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Kategooria mikrokontrollerid ja praktiline robootika - 10 õppematerjali

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Homework 01

Homework 1. a)123/2= 61,5; 61/2=30,5; 30/2=15; 15/2=7,5; 7/2= 3,5; 3/2=1,5 (1111011) 0.456*2=0.912; 0,912*2=1,824; 0,824*2=1,648; 0,648*2=1,296; 0,296*2=0,592; 0,592*2=1,184; 0,184*2=0,368; 0,368*2=0,736; (0,736*2=1,472; 0,472*2=0,944; 0,944*2=1,888) So b)123/16= 7,6875 ; 0,6875*16=11 ; 7/16 is less than one, then hex is 7B 0,456*16= 7,296 ; 0,296*16=4,736; 0,736*16=11,776; 0,776*16=12,416; 0,416*16=6,656; 0,656*16=10,496; 0,496*16=7,936; 0,936*16=14,976; 0,976*16=15,616; 0,616*16=9,856; 0,856*16=13,696; 0,696*16=11,136; 0,136*16=2,176; 2,176*16=2,816; 0,816*16=13,056 Hex is 7B.74BC6A7EF9DB22D c) 123,456/5=24,6912/5=4,93824/5=0,987648 0,987648*5=4,93824; 0,93824*5=4,6912; 0,6912*5=3,456; 0,456*5=2,28; 0,28*5=1,4; 0,4*5=2; 0*5=0 base-5 is d)BCD is 2. a) Unsigned 16-bit binary is 0000000001101011. Hexadecimal is 6B b) Unsigned 16-bit binary is 0000000...

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Microcontroller homework 2

Microcontroller homework for week 04 1. SNR - Ratio of RMS signal to RMS SINAD - Ratio of the RMS signal amplitude to the mean value of the root-sum-square (RSS) ENOB - The effective number-of-bits and relates to SINAD THD - Ratio of the rms value of the fundamental signal to the mean value of the RSS of its harmonics. SFDR - Ratio of the RMS value of the signal to the RMS value of the worst spurious signal. Channels related to the inputs of the ADC can either be multiplexed or individually selected. Linearity relates to how a ADC follows a linear function. All ADCs are to a certain extend non-linearity. Temperature is measurement, which in optimal state for ADC-s, lets them function correctly. Power dissipation refers to the amount power dissipated when the ADC is operating. 2. The output code is 001111012 and the voltage of the LSB is 0,0195V ...

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Microcontroller homework 3

Microcontroller homework for week 05 1. Treshold, sensitivity, (full) range, linearity, accuracy, precision, stability, hysteresis, noise 2. VO = RH/(RT+RH) = 0.381356 V 3. A) 100 B) 212,464 4. A) B) R1 = 16,67 k C) D) E) RF = 10k, RL = 28k2, RH = 107k F) Before scaling: 2.35 steps/°C. After scaling: 3.42 steps/°C 5. Some things were assumed, as they were not given. 30 = 1,13V 40 = 0,976V So 35 should be between 40 and 30. Assuming about 1,053 V. Same for 5 degrees... Assuming about 1,725 V. 35 degrees digital 1,053/10*1024 = 107,8272 5 degrees digital 1,725/10*1024 = 176,64 177 ­ 108 = 69 ADC counts, 30 degrees SPAN 69/30 = 2,3 ADC ...

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Microcontroller homework 4

Microcontroller homework for week 07 1. A) 40000 counts B) 36000 counts The difference between 20MHz and 18MHz is 4000 counts. 2. A) 555,555 counts more B) Higher resolution is caused by increased sampling rate. 3. A) Because the mixer needs additional components B) The mixer approach multiplies the frequency shift you want to measure, but also any other frequency shift. This includes drift caused by component heating, noise, etc. 4. The output waveform according to input: 5. A) 100 Hz B) 500 Hz C) 1 kHz 6. In an electrical system, a ground loop usual...

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Microcontroller homework 5

Microcontroller homework for week 10 1. PID control scheme: Equation describing the PID control: Differences between ,,bang-bang" control and proportional control: Proportional 0%...100% As error decreases, output decreases, e.g. reduces overshoot ,,Bang-bang" 0% or 100% Only 2 states (that's why also called On/off control). It has feedback. Similar to PWM ouput signal. Integral and Derivative terms in the PID equation: These are time-based terms: theintegral is an integral over some time period, and the derivative is the derivative between two time periods. Derivative­ to measure how fast the error is changing; rate of change in error gives indication of the size of the load; allows output to rapidly respond to changing inputs and compensate for varying loads and still offset error. Integral ­ accumulation of errors; long-term control parameter; pushes the output towards the setpoint if PID control settled at offset fro...

