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Analog Interfacing to Embedded
Microprocessors
Real World Design
Analog Interfacing to Embedded
Microprocessors

Real World Design



Stuart Ball



Boston Oxford Auckland Johannesburg Melbourne New Delhi

Newnes is an imprint of Butterworth–Heinemann.

Copyright © 2001 by Butterworth–Heinemann

A member of the Reed Elsevier group
All rights reserved.

No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in
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Library of Congress Cataloging - in-Publication Data
Ball, Stuart R., 1956–
Analog interfacing to embedded microprocessors : real world design / Stuart Ball.
p. cm.
ISBN 0-7506-7339-7 (pbk. : alk. paper)
1. Embedded computer systems—Design and construction . 2. Microprocessors.
I. Title.
TK7895.E42 .B33 2001
004.16—dc21 00-051961
British Library Cataloguing - in-Publication Data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.

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Contents
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Book Analog Interfacing to Embedded Microprocessors #1 Book Analog Interfacing to Embedded Microprocessors #2 Book Analog Interfacing to Embedded Microprocessors #3 Book Analog Interfacing to Embedded Microprocessors #4 Book Analog Interfacing to Embedded Microprocessors #5 Book Analog Interfacing to Embedded Microprocessors #6 Book Analog Interfacing to Embedded Microprocessors #7 Book Analog Interfacing to Embedded Microprocessors #8 Book Analog Interfacing to Embedded Microprocessors #9 Book Analog Interfacing to Embedded Microprocessors #10 Book Analog Interfacing to Embedded Microprocessors #11 Book Analog Interfacing to Embedded Microprocessors #12 Book Analog Interfacing to Embedded Microprocessors #13 Book Analog Interfacing to Embedded Microprocessors #14 Book Analog Interfacing to Embedded Microprocessors #15 Book Analog Interfacing to Embedded Microprocessors #16 Book Analog Interfacing to Embedded Microprocessors #17 Book Analog Interfacing to Embedded Microprocessors #18 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Sisukord

