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"1860s" - 5 õppematerjali


English portfolio

The new passport regulation (1863) gave them first identification documents. It increased their freedom of movement and encouraged emigration to Russia. The 1866 peasant township law freed the peasants' local government councils from the landlords' authority and granted them extensive rights to decide their own economic and social affairs. In the 1860s , Estonian peasants began buying farmsteads from the estates, at free market prices. Due to the shortage of land and the large number of buyers, the prices were much higher than in Russia. The peasants made use of long-term bank credits, which they later paid back from income received from growing flax and potatoes. By the end of the 19th century, the peasants in South Estonia (Livonian province) possessed over 80% and in North Estonia (Estonian prov...

Inglise keel - Keskkool
38 allalaadimist

Queen Victoria and her time

Victoria remained in self-imposed seclusion for ten years. This genuine, but obsessive mourning kept her occupied for the rest of her life and played an important role in the evolution of what would become the Victorian mentality. [6] She had lost a devoted husband and her principal trusted adviser in affairs of state. For the rest of her reign she wore black. Widowhood Until the late 1860s she rarely appeared in public; although she never neglected her official Correspondence, and continued to give audiences to her ministers and official visitors, she was reluctant to resume a full public life. [7] Victoria's isolation from the public greatly diminished the popularity of the monarchy, and even encouraged the growth of the republican movement. Although she did perform her official duties, she did not actively participate in the govern...

British history (suurbritannia... - Keskkool
5 allalaadimist

American Literature

The Enlightenment in America. The emergence of the notion of the American Dream. The great Enlighteners: Crèvecoeur, Jefferson, Paine, Franklin. The American Enlightenment is the intellectual thriving period in the United States in the midtolate 18th century (1715­1789), especially as it relates to American Revolution on the one hand and the European Enlightenment on th...

Inglise keel -
21 allalaadimist

Company presentation (Deloitte)

, and KPMG Deloitte history In 1845 William Welch Deloitte opened his own opened accountancy office in London. In 1849 Deloitte becomes the first person ever appointed as an independent auditor. During the 1850s and 1860s , he develops the system for keeping railway and hotel accounts, subsequently adopted as the industry standard, that protected investors from mismanagement of funds. In 1880 First overseas Deloitte office opens in New York In 2002 Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu's global revenues were US$12.5 billion. In 2010, the Deloitte member firm network becomes the largest private professional services network in the world,...

Juhtimine -
24 allalaadimist


They relied for security upon small editions, big safes, extensive lexicon (large codes are harder to break than small ones, other things being equal), and superencipherment, retaining codenumbers to facilitate this instead of switching to codewords. This evolution was essentially complete by the 1860s. The large, one-part code had replaced the small, two-part nomenclator in high-level military and diplomatic cryptography. Meanwhile, the telegraph, author of this development, was creating something new in war—signal communications, or voluminous command and reconnaissance messages. Of course such messages had existed before, with torches, pigeons, and couriers, but in so rarefied a form that they were not even called "signal communicati...

krüptograafia -
11 allalaadimist

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