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History of the English language (0)

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Suppletion
Present in languages of different families . Present in Old, Middle and Modern English , though the general tendency is towards more regularity/iconicity so the number of suppletive forms has decreased.In the text: goon – to go wenden - to turn
Gan was suppletive in Old English , past form: eode.Eode was supplanted by went (past form of wenden) at the end of the Middle English period .To wend has survived in Modern English in phrases such as to wend one’s way, we wended homewards (ironic usage ).
Thus: suppletivity- suppletion – different parts of one and the same paradigm come from what were originally different paradigms (different words with close meanings or words in different but close dialects).Suppletion embraces verbs , adjectives, nouns .
Be – was/were –been (Old English beon/wesan)
(am, art, is, are); in Old English some suppletive
forms were used parallel to one another )
Good –better – best
Bad – worse – worst
Much – more – most
Little – less – least
Estonian: hea – parem (cf “paras” – fitting , in Finnish “the best” - metonymical link ), palju - rohkem
Finnish: mennä (to go), lähteä (to leave)
Estonian: minema, mine, lähen, läksin
French : aller , je vais/ nous allons, ira (future)
Russian : chelovek –ljudi, French: personne-
gens, English: personpersons/people
byt’ – est’
hodit’ –idti – shol, shla.
horoshij – luchij Essentially the same words suppletive in various languages, including non- related ones. The most common words (‘good’, ‘to be’, ‘to go’, ‘much’, “people”, etc).
General principle: the more frequently used a word, the more one can “ afford ” it to be irregular/non-iconic. Suppletion perhaps the most drastic form of irregularity/iconicity), covers mainly the most frequent words
Metathesis-Two sounds, at least one of which is a consonant, change places inside a word. When one of the sounds is a vowel ,the other is usually /r/. Fyrst/ first /frist – a typical case of metathesis.Another case in the passage : beorht/briht.Metathesis present in many languages, a universal phenomenon . For Instance , Proto-Indo-European had tworoots – *spek- and the metathetical *skep-, both with the basic meaning of “ look , observe, examine”. The first is behind Latin words that produced such English loans as spectacle, spectator, expect, inspect, perspective, etc. The second is behind the Greek word for “examine” with the derivatives sceptic, sceptical, scepticism (one who examines things inevitably becomes sceptical about them !). Metathesis, essentially in the same sense , is also a term used in psycholinguistics. People assemble whole words in the brain , before actually uttering them. Thus, it is not unusual for slips of the tongue to happen in which sounds of the same word change places e.g. “ brake fluid” turns into “blake fruid” ,“past fashion ” > “fast passion ” The same principle applies to whole phrasesand even sentences , which shows that they, too, are largely preassembled in the mind before being uttered. On the sentence level sometimes the term “spoonerisms” is used Spooner (19th century ) – famous for metathetic slips of the tongue:“You have tasted two worms ” (pro “You have wasted two terms ”).The defining feature in the case of metathesis is that all sounds remain in theword (sentence), they just change places. It is this feature that allows psycholinguists to infer that words and sentences are preassembled in the mind: all sounds are there but the order
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History of the English language #1 History of the English language #2 History of the English language #3 History of the English language #4 History of the English language #5 History of the English language #6 History of the English language #7
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