  • Stuart Ball
  • Preface
  • Introduction
  • Dynamic Range
  • Calibration
  • Bandwidth
  • Processor Throughput
  • Avoiding Excess Speed
  • Other System Considerations
  • Sample Rate and Aliasing
  • Analog-to-Digital Converters
  • Types of ADCs
  • Sample and Hold
  • Real Parts
  • Microprocessor Interfacing
  • Serial Interfaces
  • Multichannel ADCs
  • Internal Microcontroller ADCs
  • Codecs
  • Interrupt Rate
  • Dual-Function Pins on Microcontrollers
  • Design Checklist
  • Temperature Sensors
  • Optical Sensors
  • Magnetic Sensors
  • Motion/Acceleration Sensors
  • Strain Gauge
  • Measuring Period versus Frequency
  • Mixing
  • Voltage-to-Frequency Converters
  • Clock Resolution
  • Open-Loop Control
  • Negative Feedback and Control
  • Microprocessor-Based Systems
  • On-Off Control
  • Proportional Control
  • PID Control
  • Motor Control
  • Measuring and Analyzing Control Loops
  • Solenoids
  • Heaters
  • Coolers
  • Stepper Motors
  • DC Motors
  • Brushless DC Motors
  • Tradeoffs between Motors
  • Motor Torque
  • Contents
  • Ground Loops
  • Input Offset Voltage
  • Input Resistance
  • Frequency Characteristics
  • Temperature Effects in Resistors
  • Voltage References
  • Temperature Effects in General
  • Noise and Grounding
  • Supply-Based References
  • IEEE 1451.2
  • Four Opamp Configurations
  • General Opamp Design Equations
  • Reversing the Inputs
  • Comparators
  • Instrumentation Amplifiers
  • Why PWM?
  • Audio Applications
  • Glossary
  • Index
  • Analog Interfacing to Embedded Microprocessors
  • System Design
  • Figure 1.1
  • Sensor calibration methods
  • Figure 1.2
  • Figure 1.3
  • Analog Inter
  • Figure 2.1
  • EQUIVALENT LOGIC
  • S0–S2
  • ON/OFF STATE
  • STATE
  • NUMERIC
  • EQUIVALENT
  • Digital-to-Analog Converters
  • Figure 2.2
  • Digital-to-Analog Conver
  • Figure 2.3
  • Figure 2.4
  • Figure 2.5
  • Figure 2.6
  • Figure 2.7
  • Figure 2.8
  • Figure 2.9
  • Figure 2.10
  • Figure 2.11
  • Figure 2.12
  • Figure 2.13
  • Figure 2.14
  • Figure 2.15
  • Figure 2.16
  • Figure 2.17
  • Temp °C
  • Sensors
  • Figure 3.1
  • Figure 3.2
  • Figure 3.3
  • Opamp
  • ADC result
  • Output
  • Decimal)
  • Figure 3.4
  • Figure 3.5
  • Figure 3.6
  • Figure 3.7
  • Figure 3.8
  • Figure 3.9
  • Figure 3.10
  • Figure 3.11
  • Figure 3.12
  • Figure 3.13
  • Figure 3.14
  • Figure 3.15
  • Figure 3.16
  • Figure 3.17
  • Figure 3.18
  • Figure 3.19
  • Figure 3.20
  • Figure 3.21
  • Figure 3.22
  • Figure 3.23
  • Figure 3.24
  • Figure 3.25
  • Figure 3.26
  • Figure 3.27
  • Figure 3.28
  • Figure 3.29
  • Figure 3.30
  • Figure 3.31
  • Figure 4.1
  • Frequency-based measurement system
  • Time-Based Measurements
  • Figure 4.2
  • Figure 4.3
  • Figure 4.4
  • Figure 4.5
  • Figure 4.6
  • Figure 4.7
  • Figure 5.1
  • Simple control system: an opamp
  • Output Control Methods
  • Figure 5.2
  • Figure 5.3
  • Figure 5.4