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Microcontroller homework 6

Microcontroller homework for week 11 1. 2. I would choose schematic C because the Fly-Back on C is with zener-diode and on the output ­ two diodes are used, witch are placed correctly as are the resistors, so the schematic would function as required.

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Microcontroller homework 07

Microcontroller homework for week 12 1. Three different stepper motors (illustrations on page 162-163): · permanent-magnet, · variablereluctance, · hybrid. The VR stepper has a soft iron rotor with teethand a wound stator. As current is applied to two opposing stator coils, the rotor is pulled into alignment with these twocoils. As the next pair of coils is energized, the rotor advances to the next position. The permanent magnet (PM) stepper has a rotor with alternating north and south. As the coils are energized, the rotor is pulled around. This figure shows a single coil to illustrate the concept, but a realstepper would have stator windings surrounding the rotor. The PM stepper has more torque than an equivalent VR stepper. The hybrid stepper essentially adds teeth to a permanent magnet motor,resulting in better coupling of the magnetic field into the rotor and moreprecise movement. In a hybrid stepper, th...

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Homework 1 in Microcontrollers and practical robotics

Homework 1 in Microcontrollers and practical robotics 1) a) 0 123.456 - 64 = 59.456 1 59.456 - 32 = 27.456 1 27.456 - 16 = 11.456 1 11.456 - 8 = 3.456 1 3.456 - 4 = 0 3.456 - 2 = 1.456 1 1 0.456 * 2 = 0.912 0 0.912 * 2 = 1.824 1 0.824 * 2 = 1.642 1 0.642 * 2 = 1.284 1 0.284 * 2 = 0.568 0 0.568 * 2 = 1.136 1 0.136 * 2 = 0.272 0 0,544 * 2 = 0,544 0 b)1111011.01110100 to hex 0111 => 7 1011 => 11 0111 => 7 0100 => 4 and so on.. answer is: 7B.74 c) 123.456 to base-5 100 = 400 20 = 40 3=3 400 + 40 + 3 = 443 5^-1 = 0,2 5^-2 = 0,04 5^-3 = 0,008 0,456/0,2 = 2 0,056/0,04 = 1,4 0,4/0,2 = 2 Final answer 443.212 d) 1 = 0001 2 = 0010 3 = 0011 4 = 0100 5 = 0101 6 = 0110 0001 0010 0011.0100 0101 0110 2) a) 16bit equivalent is a) 0000000001101011 the answer is 006B 1011 is in dec 11 and in hex B 0110 is in dec 6 an...

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Midterm Exam solutions and answers in Microcontroller and practical robotics

Midterm Exam Microcontrollers and Practical Robotics Question 1 Convert the decimal number 43.982 to (a) binary and (b) hex. Show all your calculations. a.) 101011.111110 b.) 2B.FB6 Question 2 Perform the calculation of 58 – 42 by first converting each decimal value to binary and then using the twos complement method. Show all your calculations 5810=001110102 4210=001010102 Converse to twos complement 4210=001010102=110101012+1=110101102 Then 58+(42) 001110102 +110101102 = 000100002 =1610 Question 3 Given the following bridge circuit for a strain gauge, determine the value of the strain gauge resistance {RS}. Let: VIN = 5V R3 = 100 Ω R2 = 50 Ω R1 = 100 Ω 2 Midterm Exam - Solutions a) Under no strain (VOUT = 0 V) b) When VOUT = 0,5 V {under strain}. Solution: a) Under no strain:  R1 R3   R1R4  R2 R3  VOUT   ...

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W11 Homework Solutions

Read Chapter_6_Analog_Outputs.pdf and Chapter_8_EMI_ElectroMagnetic_Interference.pdf Question 1 Given the below open sensor detection: a. Derive equations for both outputs VO and Vsense as a function of VR, R1, Rth, RH, RL and RF. b. What value will appear on each output if the thermistor fails (becomes an open circuit)? c. How can the above schem be modified to implement temperature reading with open sensor detection using only one ADC and one digital input pin of the microcontroller? Solution: a. Derive equations for both outputs as a function of VR, R1, Rth, RH, RL and RF.  Rth  Writing the equation for V1 : V1  VSense   VR  th R  R1 V0  V2 VR  V2 V2 Writing the equation for V2 :   ...

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