses, gram, explosively pro, gram, williams, this heat, monocytogenes, meat, lactic acid, vacuum, since biodegrada, stored samples, plant, mary decoction, lipolytica reduction, ozone is, togenes inoculated, treatment antimicrobial, nate, silver, surface, cellulose, triclosan, nisin, against bacteria, vacuum, mono, mono, has surface, some equipment, pulsed high, pulsed high, tween, lebensmittel, lidene, ting, carey, meat, lebensmittel, salmonella typhimurium, cegielska, low, rodriguez, bacteriocin, abd el, rial growth, homco, brichta, wiese, of acid, ing, innocua, atmosphere packaging, temperature effects, study, microbial load, activated lactoferrin, nisin, salmonella, saccharide, reduction of, the chem, chitosan inhib, usda, psychrophilic bacteriophage, diacetate, listeria monocytogenes, mor, cross, these bacte, when deciding, products come, processes depending, waste, a 15, hot, in meat, hot, the macro, monocytogenes origi, meat, time combinations, a conductance, pulsed, 2062, molecular studies, sanitation perfor, ing, depends, depends, poor, the water, the genera, depending, the treat, minimal effect, creatinine, be cold, cured, cross, depends, the post, odor, off, methods, studies, physico, guerrero, guerrero, guerrero, in ready, 933, heat, conditions, kant, guerrero, ponce, guerrero, modified, kinsman pres, vacuum, fresh marjo, brät, blood, other carcass, depending, glucono, depends, been performed, mainly based, freeze, nitrite sta, 116, von nacl, implications, accessed, in con, dry, dry, most retail, in vacuum, microbiological deterio, some low, low, although interven, off, immuno, large uk, veloso, halothane, annor, eeap 26, bacon technology, fjelkner, consumer reac, salt, protein level, microscopical observations, botu, heating medium, process calcula, a hypotheti, positions, the cold, heat, if con, in food, the objec, heat, mainly based, the high, how, the essen, meat emul, meat ingredi, as skim, in addi, exerted, chefs rec, spreadability based, low, fat sub, by spoilage, protein, low, oiling, moisture iso, lebensmittel, studies, welti, guerrero, dry, other tra, than industrial, lower water, depends, or hand, ripening, at 90, drying tem, in addi, this tech, dry, more spe, such lipo, dry, dry, effects, dry, french dry, of pre, mass spectromet, of dry, dry, castell, dry, mold, mold, ripening, hard, mold, mold, ing, mold, rhagic, during mold, low, depending, details, monocytogenes spe, for long, glad, in short, this dif, lowered ph, mold growth, ficial inoculations, country, successful growth, depending, relies, this ph, ehec, little information, low, the pres, step concentrated, these require, mold, use, aroma loss, ripening, during ripening, lebensmittelindustrie, leroy, lambert, a multifac, guished, highly dependent, ity, shelf, of small, essential sequen, air, organisms, salami, some well, the sau, italian milan, typical cumin, to german, a special, russian, other prod, these prod, twenty, tional gene, and salt, branched, meunier, quality characteris, champomier, darbon, sayas, ditional dry, 131, international commission, litopoulou, gasparik, meunier, latorre, greek salami, vidal, meunier, restructured whole, restructured whole, whole, hot, another advan, producing whole, whole, cold, off, whole, whole ten, whole, thermo, available cold, ous section, off, hot, the por, hot, cold, stir, cold, cold, three cold, microflora, cold, hot, hot, whole, the manufac, aesthetic, aesthetic, influence, of binders, nate, taste off, off, termed warmed, warmed, whole, the injec, forage, off, tured whole, added, more whole, quick, activatm tg, low, processing, added, added, storage, report, storage effect, muscle pro, emswiler, carrageenan influences, lwt, homco, consumer atti, rts, tests, restructured meats, warner, lwt, meat, functional stabil, and l, one, ease, numerous low, sugar, sugar, common allergy, gen, or lactose, allergen, attractive meat, plant, these meat, protein, ace, various commer, meat protein, ace, val, asn, savory taste, the one, and well, such dry, section focuses, benefit, most studies, effects, diet, manufacturing, pressure treatments, mattila, mattila, sayas, manufacturing, tensin i, dietary modula, manufacturing, angiotensin i, asian, manufacturing, krajcovicova, angiotensin i, 1741, sourness, 1657, erate angiotensin, mattila, ruiz, s113, marta castro, low, electronic polar, depend strongly, nomena, depending, because maxwell, castro, castro, control, be based, 31 august, bovine m, büning, castro, conference 2007, castro, castro, 509, soares, and near, dielectric proper, near, frozen, garcia, 721, ieee transactions, dielectric proper, microwave aquametry, flair, hoving, food materials, kress, microwave mea, ortiz, near, near, near, near, measuring fre, dielectric proper, impedimetric biosen, near, reddy, introducing