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Islam

Abu Bakr's immediate task was to avenge a recent defeat by Byzantine (or Eastern Roman Empire) forces, although he first had to put down a rebellion by Arab tribes in an episode known as the Ridda wars, or "Wars of Apostasy". The territory of the Caliphate in 750His death in 634 resulted in the succession of Umar as the caliph, followed by Uthman ibn alAffan and Ali ibn Abi Talib. These four are known as al khulaf' arrshidn ("Rightly Guided Caliphs"). Under them, the territory under Muslim rule expanded deeply into Persian and Byzantine territories. When Umar was assassinated in 644, the election of Uthman as successor was met with increasing opposition. In 656, Uthman was also killed, and Ali assumed the position of caliph. After fighting off opposition in the first civil war (the "First F...

Religioon - Keskkool
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