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Indeed, it may well be that a developed sys- tem of indebtedness flowing from the rule of reciprocation is a unique property of human culture. The noted archaeologist Richard Leakey ascribes the essence of what makes us human to the reciprocity system. He claims that we are human be- cause our ancestors learned to share food and skills "in an honored network of obligation" (Leakey 8{ Lewin, 1978). Cultural anthropologists view this "web of in- debtedness" as a unique adaptive mechanism of human beings, allowing for the di- vision of labor, the exchange of diverse forms of goods and different services, and 'Certain societies have formalized the rule into ritual. Consider for example the Vartan Bhanji, an in- stitutionalized custom of gift exchange common to parts of Pakistan and India. In commenting upon the Vartan Bhanji, Gouldner (1960) remarks:...

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