micro, near, dry, mone, dry, and dry, dry, give dry, nine, dry, initial valida, assessors agreed, the n, ability, pufa n, vacuum, a ten, a 30, twenty, the nontra, shown that, previous mechani, particles, romero, vazquez, vacuum, aparicio, annor, annor, annor, annor, influence, mechanical tests, investigations, regulations, is 100, amine, either ion, and adsorbed, studies, lipid, the devel, the pres, body, some well, electrospray ionisation, heat treatment, conditions, roig, age, rapid solid, immunology, wiley, vidal, wiley, vidal, bover, an epi, a food, most heat, all high, botuli, sions, thin, hospital materi, every gram, anaerobic spore, perfrin, reverse, polyvalent anti, dysente, besides conv, started working, ably re, the incu, the kanagawa, the organ, strains of, beta, much research, a 24, target, eaggec, entero, one impor, extr, monocyto, irgasan, depends, tory flu, several well, mono, in ready, with food, entire food, gram, dase, cyclospora cayetanen, nonmicrobial food, nonmicrobial food, dna, rti, rti, rti, sequence, the rti, multiplex, the di, a criti, gmo quality, protocol based, gmo, some microarray, pcr, idin, plex pcr, struct, lavabre, september 2003, garcia, 1748, hassan, rodriguez, albert, brünen, holst, sprenger, bleeker, elenitoba, this commu, of food, analysis based, never, the criti, never, salt, practices pre, meat, cross, yes, measurements of, measurement of, measurement of, measurement of, measurement of, be kept, analysis performed, vitoria, totoxin, april 2004, fredriksoon, gonzalez, committee, trichinellosis surveillance, documents focus, and climate, spore, the water, clear information, other meat, process, quality, quality, ready, oven, with shelf, sume, heat, bologna, over, appropriate label, depends, cooked perish, rcp 58, a well, november 2005, medium, das haccp, usda, verarbeitung, usda, verpackung, food industry, 263, dry, 519, 357, 457, warmed, 270, 366, off, 263, 238, 382

Sisukord

  • Handbook of
  • Meat Processing
  • Fidel Toldrá
  • EDITOR
  • A John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Publication
  • Disclaimer
  • Contents
  • Preface
  • List of Contributors
  • About the Editor
  • PART I. Technologies
  • Elisabeth Huff-Lonergan
  • Susan Brewer
  • Panagiotis N. Skandamis, George-John E. Nychas, and John N. Sofos
  • Brian C. Bowker, Janet S. Eastridge, Ernie W. Paroczay
  • Janice A. Callahan, and Morse B. Solomon
  • Christian James and Stephen J. James
  • Karl O. Honikel
  • Irene Allais
  • Jane Ann Boles
  • Spiros Paramithiotis, Eleftherios H. Drosinos, John N. Sofos, and
  • George-John E. Nychas
  • Pier Sandro Cocconcelli and Cecilia Fontana
  • Endre Zukál and Kálmán Incze
  • Zdzisław E. Sikorski and Edward Kol
  • ´akowski
  • Maurice G. O’Sullivan and Joseph P. Kerry
  • Oleksandr Tokarskyy and Douglas L. Marshall
  • Stefania Quintavalla
  • PART II. Products
  • Fidel Toldrá, Leticia Mora, and Mónica Flores
  • Eero Puolanne
  • Peter R. Sheard
  • Isabel Guerrero Legarreta
  • Fidel Toldrá and M. Concepción Aristoy
  • Kálmán Incze
  • Graciela Vignolo, Cecilia Fontana, and Silvina Fadda
  • Mustafa M. Farouk
  • Keizo Arihara and Motoko Ohata
  • PART III. Controls
  • Marta Castro-Giráldez, Pedro José Fito, Fidel Toldrá, and Pedro Fito
  • Geoffrey R. Nute
  • Milagro Reig and Fidel Toldrá
  • Marta Hernández, Alejandro Ferrando, and David Rodríguez-Lázaro
  • Maria Jo ã o Fraqueza and António Salvador Barreto
  • Friedrich-Karl Lücke
  • Index
  • Contributors
  • Foods
  • Science
  • Analytical Methods
  • Journal
  • Research
  • Handbook of Muscle
  • Foods Analysis
  • Meats and Poultry Analysis
  • Biotechnology
  • Processed Meat
  • Food Product Manufacturing
  • Cured Meat Products
  • Chapter 1
  • Table 1.1
  • Chemistry and Biochemistry of Meat
  • Journal of Agricultural and Food
  • Chemistry
  • Journal of Agricultural
  • Animal Science
  • Molecular Cell
  • Proteomics
  • Duke ’ s Physiology of
  • Domestic Animals
  • Reciprocal Meats Conference
  • Proceedings
  • Journal of Animal Science
  • Adaptation
  • Research and Cell Motility
  • FEBS Letters
  • Nature
  • Journal of Food
  • Journal of
  • Biological Chemistry
  • European Journal of
  • Biochemistry
  • Biophysical
  • Meat Science
  • Science of Food and Agriculture
  • Biology
  • Biophysical Research Communications
  • BBA) — Proteins & Proteomics
  • Molecular Biology
  • Journal of Food Science
  • Journal of Biological
  • Molecular
  • Contraction
  • Cell Biology
  • Journal of Cell
  • Food and Agriculture
  • EMBO Journal
  • Opinion in Cell Biology
  • Proc. Recip
  • Meat Conf
  • Methods of
  • Journal of Muscle Foods
  • Chapter 2
  • Technological Quality of Meat for Processing
  • Table 2.1
  • Chicken
  • Turkey
  • Ocean Perch
  • Atlantic Salmon
