Special colloquial vocabulary 14. Metre in Englishpoetry . Modifications of
metre (“Rhythm and Text”) 15. Typically English stanzas (“Rhythm
and Text”) 16. Rhythm in poetry and in prose(“Rhythm
and Text”) 17. Varieties of language(I.
Galperin “Stylistics”) 18. Emotive prose (I.
Galperin “Stylistics”) 19. Scientific prose style (I.
Galperin “Stylistics”) 20. Language of the drama(I.
Galperin “Stylistics”) 21. Publicistic style (I.
Galperin “Stylistics”) 22. The style of officialdocuments(I.
Galperin “Stylistics”) 23. Newspaper style (I.
very bulky questions – they will be split into several parts at the
exam. STYLISTIC TERMS: Style Stylistics The styl. of lg. The styl. of speech Denotation Connotation Inherent Adherent Phonestheme Expressive means Stylistic devices Phonostylistics Phonetic. expr. means Prosody Orchestration Euphony Phonetic SD Onomatopoeia Alliteration Assonance Rhyme : Full Incomplete Vowel Consonant Compound Eye-rhyme Internal Head r. Couplet r. Cross r. Frame r. Lexical SD Metaphor: Trite Genuine Sustained Metonymy Synecdoche Antonomasia Irony Epithet: Syntactic Phrase Sentence Metaphorical Transferred Oxymoron Hyperbole Understatement Zeugma Semantically false chain Pun Periphrasis Simile Euphemism Personification Bathos Allusion Quotation Epigram PU, deformed PU Synonymic repetition Lexical repetition Syntactic SD Ellipsis Aposiopesis Nominative sent . Asyndeton Apokoinu Gap-sentence link Framing Anadiplosis Tautology Polysyndeton Inversion Detachment Antithesis Chiasmus Anaphora Epiphora Climax Anticlimax Suspense Rhetorical q. Exclamation Graphical Means, SD Under / overstopping Indented line Graphon Common Lit. Voc. Special Lit. Voc. Terms Barbarisms / foreign w. Archaic w. Poetic diction Neologisms (nonce- words ) Common Coll. Voc. Special Coll. Voc.: Slang Jargon Cant Vulgarisms Professional w. Dialectal w. Rhythm Foot Metre: Iambus Trochee Anapaest Dactyl Amphibrach Spondee Pyrrhic Rhythmic invers. Run-on line Stanza : Heroic couplet Ballad stanza Spenserian stanza Ottava rima Sonnet: Italian Shakespearean Blankverse Limerick Accented verse Monometer Dimeter Trimeter Pentameter Hexameter Heptameter Octometer Phrasing Syntagm Monotonous rhythm Jerky rhythm Alternating rhythm Rambling rhythm Grading rhythm Functional styles / registers STYLE AND STYLISTICS The term “style” is polysemantic (has many meanings): a Latin word “stilus” originally meant a writing instrument used by ancient people. Already in classical Latin the meaning was extended to denote the manner of expressing one’s ideas in written or oral form. The precise definition was given by Jonathan Swift , who defined style as “ properwords in proper places”. In present day English the word “style” is used in about a dozen of principle meanings:
the use of language typical of a literary genre (e.g. the style of a comedy , drama, novel ).