  • Figure 5.5
  • Figure 5.6
  • Figure 5.7
  • Figure 5.8
  • Figure 5.9
  • Figure 5.10
  • Figure 5.11
  • Figure 5.12
  • Figure 5.13
  • Figure 5.14
  • Figure 5.15
  • Figure 5.16
  • Figure 5.17
  • Figure 5.18
  • Figure 5.19
  • Figure 5.20
  • Figure 5.21
  • Figure 5.22
  • Figure 6.1
  • Relay control and clamping
  • Clamp
  • Open Time
  • Solenoids, Relays, and Other Analog Outputs
  • Figure 6.2
  • Figure 6.3
  • Figure 6.4
  • Figure 6.5
  • Figure 6.6
  • Figure 6.7
  • Figure 6.8
  • Figure 6.9
  • Figure 6.10
  • Figure 6.11
  • Figure 6.12
  • Figure 6.13
  • Figure 6.14
  • Figure 6.15
  • Figure 6.16
  • Figure 6.17
  • Figure 6.18
  • Figure 7.1
  • Variable-reluctance stepper
  • Figure 7.2
  • Motors
  • Figure 7.3
  • Figure 7.4
  • Figure 7.5
  • Figure 7.6
  • Figure 7.7
  • Figure 7.8
  • Figure 7.9
  • Figure 7.10
  • Figure 7.11
  • Figure 7.12
  • Figure 7.13
  • Figure 7.14
  • Figure 7.15
  • Figure 7.16
  • Figure 7.17
  • Figure 7.18
  • Figure 7.19
  • Figure 7.20
  • Figure 7.21
  • Figure 7.22
  • Figure 7.23
  • Figure 7.24
  • Figure 7.25
  • Figure 7.26
  • Figure 7.27
  • Figure 7.28
  • Figure 7.29
  • Figure 7.30
  • Figure 7.31
  • Command
  • Opcode
  • Data Following
  • Reset
  • Select 8-bit DAC output
  • Select 12-bit DAC output
  • Define home
  • Set index position
  • Interrupt on error
  • bytes, written
  • Stop on error
  • Set breakpoint, absolute
  • bytes, written
  • Set breakpoint, relative
  • Mask interrupts
  • Reset interrupts
  • Load filter parameters
  • Update filter
  • Load trajectory
  • Start motion
  • Read signals register
  • bytes, read
  • Read index position
  • bytes, read
  • Read desired position
  • Read real position
  • Read desired velocity
  • Read real velocity
  • Read integration sum
  • Figure 7.32
  • Figure 7.33
  • Figure 7.34
  • Figure 7.35
  • Figure 7.36
  • Figure 8.1
  • Ground loop
  • Figure 8.2
  • Figure 8.3
  • Figure 8.4
  • Figure 8.5
  • Figure 8.6
  • Figure 8.7
  • Figure 8.8
  • Figure 9.1
  • Noninverting opamp circuit
  • High-Precision Applications
  • Figure 9.2
  • Figure 9.3
  • Figure 9.4
  • Figure 9.5
  • Figure 9.6
  • Figure 9.7
  • Standard Interfaces
  • Figure 10.1
  • Figure A.1 shows four opamp configurations: a buffer, inverting amplifier, noninvert
  • For the buffer configuration, the output (Vo) is connected to the inverting input
  • Appendix A
  • Figure A.1
  • Opamp configurations
  • Inverting Amplifier
  • Noninverting Amplifier
  • Differential Amplifier
  • Figure A.2
  • Figure A.3
  • Figure A.4
  • Figure A.5
  • Figure A.6
  • Input Voltage
  • Current
  • Heater
  • Total
  • Dissipation
  • Figure B.1
  • Appendix B
  • Figure B.2
  • Figure B.3
  • Percent
  • Original Input
  • Original
  • Original Heater
  • Voltage
  • Figure B.4
  • Figure B.5
  • Semiconductors
  • Other
  • ADC (analog-to-digital converter)
  • CDS (correlated double sampling)