  • Infraspinatus
  • Rectus femoris
  • Gluteus
  • Complexus
  • Longissimus dorsi
  • Triceps brachii
  • Vastus intermedius
  • Table 2.3
  • Revista Brasileira de
  • Zootecnia
  • Journal of Muscle
  • Journal of Food Engineering
  • Physiology of Farm Animals
  • Reports
  • Recip. Meat Conf
  • Journal of Animal
  • Meat, Meat Products, and Seafoods
  • Food Chemistry
  • Developments in Meat
  • Technology
  • Flavor of Meat, Meat Products, and Seafoods
  • Food Science
  • Food Flavor and
  • Safety
  • Complexus, Serratus ventralis
  • Vastus lateralis, Vastus medialis
  • Longissimus
  • Teres major
  • Perfumer and
  • Flavorist
  • Science and Technology
  • Flavor of Meat and Meat Products
  • Food Quality
  • Weinheim Conference
  • Salmonella
  • E. coli
  • Chapter 3
  • Meat Decontamination
  • Arrival of animals
  • Stunning
  • Exsaguination
  • sticking)
  • Hide opening
  • Head removal
  • Evisceration
  • Carcass-splitting
  • Chemical
  • Trim rail
  • Final washing
  • Chilling
  • Carcass fabrication
  • Cuts and trimmings
  • Knife-trimming
  • Steam-vacuuming
  • Water (cold/hot)
  • Chemical rinsing
  • Spray-chilling
  • Steam
  • Hot water-spraying
  • Post-chilling
  • Animal
  • Pre-e
  • Post-e
  • Salmonella
  • C. sporogenes
  • L. innocua
  • E. coli O157:H7
  • continued)
  • C. sporogenes
  • S. aureus
  • Enterobacteriaceae
  • L. monocytogenes
  • E. coli
  • S. enterica
  • Escherichia coli
  • Protection
  • Food Control
  • Improving the Safety of Fresh Meat
  • Sanitation
  • Journal of Food Protection
  • Food Safety
  • Food Protection
  • Escherichia
  • Letters in Applied Microbiology
  • Microbiology
  • Applied and Environmental
  • Food Microbiology
  • Food Science and Technology
  • Listeria monocytogenes
  • European Union
  • Proceedings of the
  • National Academy of Sciences of the United States of
  • America
  • Innovative Food
  • Science and Emerging Technologies
  • Clostridium sporogenes
  • Dairy, Food and Environmental Sanitation
  • Safety of Fresh Meat
  • Journal of Food Microbiology
  • International Journal of
  • Food Science, Technology and Engineering
  • Journal of Applied
  • Bacteriology
  • Protection Trends
  • Journal of the
  • American Veterinary Medical Association
  • Listeria innocua
  • Livestock Australia
  • Environmental and Nutritional
  • Interactions
  • Agrofood
  • Industry Hi - Tech
  • Analytical
  • Sciences
  • Epidemiology and Infection
  • Measurement in Meat, Poultry, and Fish Products
  • Public Health
  • Advances in
  • Microbial Food Safety, ACS Symposium 931. Recent
  • Advances in Intervention Strategies to Improve Safety
  • Adaptation and Food Safety
  • Applied Microbiology
  • Food Protection Trends
  • Food Reviews
  • International
  • Listeria
  • Chapter 4
  • Aging/Tenderization Mechanisms
  • Biology of Growth of Domestic
  • Animals
  • Development
  • Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
  • Neuromuscular Disorders
  • Food Chemicals
  • Nature Reviews
  • Molecular Cell Biology
  • European Journal of Biochemistry
  • Research Communications
  • Cell Death and Differentiation
  • Biochemical Journal
  • Production
  • Physiological Reviews
  • Expression and Purifi cation
  • Science and Nutrition
  • Annual
  • Review of Biochemistry
  • Polska
  • Trends in Molecular
  • Medicine
  • Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of
  • Agricultural Engineering
  • Meat Science and Technology
  • Congress of Meat Science and Technology
  • Reviews
  • BBA — General
  • Subjects
  • Poultry
  • Molecular
  • Cell Research
  • Journal of Proteome
  • Proteome Research
  • Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
  • Journal of Cancer
  • Proceedings of the 50th
  • Annual Reciprocal Meat Conference
  • Biological Chemistry Hoppe
  • Seyler
  • Journal of Biological Chemistry
  • Archives of Biochemistry and
  • Biophysics
  • Conference
  • Animal Sciences
  • Experimental Gerontology
  • Paraguay
  • Daily
  • Telegraph
  • Chapter 5
  • Freezing/Thawing
  • Table 5.1
  • Storage life of beef (days)
  • 40
  • 30
  • 20
  • Temperature (°C)
  • 10
  • Storage life of pork (days)
  • Storage life of lamb (days)
  • Table 5.2
  • Acta Alimentaria
  • Temperature Tolerance and Its Signifi cance
  • Meat Research Institute Symposium
  • Why and How? Meat Research Institute Symposium
  • Industrial Engineering
  • Food Technology
  • Handling of Frozen Foods
  • European Meeting of Meat Research Workers
  • Refrigeration
  • Why and How? Meat Research Institute
  • Symposium No 2
  • How? Meat Research Institute Symposium No. 3
  • Why and How? Meat Research
  • Institute Symposium No 3
  • Attributes and Their Measurement in Meat, Poultry
  • Frozen Meat Trade
  • Rapid Cooling of Food