the selective use of language that depends on spheres / areas of human activity (e.g. style of fiction , scientific prose, newspapers , business correspondence, etc.). These are called functional styles or registers. Stylistics – is the study of style. In spite of the variety of styles English Stylistics has not been discussed on the same scale as French or German stylistics; it has not been discussed thoroughly. The very term “stylistics” came in more common use in English only some 45 years ago. However , it was recorded for the first time much earlier – in 1882, meaning “the study of literary style, the study of stylistic features ” ( Oxford Dictionary). Stylist is a writer / speaker skilled in a literary style (e.g. Hemingway is considered a peculiar stylist – used a lot of repetitions). Stylistician is a scholar (a student ). Style is applied to many things: clothing , architecture, hairstyles, etc. A linguistic style (style in language) is a variety of subsystems of language with its peculiar vocabulary, phraseology, grammatical and phonetic features that are used selectively to express ideas in a given situation. Stylistics is a part of style; it studies principles of selecting and using different linguistic means (grammatical and phonetic) that serve to render shades of meaning. Stylistics studies different styles (4) and expressive emotional evaluative features of different linguistic units . Stylistics of language and of speech is not the same. The Stylistics of language studies different styles including registers, stylistic devices and expressive shades of linguistic units (words, construction of phrases ). The Stylistics of speech studies individual texts viewing the way the message or content is expressed. Literary Stylistics concentrates on artistic expressiveness that characterises a literary work or a writer, a literary trend or a whole time period. Thus Stylistics is a part of theory of literature (literary criticism) and poetics . Poetics is a science viewing a structure of a literary work and esthetic means “ employ with it”. Linguistic Stylistics studies linguistic facts from the point of view of their ability to convey extra shades of meaning (connotations – we callthem ). Any speech act (oral or written) is meant to pass an information. There are 2 types of information:
the content proper
additional information, which is connected with the conditions and participants of the act of the communication . This additional information finds expression in emotional overtones that are attached to the main content of the utterance. Every speaker has experienced that the form of speech may vary depending on a speaker, a listener, and the circumstances in which they communicate: Neutral Literary Colloquial To eat to partake to gobble To die to expire to go west To kill to slay to make away / to do in To begin to commence to get going Stylistics is a very special science because it has no fixedsingleunit of study. In contrast to other linguistic sciences (e.g. lexicology (words), morphology (word structure), syntax (structure of sentences), phonetics (sounds and intonation ) stylistics studies everything that makes the utterance of the text expressive. Stylistics cuts right across all the basic linguistic sciences. Phonetics: “silent sleepy streets” (alliteration; lexicology) ” quiet noiseless streets” – sentence is the same but the effect is different. Morphology: “ spoke ” and “spake” – from the point of view of morphology these are just 2 variants of the past tense. From the stylistic point of view they are 2 different models of expression because they carry different stylistic overtones. “Spake” is archaic and therefore is used in elevated style or for the irony in everyday speech, while “spoke” is just the ordinary way of expressing. In syntax the sentence structure may differ and the stylistic effect may be different: “He came in” (neutral) – “In he came” (more dynamic ). Here we observe inversion – different word order – it is more powerful . In lexicology we find many examples of synonymic pairs in which the borrowed word carries bookish term and the native word is neutral (e.g. begin - commence, understand – comprehend, think – cogitate, etc.). “He came home drunk” – no extra shades of meaning. “He returned to his residence in a state of intoxication” – has extra shade of meaning (irony). “He died poor” – no extra shades of meaning. “He expired in indigent circumstances” – has extra shade of meaning. “My parent has passed away” – bookish. “My old man has kicked a basket” – colloquial. The choice of words may be peculiar and so unexpected word combinations may arise . Any such phrase is of an interest in stylistics: USUAL UNUSUAL a week / month ago a grief ago / a smile ago / a cigarette ago delicious meal delicious murder ungrammatical sentence ungrammatical house a crooked street a crooked hook bloodthirsty killer bloodthirsty embrace “Colourless green ideas sleep furiously” - ( highlyoriginal ). OR: e. e. comings ( modernistpoet ): “My father moved through dooms of love Through sames of am through haves of give …” (here “am” becomes a noun , also “have” becomes a noun). J. Joyce “ Ulysses ” – in last chapter for 44 pages comes no single mark of punctuation but nevertheless it has 8 paragraphs. Why? Because his wife ’s birthday is on the 8th of some month. It is very individual. STYLISTICS AS A SCIENCE. SURVEY OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF STYLISTIC STUDIES. Stylistics is regarded as a relatively new branch of philology, yet its roots go back as far as ancient Greece and Rome, when the rhetoricians cultivated the art of clear and elegant use of language developing and polishing stylistic devices basically. In the 18thcentury there emerged an individualistic psychological view of style and stylistics. According to this view style bears the stamp of individual usage , that is – every writer has a unique pattern of habits that form his style (e.g. W. Woolf - some of her starting phrases begin with “For”). This approach is best illustrated in the well- knowndictum of the French poet and stylist Georges Louis de Buffon: “Style is the man himself ”. The late19th century and early20th century saw the appearance of the utilitarian (pragmatic) approach to stylistics: the tendency to regard stylistics as an applied science – it has been particularlystrong in the English speaking countries. It was believed that the chief aim of the stylistics is to improve the style of the reader, to teach him to express his thoughts better (e.g. G. H. Vallins – books: “ Good English”, “Better English”, “Best English”). The other prominent trend was to regard style as pure form divorced from thought (ideas, message). Speaking of foreign linguists it is the French – Ch. Bally and J. Marouseau – who have in 20th century made a definitecontribution , this was due to old tradition of interest in style in France. The classical words of classic stylistics are those by German scholars Ph. Aronstein and W. Deutschbein. In the 50s and 60s there was a rapid growth of interest in stylistics. Various conferences were held (e.g. USA 1958, GDR 1959 , USSR 1961, 1963, etc.). The methods of structural linguistics were most popular in 70s and 80s. Present day stylistic studies have gradually taken a more systematic course . Increasing interest is apparent in a quantitative aspect. Thus the statistical word frequently, also computers have given stylistics a more exact basis. Computer assisted stylistic analysisseemsquite promising (e.g. the study of cases of disputed authorship; or the influence of one author on another author’s style). Althoughstill somewhat chaotic and unorganized stylistics is a vigorous young science with wide potential and prospects.
THE COLOURING OF THE WORD
Meaning of a word has: a denotation (meaning proper, we find it in dictionaries) and a connotation (an additional shade of meaning). Connotation is also: overtones, colouring, charge , and shade of meaning – all this actually means the same. The bulk of words have denotation (in any language)(e.g. tree, time, quick, to take, etc.). Connotation may be a permanent part of word meaning – it is then called inherent connotation. Connotation is ever present when the word is used. Adherent connotation is the shade of meaning the word requires in a particularcontext only. Outside this context this shade of meaning is not present. Connotation is not uniform ( even ). On the one hand there are words that convey emotional or expressive overtones (e.g. OK – fine - gorgeous →“gorgeous” conveys emotional overtones). On the other hand they may containevaluation (the speaker’s or writer’s negative or positiveattitude ) (e.g. famous (positive) – notorious (negative). Arnold : “For example the words: “girl”, “ maiden ”, “ lass ”, “ lassie ”, “ chick ”, “baby”, and “young lady ” have identical denotation and may be referred to one and the same person , but the use of this or that word depends not so much on the qualities of the girl herself as on the speaker’s attitude to the girl and on the social situation. “Girl” is used in any situation, it has no connotation, and it is stylistically neutral. “Maiden” is an archaic and poetic word, and has a lofty ring about it. Its usage is very limited (poetry) and if used informally it acquires a facetious or ironic connotation. “Lass / lassie” ( come from Scottish dialect and have a rustic colouring) they are words of endearment and connote affection . “Chick / baby” - are part of informal English; connote intimacy and familiarity. “Young lady” if used in formalconversation connotes social distance ; but otherwise acquires an ironic ring. Besides “lass / lassie” and “chick / baby” imply approval (positive attitude) and are more expressive than just “girl”.
INHERENT CONNOTATION (IC)
IC may be secured by the very object , quality or notion that word denotes. We mean that people appreciate some certain notions, either positive or negative (e.g. Positively charged words: noble, manly, virtue, beauty , love, etc. Negatively charged words: nasty , vulgar, greedy, sin, death , fool , etc.). This connotation is called referential, it depends on the referent (mean the thing the word stands for).