  • Closed-loop gain
  • Codec
  • DAC (digital-to-analog converter)
  • Dynamic range
  • EMC (electromagnetic compatibility)
  • United States) or by the IEC (European community)
  • EMI (electromagnetic interference)
  • ESD, and magnetic interference effects
  • Encoder
  • ESD (electrostatic discharge)
  • Hall effect
  • Hall effect sensor
  • Index
  • Integration time (CCD)
  • LVDT (linear variable differential transformer)
  • Open-loop gain
  • Peltier cooler
  • PID (Proportional/Integral/Derivative) control
  • PWM (pulse-width modulation)
  • Reference voltage
  • RTD (resistance temperature detector)
  • Sample and hold (S/H)
  • Shoot-through
  • Strain gauge
  • Thermistor
  • Thermocouple
  • Torque
  • Torque is measured in foot-pounds, inch-pounds, ounce-inches, or Newton-meters
  • metric)
  • ˘ 8.85 inch-pounds = 1 Newton-meter
  • ˘ 1 foot-pound = 12 inch-pounds
  • ˘ 16 ounce-inches = 1 inch-pound
  • Variable reluctance sensor (VRS)
  • V-F (voltage-to-frequency) converter
  • -bit DACs (digital-to-analog converters)
  • Acceleration sensors, 86–89
  • Access time, data, 32–34
  • Acquisition time defined, 29
  • AD5220, (Analog Devices), 158
  • ADCs (analog-to-digital converters), 1
  • CCD, 81–82
  • Aliasing, and sample rate, 11–12
  • Amplifiers
  • PWM audio, 253
  • Analog circuits, DC-DC converters in
  • Analog Devices AD5220, 158
  • Analog devices, multiple, 225
  • Analog drivers
  • Analog outputs, miscellaneous, 137–60
  • Area CCDs, 78–79
  • Audio amplifier, PWM, 253
  • Auxiliary power supply, motor inhibit
  • Bandwidth, 5–6
  • Bang-bang controls, 105–7
  • Beam-splitter, color imaging with, 76
  • Biasing, digital potentiometer, 159
  • Bidirectional signal buffering with
  • Bipolar operation, unipolar versus, 164
  • Brushless DC motor drive, 186
  • Brushless DC motors, 184–98
  • DC motor controller ICs, 191–96
  • Buffer configurations, 233–35
  • Buffering, bidirectional signal, 71
  • Bus relinquish, 34
  • Buses
  • C, 38–40
  • SPI, 37
  • BUSY output, 34
  • Calibration, 2–5
  • Capacitance, shoot-through caused by
  • MOSFET, 174
  • Carousel, rotating, 125
  • CCDs (Charge Coupled Devices), 5, 40
  • CCD ADCs, 81–82
  • CDS (correlated double sampling)
  • Checklist, design, 45
  • Chopper control, 175–78
  • Chopper control of coil current, 177
  • Circuits
  • DC-DC converters in analog, 226
  • H-bridge, 171
  • Clamps
  • Clock resolution, 102
  • Codecs (coders/decoders), 42
  • Codecs (compressors/decompressors)
  • Coding, output, 30–31
  • Coil current
  • Color imaging
  • Color processing, 77–78
  • Comparators, 239–40
  • Compensation, table-based, 121
  • Compilers, 7
  • Configurations
  • Control loops, measuring and analyzing
  • Control systems
  • Controllers
  • PWM motor, 207
  • Controls
  • LED constant-current drive with
  • PID motor, 124
  • PID (Proportional, Integral
  • Derivative), 110–23
  • Converters
  • DC-DC, 226