  • Alimentaria
  • Palatability, Oxidative Rancidity and Color of
  • Modifi ed Atmosphere Packed Beef Steaks
  • Advances in Meat Research Series
  • Food Science, Technology, and Engineering
  • Quick
  • Freezing
  • Advanced
  • Technologies for Meat Processing
  • FAIR Concerted Action
  • Chemical Industry
  • American Oil Chemists
  • Society
  • Food Engineering
  • Quality of Foods
  • Research Institute Symposium
  • Its Signifi cance
  • Chapter 6
  • Curing
  • Three dimensional schematic structure of a native
  • Table 6.1
  • Table 6.2
  • dimensional
  • Table 6.3
  • Table 6.4
  • Table 6.5
  • Table 6.6
  • Table 6.7
  • Table 6.8
  • Nitrite ppm
  • Table 6.9
  • Table 6.10
  • Agricultural Food Chemicals
  • Phys. Med. Gesellschaft W ü rzburg
  • European Food
  • Research and Technology
  • Journal of Food Technology
  • The Chemistry of Muscle
  • Based Foods
  • Food Research Technology
  • Journal of Agricultural Food
  • Annual report of the Bureau
  • Animal Industry
  • Journal of Agricultural Research III
  • Nutrition
  • Chapter 7
  • Table 7.1
  • Emulsifi cation
  • caseinate)
  • >80°C)
  • Production flow 1 for hot emulsion
  • Production flow 2 for hot emulsion
  • Protein fragmentation
  • solubilisation
  • Structuration
  • Production flow for cold emulsion
  • non-meat
  • Cutter
  • Mincer
  • Blender
  • Colloid Mill
  • Fragmentation
  • Protein
  • Table 7.3
  • Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative
  • Extension Service
  • Aspects of Food Processing
  • Oil Chemists ’ Society
  • Wissenschaft und - Technologie
  • Viandes et Produits
  • Agricultural and Food Chemistry
  • & Technology
  • Meat, Poultry, and Seafood Technology
  • Science & Technology
  • Processing
  • Porcine en
  • France
  • Food, Science and Nutrition
  • Meats
  • Food Research International
  • Encyclopedia of Meat Sciences
  • Chemistry and Physics of Comminuted Products
  • Practice and Techniques
  • Systems
  • INRA Prod
  • Anim
  • Structure
  • Affecting Quality Control
  • Critical
  • Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
  • Food Proteins and Their
  • Applications
  • Agriculture
  • Quality and Preference
  • Agroalimentaire
  • Letters in
  • Chapter 8
  • Table 8.1
  • Table 8.2
  • Table 8.3
  • Thermal Processing
  • Table 8.4
  • Over Flavor of Meat
  • Wiss. u. - Technol
  • Composition and Analysis
  • Zeitschrift fuer Lebensmittel
  • Untersuchung und - Forschung A
  • Food Research
  • Food Composition and Analysis
  • Journal Animal Science
  • Agricultural Food Chemistry
  • New Zealand Journal of
  • Agricultural Research
  • Biomedical Analysis
  • Chapter 9
  • Table 9.1
  • Pn.: Penicillium; Mt.: Metschnikowia
  • Muscl
  • Flavor volatiles
  • Fermentation: Microbiology and Biochemistry
  • Table 9.2
  • Lactate
  • Hexose
  • Bacterial
  • Lactobacillus
  • Pd. acidilactici
  • Microbiology Letters
  • Pediococcus acidilactici
  • Environmental Microbiology
  • Enterococcus faecium
  • Yeast Research
  • Leuconostoc mesenteroides
  • Meat Biotechnology
  • Leuconostoc
  • Lactobacillus curvatus
  • Journal of Applied Microbiology
  • Food Technology and
  • International Journal of Food
  • Agriculture and Food Chemistry
  • Applied and
  • Lactobacillus plantarum
  • S. xylosus
  • Chapter 10
  • Pediococcus
  • Micrococcus
  • Table 10.1
  • Staphylococcus carnosus
  • Pediococcus pentosaceus
  • Pediococcus pentosaceus
  • Staphylococcus xylosus
  • L. sakei
  • Starter Cultures for Meat Fermentation
  • Micrococcus varians
  • Staphylococcus
  • S. saprophyticus
  • S. carnosus
  • Staphylococcaceae)
  • PROTEINS
  • LIPIDS
  • GLUCOSE
  • GLYCOGEN
  • LACTATE
  • ACETATE
  • NITRATE
  • NITRITE
  • Methylketones
  • ALDEHYDES
  • ACIDS
  • ESTERS
  • ALCHOOLS
  • L. rhamnosus
  • Veterinary Microbiology
  • Critical Care
  • Plasmid
  • Research International
  • S. intermedius
  • Meat Focus International
  • Letters
  • Journal Applied
  • FEMS Microbiology
  • FEMS Microbiology Letters
  • Enzyme and
  • Microbial Technology
  • Bergey ’
  • Systematic Bacteriology
  • Journal of Clinical Microbiology
  • Trends in Food
  • Stuttgarter Rohwurstforum
  • EFSA Journal
  • Nature Biotechnology
  • Journal of Bacteriology
  • Proceedings of
  • Current
  • The Australian Journal of
  • Dairy Technology
  • Journal of Proteomics Research
  • Journal of Molecular Biology and
  • Agents
  • Applied
  • Evolutionary Microbiology
  • Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica Suppl
  • Chapter 11
  • Table 11.1
  • Drying
  • Number of particles
  • Fermented Meat and Poultry
  • Thesis
  • Universiteit Utrecht
  • Industry
  • Inactivation of Vegetative Microbes
  • Chapter 12
  • Smoking
  • 40 kV
  • Table 12.1
  • Jerzy Balejko.)
