PAST TENSES Past Simple Used to talk about a completed past action which happened at a completed time in the past. We went to Tallinn yesterday. I saw him a long time ago. We met last week. Used to talk about a series of events that happened one after another. He walked to school, took off his coat, went to class and fell asleep. Used to report what people said. He said that he was tired. He asked to go home. Used after "It's time" (even though we're talking about now) It's time we talked about the past (now). After "I'd rather" (even though we're talking about now) I'd rather you drove (now). (But "I'd rather drive" if talking about yourself) After "I wish" (even though we're talking about now) I wish I had a million dollars (now). After "If only" (even talking though we're talking about now= If only I had an apple (now). Past Continuous
Past Tenses • Lihtminevik (Past Simple / Past Indefinite) – ära toimunud, lõpetatud tegevus • Kestev minevik (Past Progressive / Past Continuous) – minevikus pooleli olnud tegevus • Enneminevik !!! (Past Perfect) – minevik enne minevikku OLI -NUD • Kestev enneminevik (Past Perfect Progressive) – enne minevikku äsja lõppenud või toimumas olnud tegevus Created by Aari Juhanson, MA 2009 Past Simple • Ära toimunud (regulaarne) tegevus: I WORKED yesterday. S/he didn’t WORK last Monday. • Lõpetatud tegevus: I already CALLED them today. (I’m not going to call again!) Which countries did you VISIT? (You’re back …) BUT: Which countries have you VISITED so far? (You’re not back yet or you travel regularly …) • Jutustused, mineviku sündmuste kirjeldus: Once upon a time there LIVED a Garfield who HAD many friends. The first one WAS Odie, … • 2pv; ?/-
The Present Simple is the most basic tense in the English language. It is an interesting tense because it can be used Present Simple to express the future. Generally, though, we use it to Basic form describe the present activities or to talk about routines or Subject + Verb + -s (present form) John lives in New York. We play football every day. You are really kind. The meeting starts at 3 PM. Use the Present Simple: with state verbs. to talk about situations in life that last a relatively long time. when an event is certain to happen in the future. to talk about events that we can't change (for example, an official meeting or a train departure). The Present Simple is also used in narrations (e.g. to tell a story or a joke)
PRESENT SIMPLE (lihtolevik) Form: 1st form (+s) Use: 1. Things in general. Nurses look after patients in hospitals. 2. Things that happen all the time or repeatedly. She usually goes away at weekends. 3. Laws of nature (things that are true in general). The sun rises in the east. 4. Timetable events. The train leaves at 6.50 p.m. Negative form: I don't (do not) normally eat my lunch here. He doesn't (does not) like this film at all. Question form: Do you live here? How often does it rain around here? Signal words: always, every day/month, never, normally, often, seldom, sometimes, usually etc. PRESENT CONTINUOUS/PROGRESSIVE (kestev olevik) Form: am/is/are + ing Use: 1. Unfinished actions happening at or around the time of speaking. Listen! Somebody is crying. They are building a new bridge in our town. 2. Changes happening around now.
ACTIVE TENSES Active form You use an active verb when you want to say that the subject of a sentence does something. · [Thing doing action] + [verb] + · +[thing receiving action] · Examples The professor (subject doing action) teaches (verb) · the students (object receiving action). · Mary (subject doing action) · washes (verb) · the dishes ( object receiving action). The tenses of the verb 1.Present (olevik) 2.Past (minevik) 3.Future (tulevik) 4.Future in the past (kaudne tulevik) Iga aeg võib esineda neljas eri rühmas 1.IndefiniteTenses (üldajad) 2.Continious Tenses (kestvad ajad) 3.Perfect Tenses (perfekti ajad) 4.Perfect Continious Tenses (perfekti kestvad ajad) Indefinite Tenses (üldajad) used to describe actions but do not state whether the action is completed or on- going märgivad tegevuse sooritamise fakti
Tense Form Use Hints Example + I pv ((e)+s) Present Simple 1. daily routines, habits or repeated actions Every hour/day/week etc , I always play football in -? do/does not+I pv 2. permanent states usually, always, in the the evenings morning/evening/night, at night Present Am/is/are+Iing 1. actions happening now, at the moment of speaking Now, at the moment, these I am writing a lettesat Continuous 2.actions happening around the time of speaking days,
Olevik: PS He/she/it + -s /Does I/you/we sama /Do PC am/is/are + -ing PP ... + Have/has + III PPC ... + Have/has been + -ing Minevik: PS -ed/III PC Was/were + -ing PP I/she/it/you/they + Had + -ed/III PPC - ... + had + been + -ing PPS - ... + have/has + III Olevik: Present Simple Lihtolevik: Tegijale harjumuspärane, tihti korduv tegevus, loodusseadused, sõiduplaanid, püsiv olukord. Eevery day/month/ year/once twice a week /often/ usually/ always/seldom/never. Tulevikku väljendades pärast: when, after, as soon as, until. Olekut väljendavate tegusõnadega: Like, love, hate, enjoy, prefer, adore; See, hear, smell, taste, feel, look, sound; Know, believe, understand, realise, remember, forget, notice, recognise, think, seem; Be, contain, include, belong, need, cost, mean, want, have, wish, own. He/she/it + -s /Does I/you/we sama /Do Present Continuous Kestev olevik: Tegevus toimub praegu. Tegevus toimub lähiajal. Ajutine olukord. Plaanid ja kok
Present Simple (lihtolevik) Infinitive + He/she/it+-s Signal words: Every day, sometimes, always, often, usually, never + I work. He works. I go. He goes. - I don't work. He doesn't work. I don't go. He doesn't go. ? Do I work? Does he work? Do I go? Does he go? Present Continuous (kestev olevik) To be (am/are/is) + infinitive + -ing Signal words: now, at the moment, look!, listen! + I'm working. He's working. I'm going. He's going. - I'm not working. He isn't working. I'm not going. He isn't going. ? Am I working? Is he working? Am I going? Is he going? Present Perfect (täisolevik) Have/has+ infinitive + -ed / 3rd IRW Signal words: yet, never, ever, already, so far, since, for, recently + I have worked. He has worked. I have gone. He has gone. - I haven't worked. He hasn't worked. I haven't gone. He hasn't gone. ? Have I worked? Has he worked? Have I gone? Has he gone? Past Simple (lihtminevik) Infinitive+ -ed (/ 2nd IRW) Signal words: last.. , .. ago, in 1990, yesterday + I w