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# Optional use of ECDIS(0)

1 Hindamata

Facts
charts and carriage
requirements
Primar Stavanger – IC-ENC
Working Group on information
(PSIWG)
1st edition - November 2004
Kort & Matrikelstyrelsen
Graphic design: Peter M. Bastrup, KMS
This compendium may be reproduced in whole or in part
provided that all extracts quoted are reproduced verbatim
without adaptation and the source and date are stated.
Primar Stavanger and IC-ENC shall be indentified as
the originators of the compendium.
2
CONTENTS
Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
Where are the  rules  for professional marine navigation written down? . . . . . . . . . . .6
What are the IMO requirements for the carriage of nautical charts? . . . . . . . . . . . . .6
What is a nautical chart?  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
What kinds of chart and chart data are  available ?  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
What are  official  charts?  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
What is an official ENC?  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
How do I recognise an official ENC?  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
Where can I get official ENCs?  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
How are official ENCs protected?  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
What is an official RNC? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
How are charts  kept  up-to-date?  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
What is  ECDIS ? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13
How is an ECDIS approved and by whom?  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
Meeting  Carriage Requirements with ECDIS  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
What to do in  areas  without official ENC coverage?  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
What are the requirements for the  safe  use of ECDIS ?  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18
What is ECS?  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19
Final remarks  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
ANNEX I Glossary/list of abbreviations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
ANNEX II  Comparison  of  paper  charts  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22
ANNEX III  Types  of  Digital  Charts  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35
ANNEX IV IMO SN/Circ. 207  Differences   between  RCDS and ECDIS  . . . . . . . . . .47
ANNEX V ECDIS - Procedural and organisational considerations.  . . . . . . . . . . . . .49
ANNEX VI Compendium on Flag State ECDIS requirements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53
3
Introduction
The SOLAS Convention includes a requirement for all ships to carry  to up-to-date
nautical charts and publications for the intended voyage . This carriage requirement may
be satisfied fully or partly by electronic means .
Feed back from people involved in the use of charts and electronic chart display
equipment covering manufacturers, distributors,  usersship owners, regulatory authorities
pilots, harbour authorities and others reveal a significant uncertainty about status and
regulations applying to the products and equipment available in the market today. In
particular the differences between the status of the various types of equipment and the
differences between the various types of data offered to the users are unclear with respect
to the regulations in place.
This compendium of facts about chart carriage requirements has been compiled to serve
as a reference frame to help resolve the uncertainties existing today.
The compendium has been compiled by the Hydrographic Offices of:
Denmark, Finland,  France (SHOM), Germany, Norway, Sweden and the United
Kingdom.
The references and interpretation of the international regulations in this compendium
and the actual implementation as shown in Annex VI have been verified by:
• The Finnish Maritime Administration, Maritime Safety Department ;
• The France Maritime Administration, Ministry of Infrastructure, Transport, Housing,
Tourism and the Sea, Department of Maritime Affairs and Seafarers;
• The German Ministry of Transport, Building and Housing;
• The Norwegian Maritime Directorate;
• The Swedish Maritime Adminstration, Department for Maritime Policy and Public
Affairs; and
• The United Kingdom Maritime and Coastguard Agency.
This document does not replace or amend national or international rules and regulations.
Ship owners should always refer to their national administrations / flag states for the latest
information.
This compendium consists of a main document and a number of Annexes. The main
document contains a description of various aspects of charts and electronic chart display
equipment in the form of questions and answers in a short form. The main emphasis is
on what can be used to satisfy the SOLAS carriage requirements for charts.
The Annexes contain more detailed and additional information of the different types of
equipment and the different types of digital data available today.
Acknowledgements:
Kind assistance to ensure relevance and readability provided by:
BIMCO, Primar Stavanger and IC-ENC.
4
This compendium is also available at www.primar-stavanger.org and www.ic-enc.org, and
will be kept up-to-date on a regular basis.
The editing of the compendium was completed at 25 November 2004
Definitions
A navigational electronic chart system is a general term for all electronic equipment that is
capable of displaying a vessel ’s position on a chart image on a screen .
There are two classes of navigational electronic chart systems.