  • Curing Process
  • Food Agriculture
  • Roczniki Technologii i Chemii
  • Fd Chem. Toxic
  • Foundations of the Smoking Process
  • Chapter 13
  • Meat Packaging
  • Carbonyls cont
  • TBARS
  • 0.2
  • 0.4
  • 0.6
  • 0.8
  • 1.0
  • Toughness
  • HI conc
  • OxMb conc
  • Juiciness
  • Oxidized flavor
  • Liking of flavor
  • NHI conc
  • Principal Component 1
  • ᭡ = sensory descriptor and
  • ᭡ = days and the individual MAP treatments, • = sensory
  • MA packaging and presented to panelists
  • Proceedings of the 42nd
  • International Congress of Meat Science and
  • Journal of Food Science and Technology
  • Reciprocal Meat Conference
  • Packaging
  • British Food Journal
  • Systems for Food
  • & Beverage Packaging
  • Proceedings, 35th
  • Drug Packag
  • Food Packaging
  • Journal of Agricultural and
  • Plastic Film Sheeting
  • Applications of Modifi ed Atmosphere Packaging of
  • Italian
  • Packaging Technology Award IPTA Paper
  • Competition
  • Film and Sheeting
  • Food Reviews International
  • Atmosphere Processing and Packaging of Fish
  • Academic & Professional
  • Trays
  • Pseudomonas
  • Chapter 14
  • Table 14.1
  • Novel Technologies for Microbial Spoilage Prevention
  • Clostridium botulinum
  • FDA versions)
  • Table 14.2
  • Salmonella typhimurium
  • Alcaligenes faecalis
  • Leuconostoc gelidum
  • Table 14.3
  • Table 14.4
  • Table 14.5
  • Lactobacillus curvatus
  • Leuconostoc mesenteroides
  • O157:H7
  • B. thermosphacta
  • Table 14.6
  • Bacillus
  • Table 14.7
  • Staphylococcus aureus
  • Brochothrix
  • Klebsiella
  • Wissenschaft und Technologie
  • Campylobacter
  • Quality
  • Bacteria
  • Saccharomyces
  • Biotechnology and
  • Bioengineering
  • Pseudomonas fragi
  • Federal Register
  • Comprehensive Reviews in
  • Food Science and Food Safety
  • Meat Science Association White Paper Series
  • Clostridium perfringens
  • Cosmetics and Drug Packaging
  • Microbiology and Biotechnology
  • Packaging Technology and
  • Pseudomonas fl uorescens
  • Salmonella enterica
  • Vibrio vulnifi cus
  • Vibrio
  • Technologies
  • Critical Reviews in Food
  • Salmonella stanley
  • Fundamentals and Frontiers
  • Campylobacter jejuni
  • Journal of Food Processing and
  • Preservation
  • Gluconobacter oxydans
  • Sciences USA
  • Packaging Technology
  • C. botulinum
  • Veterinary Quarterly
  • Chapter 15
  • Plant Cleaning and Sanitation
  • Preparatory work
  • Pre-rinse with
  • Application of
  • Rinse with water
  • Check
  • Post-rinse with
  • Remove excess
  • Table 15.2
  • Table 15.3
  • Journal of Applied Bacteriology
  • Handbook of Fermented Meat and Poultry
  • Part II
  • Chapter 16
  • Cooked Ham
  • Refrigerated ham
  • Frozen/thawed ham
  • Resting
  • Injection
  • Tumbling/massaging
  • Canning
  • Thermal treatment
  • Reception and control
  • Cooling
  • Final product to consumer
  • Slicing
  • Full piece
  • Time (minutes)
  • Temperature (ºC)
  • Water bath
  • Cooking
  • Heating and cooling curve for a piece of ham cooked under constant temperature (A)
  • T (B) method conditions
  • Table 16.1
  • Science and Applications
  • Developments in Food Science
  • Food Flavor: Generation, Analysis and Process
  • Infl uence
  • Engineering
  • Muscle Foods
  • Handbook of Food Science, Technology and
  • Manufacturing
  • Handbook of Food Product
  • Journal of Agricultural & Food
  • Handbook of Food Science
  • Technology and Engineering
  • Flavors: Generation, Analysis and Process Infl uence
  • Origin
  • Chapter 17
  • Cooked Sausages
  • Constant
  • Dynamic
  • Analyzing
  • Homogenizing
  • Cutting
  • Blending
  • Pre-blending
  • Chopping
  • Stuffing
  • Peeling)
  • Slicing)
  • Consumption
  • Photograph
  • Meat and Meat Products
  • Fleisches
  • Developments of Meat
  • Meat. The Nitrosamine Problem and Nitrite
  • Alternatives
  • Konserveringsteknik
  • Issue in Perspective
  • Handbook. Practical Science and Technology
  • Fleischwirtschaft
  • Chapter 18
  • Wiltshire curing, but most modern bacon derives
  • Bacon
  • Unloading pigs
  • Lairage
  • Stunning/shackling
  • Sticking/bleeding
  • Scald/dehairing
  • Singe/scrape/polish
  • Evisceration/washing
  • Splitting
  • Butchery
  • Backs and bellies
  • rindless, boneless)
  • Multi-needle injection
  • Immerse
  • fresh/live brine)
  • Mature
  • smoke)
  • Temper
  • High speed slice
  • Retail packing
  • Drain
  • Vacuum pack
  • Apply dry cure
  • Table 18.1
  • Taint in Entire Pigs, EAAP Publication 92
  • Production Science
  • Trends
  • Table 18.2
  • Meat Products
  • South Africa
  • Shewella
  • Carnob acterium
  • C. thermosacarolyticum
  • Cl.thermosaccharolyti
  • Bacillus stearothermophilus
  • Chapter 19
  • Canned Products and Pâté
  • B. stearothermophilus
  • B. thermoacidurans
  • C. prefringens
  • D=19 min
  • D=1 min
  • Adapted
  • C. perfringens
  • Bacillus subtilis
  • Liver (poultry, pork, game, etc.)
