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Sotsioloogia essee: Hechter ja Horne (0)

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Q: Social order requires social behaviour to be predictable and individuals to
cooperate. Amongst the explanations of social order are five outlined by Hechter
and Horne : ‘ meaning ’, ‘ values and norms’, ‘ power and authority ’,
spontaneous interaction’ and ‘ networks and groups’. Describe how at least three
of these (or other ) factors might explain social order, and discuss the extent to
which you find the explanations convincing.
Introduction
For societies to cohere and cooperate, it is necessary for individuals within them to have a predictable and collaborative behaviour. The presence of social order enables individuals to feel more secure publicly, as it enables them to somewhat predict their lives . Social order is also necessary for stability and serves as the basis for collective advancements. There are several theories and explanations for why social order persists and emerges. Hechter and
Horne in the reader Theories of Social Order present several widely-acknowledged explanations for social order. In this essay , the explanations regarding a shared meaning, norms and values and power and authority are explained. Furthermore, the extents to which these explanations can be convincing are assessed.
Meaning
Hechter and Horne argue , that “shared concepts and beliefs are a perquisite for successful communication ” (Hechter and Horne, 2003:44), thus bringing together the ideas of many sociologists in explaining the importance of meaning when explaining social order. Meaning, which can be defined as a sum of common concepts and beliefs that enable cooperation , has been defined yet so differently by various sociologists. Emile Durkheim (Durkheim, 1912) tries to explain meaning by describing the importance of religion in social interactions, and by portraying the similarities between social interaction and religion. Society never stops creating sacred things. Durkheim (Durkheim, 1912) elaborates, that “when a belief is shared by all people, to deny or question it is forbidden.” He brings an example of the right to free speecheven if individuals’ opinions differ gravely, in a civilized communication they will still respect the principle of free discussion. Durkheim
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