The first is an Electronic Chart Display and Information System (ECDIS), which meets
IMO/SOLAS chart carriage requirements.
The second is an Electronic Chart System (ECS), which can be used to assist navigation,
but does not meet IMO/SOLAS chart carriage requirements.
ECDIS:
ECDIS equipment is specified in the IMO ECDIS Performance Standards as follows:
Electronic Chart Display and Information System (ECDIS) means a navigation information system
which, with adequate back up arrangements , can be accepted as complying with the up-to-date chart
required by regulation V/19 & V/27 of the 1974 SOLAS Convention.
Where the term ECDIS is used in this document, this is to be understood as those
navigational electronic chart systems, which have been tested, approved and certified as
compliant with the IMO ECDIS Performance Standards and other relevant IMO
Performance standards and thus is compliant with SOLAS ECDIS requirements
ECS:
ECS is specified in ISO 19379 as follows:
ECS is a navigation information system that electronically displays vessel position and relevant
nautical chart data and information from an ECS Database on a display screen, but does not meet all
the IMO requirements for ECDIS and is not intended to satisfy the SOLAS Chapter V requirements to
ECS equipment ranges from simple hand held GPS enabled devices to sophisticated
stand -alone computer equipment interfaced to ship systems.
5
Where are the rules for professional marine navigation written down?
The 1974 International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS 1974),
subsequently amended in 2000 and 2002, specifies the requirements for the navigational
equipment to be used onboard ships entitled to fly the flag of a party to the convention.
This Convention was adopted by the International Maritime Organisation (IMO), the
United Nations Organisation that is concerned with maritime transportation.
IMO member states are obliged to adopt IMO rules and regulations into their national
legislation.  However , only when the convention text has been incorporated into national
legislation does it take effect for the individual ships registered in that country. This
process of incorporation into national legislation may vary from a few months to several
years.
The country in which a ship is registered and hence which flag it is flying is known as the
Flag State. It is the national maritime administration representing the flag state, which
controls the adherence to the SOLAS carriage requirements (Flag State control ).
The national maritime administration is also responsible for port state control. Ships
arriving at a port may be subject to port state control by local officials based on flag state
regulations and international agreements. Port states cooperate within regions to apply
consistent standards, for example the European nations and Canada cooperate under the
umbrella of the Paris Memorandum of Understanding (MOU).
What are the IMO requirements for the carriage of nautical charts?
The requirements for carriage of nautical charts are laid down in SOLAS Chapter V.
The relevant regulations are:
• Regulation 2, defines the nautical chart
• Regulation 191, specifies the equipment to be carried on different types of ships and
• Regulation 27, specifies the requirement to keep charts and publications up-to-date.
Applying IMO regulations in detail
The nautical charts and nautical publications referred to in regulation V/2 are in short
called “official charts and publications”
1 Applies to ships constructed on or after 1 July 2002. Ships constructed before 1 July 2002 may
comply with regulations V/11, V/12 and V/20 of SOLAS in force prior to 1 July 2002. Regulation V/20
contains the chart carriage requirements.
6
IMO SOLAS V/2:
Nautical chart or nautical publication is a special - purpose map or book, or a specially compiled
database from which such a map or book is derived, that is issued officially by or on the authority of
a Government , authorized Hydrographic Office or other relevant government institution and is
designed to meet the requirements of marine navigation.
IMO SOLAS V/19
2.1 All ships irrespective of size shall have:
(…)
2.1.4
nautical charts and nautical publications to plan and display the ship’s route for the
intended voyage and to plot and monitor positions throughout the voyage; an Electronic
Chart Display and Information System (ECDIS) may be accepted as meeting the chart carriage
requirements of this subparagraph;
2.1.5
back-up arrangements to meet the functional requirements of subparagraph 2.1.4, if this
function is partly or fully fulfilled by electronic means;*
* An appropriate folio of paper nautical charts may be used as a back-up arrangement for ECDIS. Other back-up arrangements
for ECDIS are acceptable (see appendix 6 to resolution A.817(19), as amended).