  • Lean meat + viscera
  • Cooking at 80
  • Scalding at 65
  • Spices, herbs
  • Heat treatment
  • Table 19.1
  • Journal of Texture Studies
  • Engineers ’ Handbook
  • Foods. 5. Microbiological Specifi cations of Food
  • Pathogens
  • Pharmaceutical Science and Technology
  • Properties of Water in
  • Theory and Practice
  • Emulsions: Principles, Practices, and Techniques
  • Chapter 20
  • Dry-Cured Ham
  • Pre-salting
  • Salting
  • Extended ripening
  • optional)
  • Boning/slicing
  • Reception
  • Cure salt
  • Ham, in
  • John Wiley Interscience, 2007)
  • Candida
  • Debaryomices hansenii
  • P. pentosaceus
  • Meat Science and
  • Products and Seafoods
  • Meat and Poultry
  • Products
  • Meat Sciences
  • Encyclopedia of Meat Sciences
  • Science, Technology and Engineering
  • Forschung
  • Chapter 21
  • Table 21.1
  • Mold-Ripened Sausages
  • P. camemberti, P. chrysogenum
  • L. curvatus, L. plantarum, L. rhamnosus
  • P. pentosa
  • Staph
  • Enterobacteriaceae, Lactobacilli
  • Staphylococci, Enterococci, Bacilli
  • Clostridia, Listeriae
  • Kocuria
  • Report
  • Candida utilis
  • Toxicology
  • Advances in Food Science
  • Handbook of Food and
  • Beverage Fermentation Technology
  • Journal of Public Health
  • Handbook of Fermented
  • Chapter 22
  • Semidry and Dry Fermented Sausages
  • Staphylococcus carnosum
  • Table 22.1
  • MEAT and FAT SELECTION (4ºC)
  • STUFFING
  • FERMENTATION
  • DRYING and/or SMOKING
  • -45 h depending sausage diameter). Semidry
  • PACKAGING for RETAIL DISTRIBUTION
  • Although fermented sausages are shelf-stable
  • MIXING
  • Salame Tandilero
  • Salciccia/Soppressata
  • Salchichón/Chorizo
  • Androlla
  • Chouriça/Salpicão
  • Painho de Portalegre
  • Table 22.3
  • Bologna
  • Szegedi
  • Feldkieker
  • Weisswurst
  • Kotimainen
  • Clostridium
  • Table 22.4
  • Handbook of Food and Beverage
  • Fermentation Technology
  • Food Technology and Biotechnoloy
  • Encyclopedia of Meat
  • Bioscience and Bioengineering
  • Journal of Food Science Technology
  • Weekly Report
  • Journal Food Microbiology
  • Agraria Fennica
  • Trends in Food Science and
  • Food Microbiological
  • Safety Management
  • Fleischwirtsch
  • Research Advances in the Quality of
  • Yeasts in Foods
  • Applied Environmental
  • Handbook of Fermented Meat and
  • Chapter 23
  • Restructured Whole-Tissue Meats
  • Table 23.1
  • Table 23.2
  • Metal detection
  • Tunnel boned whole
  • Sprinkle 0.2% Activa
  • Shape
  • Vacuum pack in regular
  • Store at 4°C without
  • Crust or deep freeze
  • Package
  • Store chilled at –1.5°C or
  • Evaluate
  • Beef strips (90–95% CL)
  • Sprinkle sodium alginate. Mix for 3 min
  • Sprinkle calcium carbonate. Mix for 1 min
  • Sprinkle desired amount of GDL. Mix for
  • Quickly vacuum pack in regular vacuum
  • Store at 4°C without disturbance for 24 hrs
  • Crust freeze
  • Boneless whole lamb
  • Sprinkle 0.2% salt
  • Freeze at –5°C
  • Individually quick freeze
  • Package in foil laminate
  • Activa
  • Trends in
  • Restructured
  • Meat and Poultry Products
  • Advances in Meat Research
  • Journal of Food Quality
  • Restructured Meat and Poultry Products
  • Meat Processing: Improving
  • Restructured Meat and
  • Poultry Products
  • Food Quality and Preference
  • Chapter 24
  • Table 24.1
  • Functional Meat Products
  • Table 24.2
  • Table 24.3
  • Table 24.4
  • Gastrointestinal Digestion
  • Fermentation of Meats
  • Protease Treatment
  • MEAT PROTEINS
  • PEPTIDES
  • Antihypertensive
  • Antioxidative
  • Prebiotic, etc
  • Proteolysis
  • Bioactivities
  • Table 24.5
  • Bifi dobacterium
  • Lactobacillus casei
  • Breadton, ” utilizing the intestinal lactobacilli (Prima Meat
  • Packers, Ltd., Japan)
  • SYNBIOTICS
  • PREBIOTICS
  • PROBIOTICS
  • Intestinal Microflora
  • Bifidobacterium
  • Oligosaccharides
  • Dietary fibers
  • Pathogen inhibition
  • Immune modulation
  • Mineral absorption, etc
  • Regulations in the United States and Around the
  • World
  • Handbook of Food Products