Teemad

  • Analog Interfacing to Embedded
  • Microprocessors
  • Real World Design
  • Analog Interfacing to Embedded
  • Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
  • British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data
  • Digital-to-Analog Converters
  • Sensors
  • Time-Based Measurements
  • Output Control Methods
  • Solenoids, Relays, and Other Analog Outputs
  • Motors
  • EMI
  • High-Precision Applications
  • Standard Interfaces
  • 20 ma Current Loop
  • Appendix A: Opamp Basics
  • Appendix B: PWM
  • Appendix C: Some Useful URLs
  • Embedded Microprocessor Systems: Real World Design
  • Voltage Precision
  • of that specific sensor
  • Interrupts
  • Interfaces
  • Hardware Support
  • Processing Requirements
  • Operating System Requirements
  • Language/Compiler
  • Peripheral Hardware
  • Shared Interfaces
  • Task Priorities
  • Hardware Requirements
  • Word Width
  • facing to Embedded Microprocessors
  • Reference Voltage
  • Output Word
  • Resolution
  • Tracking ADC
  • Flash ADC
  • Successive Approximation Converter
  • Dual-Slope (Integrating) ADC
  • Sigma-Delta
  • oversam
  • pling
  • Half-Flash
  • ADC Comparison
  • sample-and-hold
  • droop rate
  • acquisition time
  • full power bandwidth
  • feedthrough
  • output offset
  • Input Levels
  • Internal Reference
  • Reference Bypassing
  • Internal S/H
  • Output Coding
  • Parallel Interfaces
  • Data Access Time
  • BUSY Output
  • Bus Relinquish
  • Coupling
  • Delay between Conversions
  • LSB Errors
  • will
  • Clocked Interfaces
  • SPI/Microwire
  • C Bus
  • Proprietary Serial Interfaces
  • Thermistors
  • Typical NTC Thermistor Data
  • Scaling
  • Decimal)
  • Tolerance Stackup
  • Result if Rh is 1% High (44.642K Instead of 44.2K)
  • Result if Rh is 1% High and RL is 1% Low
  • Result if Rh is .1% High, R1 and RL are .1% Low
  • nominal
  • and R1 low
  • Thermocouples
  • Solid State
  • Slotted Switches
  • Reflective Sensors
  • Speed
  • current transfer ratio
  • same
  • changes
  • IR Problems
  • sensor
  • system
  • Mechanical Instability
  • Open Sensors
  • unblocks
  • Multiple Sensors
  • below
  • Optical Isolators
  • Discrete Optical Sensors
  • CCD Basics
  • integration
  • inte
  • gration time
  • Exposure Control
  • Linear CCDs
  • Color
  • Trilinear CCDs
  • trilinear
  • Color Processing
  • Area CCDs
  • Dark Reference
  • Correlated Double Sampling (CDS)
  • Nonuniformity
  • Driving CCDs
  • CCD ADCs
  • Hall Effect Sensors
  • VRS (Variable Reluctance Sensor)
  • Switches
  • high
  • side injection
  • synchronou
  • Applications
  • Filtering
  • feedback
  • negative feedback
  • sampled
  • error
  • history
  • Derivative
  • Integral
  • accumulation
  • Summarized PID
  • crit
  • ically damped
  • Practical Considerations
  • Saturation
  • windup
  • Software Considerations
  • Time Delay
  • deadtime
  • Discontinuous Inputs
  • Special Requirements
  • Constant Speed
  • Positioning
  • Combined Logic Analyzer/DSO
  • Measuring Motor Parameters
  • Commercial Software
  • Solenoids, Relays, and
  • Other Analog Outputs
  • Relays
  • Interfacing to Solenoids and Relays
  • above
  • Pick/Hold
  • hold
  • chopping
  • Open Heater
  • Open Sensor
  • RTD Heater
  • Driving Multiple LEDs
  • Specialized DACs
  • Digital Potentiometers
  • Bipolar versus Unipolar
  • steps
  • Resonance
  • Half-Stepping
  • Microstepping
  • microstepping
  • Driving Steppers
  • Shoot-Through
  • Current Sensing
  • Chopper Control
  • chopper
  • Control Method and Resonance
  • Linear Drive
  • with respect to the other
  • permanent magnet DC
  • encoders
  • Driving DC Motors
  • dynamic braking
  • Encoders
  • within
  • quadrature
  • DC Motor Controller ICs
  • Software Controller
  • other
  • known
  • Power-up Issues
  • after
  • Stall Torque
  • Back EMF
  • Torque versus Speed
  • Motor Current
  • Self-Induced Current Errors
  • Self-Induced ESD
  • ESD Protection
  • PCB Layout
  • PCB Grounding
  • Power Supplies
  • Electrical
  • Standard Units
  • 20 ma Current Loop
  • Opamp Basics
  • Buffer
  • Noninverting Configuration
  • Nonresistive Elements
  • Hysteresis
  • time average
  • average
  • Frequency Limitations
  • Resolution Limitations
  • Power-Supply Considerations
  • Appendix C
  • Some useful URLs
  • ADC (analog-to-digital converter)
  • CDS (correlated double sampling)
  • Closed-loop gain
  • Codec
  • DAC (digital-to-analog converter)
  • Dynamic range
  • EMC (electromagnetic compatibility)
  • EMI (electromagnetic interference)
  • Encoder
  • ESD (electrostatic discharge)
  • Hall effect
  • Hall effect sensor
  • Integration time (CCD)
  • LVDT (linear variable differential transformer)
  • Open-loop gain
  • Peltier cooler
  • PID (Proportional/Integral/Derivative) control
  • PWM (pulse-width modulation)
  • Reference voltage
  • RTD (resistance temperature detector)
  • Sample and hold (S/H)
  • Shoot-through
  • Strain gauge
  • Thermistor
  • Thermocouple
  • Torque
  • Variable reluctance sensor (VRS)
  • V-F (voltage-to-frequency) converter
  • continued

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