IMO SOLAS V/27
Nautical charts and nautical publications, such as sailing directions, lists of lights, notices to
mariners, tide tables and all other nautical publications necessary for the intended voyage, shall be
From the three regulations referred to in the box above  the requirements for charts and
publications to be carried can be fulfilled by
1)
Carriage of official and up-to-date paper charts, or
2)
Carriage of a type-approved ECDIS, using official and up-to-date Electronic
Navigational Charts (ENC) together with an appropriate back up arrangement.
The minimum carriage requirements for charts and publications are satisfied by the use
of paper products. After the amendment of SOLAS regulations 1 July 2002 it is allowed
to replace the paper charts and publications by electronic means if a suitable back up is
provided. Paper charts and publications continue to be the minimum requirement for
back up purposes .
What is a nautical chart?
Nautical charts are special purpose maps specifically designed to meet the requirements
of marine navigation, showing amongst other things depths, nature of bottom, elevations,
configuration and characteristics of coast, dangers and aids to navigation.
Nautical charts offer a graphical representation of relevant information to mariners for
7
What kinds of chart and chart data are available?
Nautical charts can be distributed in analogue form, as paper charts or digitally, as chart
data in raster or vector form, (see Annex III for further technical details ) and are available
from a variety of sources,  both governmental and private.
A raster chart is basically just a scanned and passive image of a paper chart, where a
vector chart corresponds to a digital analysis by  object ( points , lines, areas etc.)
RASTER
VECTOR
What kinds of paper charts are there?
There are three kinds of nautical paper charts:
•  Original charts,  established from hydrographic and other surveys and produced by the
relevant national authority;
• “Facsimile” charts, are exact reproductions or copies of original charts. In some cases
however the facsimile may be ”modified” to the publishers language and adapted to
the distinct style of the publisher. In these circumstances the hydrographic content of
the chart remains unchanged; and
• Recompiled charts, reproduced from original charts. The recompilation may be to a
different scale , omitting information from the original chart and changing the
appearance of the original chart.
Recompiled and facsimile charts will be delayed in publication time compared to the
original charts. There is no synchronisation between the Notices to Mariners for the
original charts and Notices to Mariners for recompiled or facsimile charts produced by
other nations.
See Annex II for examples .
What are official charts?
Charts issued by or on the authority of a Government, authorized Hydrographic Office
or other relevant government institutions are official and may be used to fulfil carriage
requirements (provided they are kept up to date).
All other nautical charts are by  definition not official and are often referred to as private
charts. These charts are not accepted as the basis for navigation under the SOLAS
convention.
8
There are two kinds of official digital charts commonly available; Electronic Navigational
Charts (ENC) and Raster Navigational Charts (RNC).
What is an official ENC?
Picture: Example from type-approved ECDIS using official ENC data.
ENC stands for “Electronic Navigational Chart”. The term was originally introduced for
digital chart data complying with the IHO chart data transfer standard S-57. By IMO
definition ENCs can only be produced by or on the authority of a government authorised
Hydrographic Office or other relevant government institution; however the term ENC is
not protected and has been widely (and incorrectly) used by private organisations to refer
to their own products. To avoid possible confusion the word “official” has been used as a
prefix to ENC in this document.
Official ENCs have the following attributes:
• ENC content is based on source data or official charts of the responsible Hydrographic
Office;
• ENCs are compiled and coded according to international standards;
• ENCs are referred to World Geodetic System 1984 Datum (WGS84);
• ENC content is the responsibility of the issuing Hydrographic Office;
• ENCs are issued only by the responsible Hydrographic Office; and
• ENCs are regularly updated with official update information distributed digitally.
See section  “Meeting carriage requirements for ECDIS”  below and Annex III for further
details.
9
How do I recognise an official ENC?
Only authorized distributors sell official ENCs as an ENC service , which includes the
delivery of update information. The distributors are authorized either directly by the
originating Hydrographic Office or by a cooperation of Hydrographic Offices.
When used in an ECDIS:
ECDIS distinguishes an official ENC from unofficial data. When unofficial data is used,
ECDIS informs mariners that they must navigate by means of an official up to date
paper chart by a warning, which appears continuously on the screen.
If unofficial data is shown on the ECDIS display, its boundary is to be identified by a
special line style. This boundary is visualized
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