  • Principles, Bakery, Beverages
  • Cereals, Cheese, Confectionary, Fats, Fruits, and
  • Functional Foods
  • Handbook of Food
  • Manufacturing — Principles
  • Bakery
  • Beverages, Cereals, Cheese, Confectionary, Fats
  • Fruits, and Functional Foods
  • Abstracts of 50th International Congress of
  • Foods Revolution
  • Allergy and Immunology
  • Enzymes and Food
  • Lactobacillus rhamnosus
  • Principles, Bakery, Beverages, Cereals, Cheese
  • Confectionary, Fats, Fruits, and Functional Foods
  • Nutrition Research Reviews
  • Functional Dairy
  • Food Products Manufacturing — Health, Meat, Milk
  • Poultry, Seafood, and Vegetables
  • Proteins and Peptides in Health and Disease
  • Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
  • Science Journal
  • Current Pharmaceutical Design
  • Health, Meat, Milk, Poultry
  • Seafood, and Vegetables
  • Essentials of Functional Foods
  • Disease
  • Tokyo
  • Agricultural and
  • Cancer Research
  • Advances in Food and Nutrition
  • Australian
  • Journal of Dairy Technology
  • Prebiotics
  • Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods
  • Part III
  • Chapter 25
  • = ′′
  • Physical Sensors for Quality Control during Processing
  • ,00E+08
  • ,00E+07
  • ,00E+06
  • ,00E+05
  • ,00E+04
  • ,00E+03
  • ,00E+02
  • ,00E+01
  • ,00E+00
  • ,00E–01
  • ,00E–02
  • 01
  • Counterion
  • Radio frequency
  • L-M-K
  • Microwaves
  • X-rays
  • Electronic
  • Ionic conductivity
  • dispersion
  • Dipolar mechanisms
  • Maxwell-Wagner effects
  • Counterion effects
  • Hz-1kHz
  • dispersion (counterion effect)
  • dispersion (maxwell-wagner effect)
  • dispersion (dipolar effect)
  • ,E–01
  • E. Coli
  • ASABE
  • M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum
  • Effects of Electromagnetic Radiation
  • Electromagnetic Fields
  • Effects of Electromagnetic Fields
  • Physics in Medicine and Biology
  • Analytica Chimica Acta
  • Journal of Near Infrared
  • Spectroscopy
  • Electrical Insulation
  • Conference Series
  • Electromagnetic Wave Interactions with Water
  • Containing Materials
  • Canadian
  • Journal of Microwave
  • Power and Electromagnetic Energy
  • Solutions
  • Basics
  • Instrumentations and Sensors for the
  • Food Industry
  • Line Instrumentation for
  • Food Quality Assurance
  • Electromagnetic Energy
  • Testing of Food Quality
  • Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry
  • Biological Materials
  • Medicine and Biology
  • Radiation Physical
  • Journal of Near
  • Infrared Spectroscopy
  • Microwave Heating
  • Sciences des Aliments
  • Computers and Electronics in
  • Sensing &
  • Instrumentation Food Quality and Safety
  • Transactions of the ASABE
  • Radiation
  • Proceedings IEEE
  • Microwave Power
  • Research Technology
  • Biosensors and Bioelectronics
  • Communications
  • Analysis and Control
  • Microwave Processing of Foods
  • Critical Reviews in
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Chapter 26
  • Sensory Evaluation of Meat Products
  • Ofi cial del Estado
  • European
  • Meat Research Workers
  • Update: A Meat Market Insights Publication
  • Processing, Improving Quality
  • Sensory Studies
  • Studies
  • Sensory Analysis of Foods: Part 6, Ranking
  • Chapter 27
  • Table 27.1
  • Detection of Chemical Hazards
  • Table 27.2
  • Poultry Analysis
  • Food Chemistry and Toxicology
  • Dairy Journal
  • Chemical Safety
  • Food Chemical Toxicology
  • Research Advances
  • Grasas y Aceites
  • Handbook of Food Analysis
  • Muscle Foods: Meat, Poultry and Seafood
  • Analysis
  • Food Additives
  • Processed Meats and Poultry Analysis
  • Chapter 28
  • Microbial Hazards in Foods: Food-Borne Infections and Intoxications
  • A. nomius
  • A. parasiticus
  • V. cholerae
  • V. comma
  • Bacillus
  • Shigell
  • Spirillaceae
  • B. cereus
  • E.coli
  • Entero
  • Listeria
  • Vibrio cholerae
  • V. vulnifi cus
  • L. murrayi
  • Y. enterocolitica
  • L. monocytogenes
  • Corynebacterium
  • Brucella
  • Coxiella burnetii
  • Cryptosporidium
  • Cyclospora, Toxoplasma, Giardiasis