IC may depend on the structure of the word. Such words normally have a transparent structure and more often negative affixes are used (e.g. unkind, impolite, injustice, heartless, etc.). This kind of connotation is purely linguistic.
Emotional connotation characterizes words in synonymic sets that occupy the so-called finalposition (e.g. big – tremendous – “tremendous” has emotional colouring. Like – worship; interesting – amazing; good – marvelous, etc.). So the expressive use of language depends on the ability to choose the proper word among those that denote the same thing . The linguist R. M. Eastman illustrates it so: “You may speak of the “ fragrance ” of a certain perfume if you like it or of its “ reek ”, when you did not like it, or simply about its “odor” if you did not care”. (e.g. “ money ” (neutral) – “pelf” ( important ) – “dough” (do not care) – all these stand for the same thing but have different connotation.
IC may comprise the stylistic colouring of the word that is the word belonging to a certain style of language. Words are then either neutral – formal – informal (or: neutral – colloquial – literary). This colouring (formal – informal) is always present in a word (e.g. “ drink ” (neutral) – “beverage” (literary) – “ pull ” (colloquial); “home” (neutral) – “residence” (literary) – “digs” (colloquial). Phonestheme is a subtype of IC. This is a repeated combination of sounds (not a morpheme) that has a more or less clearly perceived meaning. Thus in the words “ flight ”, “flimsy”, “flippant” – “fl” combination of sounds conveys the idea of airiness, brightness with the implication of insecurity. “ Slow ”, “sluggish”, “sloppy” – “sl” has the meaning of slowness and inactivity. “Spry”, “sprightly”, “springy” – “spr” conveys the idea of energetic, risk, and livelymotion . ADHERENT CONNOTATION (AC) Is evoked only to create a particular context (e.g. O. Wilde : “I tell you what, you are very rude , and, after all, what are you? Only a student (negative here).” “He is some brainless (positive here), beautiful creature who should always be here in winter when we have no plants to look at” – these examples show that AC may be either positive or negative. Negative adherent connotation
Grammatical negationresults in words becoming negatively charged (e.g. “Science has not got a soul . Cannot help itself.” – science here becomes negative).
The neighbourhood or closeness of words bearing adherent negative connotation (e.g. “I saw myself as Mommy would see me uncouth (negative) and vulgar (negative) and working - class ” (due to previous 2 words it becomes negative too, otherwise “working-class” is neutral).
Vulgar words in the context lend their negative charge normally to the following word (e.g. “And you could not forget your bloody (vulgar) principles (become negative) for just one night ”)
The same do certain intensifiers (adverbs that intensify), such as: merely, only, too, too much, horribly, perfectly, so, etc. (e.g. “Books were too clean , too neatly arranged, too new.” – words after “too” become negative).
Repetition of a word in a sentence makes the negative charge stronger (e.g. “You are sitting here comfortably, preaching about it – everlasting preaching, preaching words, words.” – this makes the negative charge rather strong).
Uncommon use of punctuation (e.g. “But I have always had to fight for my children while he sat over his books – and prayed.”).
Exclamatory and interrogatory sentences (e.g. “ Women and votes! It’s the last stage of the decomposition of the world.” – “women” and “votes” become negative due to the exclamation mark).
The writer may indicate the quality of the character ’s voice (e.g. –“And in 20 years do you know what those people would be? – “Society,” she said blackly ( shows speaker’s negative attitude). “Society” becomes negatively because of “blackly”). Cases of negative AC are far more numerous than those of positive AC, and the reason is that in English we have a great number of words for conveying positive attitude and not so many of those expressing negative evaluation. Positive adherent connotation
The closeness and neighbourhood of words with inherent positive overtones (e.g. “She kissed my hands. They are beautiful, she said, big, and red, and brutal.” – “beautiful” is positively charged and so it influences “big” and “brutal”).
We may have comparison a part of which the word becomes (e.g. O. Wilde “ Youth is so much valuable than the experience : it is much so far intelligent.” – “youth” becomes positive, it is compared to “experience”).