1. Introduction If you had
to use two words to describe Canada , they might be large and diverse .
Canada is the second largest country in the world, bordered by three
oceans, and across the country, Canadians experience many different landscapes from rolling plains and mountains to the coldtundra of
the north . Despite
Canada's great size , it is one of the world's most sparsely populated
countries. This fact , coupled with the grandeur of the landscape , has
been central to the sense of Canadian national identity . 2.
Geographical position Canada is
the second largest country in the world after Russia . In the Arctic ,
Canada reaches almost as far north as Greenland . To the south it
extends to the same latitude as southern France. The distance from
Canada’s west coast, the PacificOcean , to its east coast, the Atlantic Ocean, is farther than from North America to Europe.
Canada's totalland area includes thousands of adjacent islands,
notably Newfoundland in the east and those of the Arctic Archipelago
in the north. In
longitude Canada extends from approximately 52° to 141° W, a
distance that spans six time zones. In latitude it extends from
approximately 42° to 83° N. With its vast Arctic and subarctic
territories, Canada is often considered a country only of the far
north; however, the peninsula of southern Ontario juts deeply south into the heartland of the United States, and its
southernmost point, MiddleIsland in Lake Erie, is at the same
latitude as northernCalifornia . The
country also includes severalmajor islands, includingBaffin ,
and Melville ,
and many small ones . Its border with the U.S., the longest border in
the world not patrolled by military forces, extends 8,890 km. 3.
Mountains, lowlands Canada's
vast area means it has many varying types of terrain, much of which
The Cordillera in
the west, the Appalachians in the southeast, the mountains of
northern Labrador and of Baffin
in the northeast, and the Innuitian Mountains in the north form its
high edge. A large interiorbasin centred on Hudson Bay
and covering nearly four -fifths of the country is composed of the
the interior plains, and the Great Lakes – St. Lawrence lowlands.
Canada's highest peak is Mount Logan (5,959 m) in Yukon Territory. 4. Rivers, lakes With less than 1 percent of
the world's population, Canada has some one-seventh of the world's
supply of accessible fresh water. Much of this water is stored in
lakes and wetlands that cover about one-fifth of Canada's total area.
The Great Lakes—the world's largest surface of fresh water—are
shared with the United States and form part of the international
border. Other large lakes include Great Bear and Great Slave lakes in
the Northwest Territories and Lakes Manitoba and Winnipeg in
Manitoba. MackenzieRiver is Canada's longest river, which flows 4,241 km from its source to
its mouth. With its many tributaries, it drains 1,800,000 square km.
is the largest river flowing into the Atlantic Ocean. Its drainage
basin includes the Great Lakes, forming an inland navigable waterway
extending some 3,765 km into the heart of the continent . The longest
Pacific-draining river that is wholly within Canada is the Fraser.
and Columbia rivers, which both rise