  • Entamoeba, Balantidium
  • P. shigellosides
  • Safe Eating
  • Eating
  • Taenia saginata
  • Clonorchis sinensis
  • Gonyaulax catenella
  • Microbiology. Fundamentals and Frontiers
  • Automationin Microbiology Workshop
  • Chapter 29
  • Assessment of Genetically Modifi ed Organisms (GMO) in Meat Products by PCR
  • Table 29.1
  • Table 29.2
  • Table 29.3
  • Rev Mol Diagnos
  • Methods
  • Hyg Soc Japan
  • Amtliche Sammlung
  • Verfahren zur Probenahme und Untersuchung von
  • Lebensmitteln, Tabakerzeugnissen, Kosmetishen
  • Mitteln und Bedarfsgegenst
  • Molecular Biology Report
  • Molecular Bacteriology
  • Plant Biotechnology
  • Bioanalytic Chemistry
  • European Union L
  • Commission L
  • Food Research and Technology
  • Molecular Applied Genetics
  • Genetics
  • Analysis for the Detection of Genetically Modifi ed
  • Organisms and Derived Products
  • General
  • Requirements and Defi nitions
  • Modifi ed T25 Maize Plants
  • AOAC International
  • Adulteration of Food — The Analytical Approach
  • Produced by Means of Genetic Engineering
  • Foods Derived from Genetically Modifi ed Organisms
  • Lebensm Unters Forsch A
  • Wiss u Technol
  • Chapter 30
  • HACCP: Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point
  • Table 30.1
  • Reception of raw material, condiments and other ingredients
  • Pork trimmings
  • Storage
  • Unfreezing
  • Grinding
  • Mixing
  • MAP packaging
  • Distribution
  • Salted casings
  • Casing
  • removing salt)
  • Condiments/additives
  • Weighing
  • Repackaging
  • High Care Area
  • Brine preparation
  • Leg and shoulder
  • Leg/shoulder preparation
  • Injection/tenderization
  • Tumbling
  • Molding
  • Filling/Vacuum
  • Weighing/Labeling
  • Condiments/
  • Potable
  • Unmolding
  • Table 30.2
  • Listeria monocytogenes
  • Cysticercus cellulosae
  • Toxoplasma gondii
  • Cryptosporidium
  • Potential Hazards Identifi cation
  • Cooked Ham Pr
  • L. monocytogenes, S. aureus, etc
  • Table 30.5
  • Table 30.6
  • Could contamination occur at or
  • Modify step, process
  • Is control at this step necessary
  • Critical control point
  • Do preventive measure(s) exist at this step
  • Thermal
  • Publicationes del Gobierno Vasco
  • Small Plant News
  • Morbility and
  • Mortality Weekly Report
  • Basic Texts
  • United States Public Health Services, Food and Drug
  • Administration
  • Pathogenic Microorganisms and Natural Toxins
  • Handbook. The
  • Reduction; Hazard Analysis and Critical Control
  • Point (HACCP) Systems; Final Rule
  • Systems — Requirements for any Organization in the
  • Food Chain
  • European Union, L
  • Offi cial
  • Union L
  • Trends and Sources of Zoonoses, Zoonotic Agents
  • Antimicrobial Resistance and Foodborne Outbreaks
  • Safety in the European Union
  • Principles and Application Guidelines
  • HACCP in Meat, Poultry and Fish Processing
  • International Journal of Production
  • Economics
  • East Asian Region
  • Practical Approach
  • Chapter 31
  • Quality Assurance
  • Infrastructural PRPs
  • buildings, equipment
  • Organisational PRPs
  • Staff
  • Cleaning
  • Prevention of
  • Control
  • Table 31.1
  • Table 31.2
  • Table 31.3
  • Table 31.4
  • Table 31.5
  • Table 31.6
  • Table 31.7
  • Table 31.8
  • Hygienic Practice for Meat, Codex Document CAC/
  • Standard on Food Safety
  • Management Systems
  • Requirements
  • Organization in the Food Chain
  • Standard on Quality
  • Management
  • Systems — Fundamentals
  • Vocabulary
  • Standard
  • Requirements
  • Geneva
  • Switzerland
  • Fleisch und Fleischwaren
  • Qualit ä
  • Register (Rules and Regulations)
  • HACCP Plans and Generic HACCP Models
  • Food Industry — A Practical Approach
  • Aeromonas hidrophila
  • Aspergillus
  • Bacillus cereus
  • Campylobacter sp
  • Clostridium perfringes
  • Debaryomices. See
  • Penicillium. See
  • Plesiomonas shigelloides
  • Shigella
  • Vibrio choleare
  • Vibrio parahemolyticus
  • Vibrio sp
  • Yersinia enterocolitica

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