Psühholoogia bioloogiline--kognitiivne- ja sotsiaalne vaade (0)

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PSYCHOLOGY PART 1: CORE
Biological level of analysis
Outline principles that define the biological level of analysis.
1) Behavior can be innate, because it is genetically based. Evolution may play a
key role in behavior.
2) Animals may be studied as a means of understanding human behavior.
3) There are biological correlates of behavior. Cognitions, emotions and
behaviors are products of the anatomy and physiology of our nervous and
endocrine system.
Explain how principles of the biological level of analysis may be demonstrated in
research.
1) Correlational studies: Study by Buss, who hypothesized that across cultures,
men will prefer to marry younger women because of greater reproductive
capacity and women will place greater value on a potential mate's earning
potential to provide survival advantages. This evolutionary hypothesis was
tested in 37 cultures by sending out questioners.
2) Twin studies (type of correlational studies) compare trait similarities in
identical and fraternal twins (Minnesota twin study by Tellegen, Buchard).
3) Experiment: Split-brain experiments by Gazzaniga & Sperry, brain plasticity
experiments by Rosenzweig and Bennett. Neurotransmission experiment by
Martinez and Kesner.
4) Case studies: Phineas Gage studied by Dr John Harlow and Oliver Sack's
study on Dr P.
Discuss how and why particular research methods are used at the biological level
of analysis.
Biological researchers often adopt a reductionist approach to the study of human
behavior. They work on a micro-level of research, breaking down complex behavior
into its smallest parts (e.g. genes, neurotransmitters or proteins). This approach is
sometimes criticized for being overly simplistic, but it is important to have detailed
information of the components of human behavior in order to understand the
interaction of several factors.
Kasamatsu and Hirai studied a group of Buddhist monks who went on a 72-hour
pilgrimage to a holy mountain in Japan. During this time the monks did not eat, drink
or speak and were exposed to cold, autumn weather. About 48 hours later they started
to have hallucinations, often about their ancestors. The researchers took blood
samples from the monks before the ceremony and immediately after the monks
reported seeing hallucinations. They found that serotonin levels had increased in their
brains. Serotonin activated the hypothalamus and the frontal cortex resulting in
hallucinations. They concluded from this study that sensory deprivation triggered the
release of serotonin, which actually altered the way the monks experienced the world.
The application of such research has improved the lives of many people, because
drugs have been developed stimulating or blocking certain neurotransmitters.
Psychologists however, consider the role of neurotransmitters on behavior, but do not
solely rely on it to explain behavior.
Brain technology has developed rapidly during the past century and is now used
extensively in neuropsychology because it provides an opportunity to study the active
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megailves Õppematerjali autor

Lisainfo

ingliskeelne tekst psühholoogia kursuse tuumast.
psühholoogia , bioloogia , kognitsioon , sotsiaalpsühholoogia , mälu , identiteediareng , stereotüübid , kultuur , emotsioonid

Mõisted

Sisukord

  • Buchard
  • Kasamatsu and Hirai
  • Phineas Gage
  • Gazzaniga & Sperry
  • Martinez and
  • Kesner
  • Rosenzweig and Bennett
  • Oliver Sacks
  • Bouchard and McGue
  • Fessler
  • Dweck
  • Frederic Bartlett
  • Karl Lashely
  • Chase
  • Anderson and Pichert
  • Atkinson and Shiffrin
  • Sperling
  • Glanzer and Cunitz
  • Craik and Lockhart
  • Craik and Tulving
  • Clive Wearing
  • Qi Wang
  • Cole and Scribner
  • Roediger III & McDermott
  • Loftus and Palmer
  • Frederic Bartlett
  • Lazarus
  • Schachter
  • Brown and Kulik
  • Neisser and Harsch
  • Milgrim
  • Zimbardo
  • Miller and Ross
  • Henri Tajfel
  • Cialdini et al
  • Moscovici
  • Steele and Aronson
  • Spencer et al
  • Bandura et al
  • Huesmann
  • Vaughan et
  • Dickerson et al
  • Hofstede
  • Gelfand et

Teemad

  • PSYCHOLOGY PART 1: CORE
  • Biological level of analysis
  • Outline principles that define the biological level of analysis
  • Explain how principles of the biological level of analysis may be demonstrated in
  • research
  • Discuss how and why particular research methods are used at the biological level
  • of analysis
  • PET scan
  • Discuss ethical considerations related to research studies at the biological level of
  • analysis
  • Explain one study related to localization of function of the brain
  • Using one or more examples, explain effects of neurotransmission on human
  • behavior
  • Using one or more examples, explain functions of two hormones in human
  • Discuss two effects of the environment on physiological processes
  • Examine one interaction between cognition and physiology in terms of behavior
  • The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat
  • Discuss the use of brain imaging technologies in investigating the relationship
  • between biological factors and behavior
  • With reference to relevant research studies, to what extent does genetic
  • inheritance influence behavior?
  • Examine one evolutionary explanation of behavior
  • Discuss ethical considerations in research into genetic influences on behavior
  • Cognitive level of analysis
  • Outline principles that define the cognitive level of analysis
  • Explain how principles of cognitive level of analysis may be demonstrated in
  • Discuss how and why particular research methods are used at the cognitive level
  • Discuss ethical considerations related to research studies at the cognitive level of
  • Evaluate schema theory with reference to research studies
  • Evaluate two models or theories of one cognitive process with reference to
  • research studies
  • Explain how biological factors may affect one cognitive process
  • Discuss how social or cultural factors affect one cognitive process
  • With reference to relevant research studies, to what extent is one cognitive
  • process reliable?
  • Discuss the use of technology in investigating cognitive processes
  • To what extent do cognitive and biological factors interact in emotion?
  • Evaluate one theory of how emotion may affect one cognitive process
  • Sociocultural level of analysis
  • Outline principles that define the sociocultural level of analysis
  • Explain how principles that define the sociocultural level of analysis may be
  • demonstrated in research
  • Discuss how and why particular research methods are used at the sociocultural
  • level of analysis
  • Discuss the ethical considerations related to research studies are the
  • sociocultural level of analysis
  • Describe the role of situational and dispositional factors in explaining behavior
  • Discuss two errors in attributions
  • ! Evaluate social identity theory, referring to relevant studies
  • Explain the formation of stereotypes and their effect on behavior
  • Explain social learning theory, referring to two relevant studies
  • Discuss the use of compliance techniques
  • Evaluate research on conformity to group norms
  • Discuss factors influencing conformity
  • Define the term culture and cultural norms
  • Examine the role of two cultural dimensions on behavior
  • Using examples, explain emic and etic concepts

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