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Notes, Jews in the USSR, 1917-2000 (0)

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Jonathan Dekel- Chen lectures, Jews in the USSR, 1917-2000
1937 census didn’t get published. 1939, pretty accurate for Js. 3.1 mill Js in pre- Molotov -Ribbentrop area. 1939, 2.2 mill. Js not shy about declaring Jewishness. Inherits 1.3 mill in Poland . Similar # annexed by Germ . 250,000 in Lithuania . 330,000 Bessarabia. Back to pre-1917 #s of Sov Jewry . 5 ½ mill of pre-war levels. Pre-mature deaths during famine of ’21-’22, ’31-’33, 7 years of war, emigration up to 1924 (vast majority to West , 3rd and 4th aliyahs). J pop growth still significant, high birth rates, but pop static. Grows more in SU than anywhere else – few leaving, pop growth significant. Vast majority in W borderlands. Very few emigrate during year and a half from annexed areas .
Germans occupied Leningrad - Moscow - Stalingrad , all and more of former Pale . 1939, started evacuating. Stalin thought 43-44, war. Purges, Winter War, military needed improvement, military industrial complex and factories and personnel moved E. Disassemble, move by rail beginning 1939. They know what happened in Spain, total war. Disproportionate # of Js in SU industry, moved E. Js involved in evacuation because of potential for betraying, wealthy capitalists? Crimean factories moved on kurdish straits. Uk factories not moved, Ger war too fast . Month and a half, most J kolkhozes moved. Also evacuated govt officials, those at risk. Also unorganized evacuation, not govt sponsored, those who had feeling , foot, train , cart, sometimes on own, sometimes sponsored by local or abroad org, hundreds of thousands. Many also leaving from C and W Europe . Hundreds of thousands E of Urals where almost no Js were before 1941, not GULag inmates, free SU citizens, living marginally, some employed. During war, major food and housing shortages, no infrastructure. Exiled suspect pops, class , natl enemies, tens of thousands from Crimean, Germans, Bulgarians, Tatars, once war started 41. Nationalist, including Zionist, leaders sent E as chauvinists, more efficient sovietization, 5th column potentiality, 50-60,000 Js, most survived the war. Factory owners, bank managers, large shopowners, ideological enemies. Also religious enemies, rabbis, cultural leaders, writers . Another group rounded up were refugees from Germ-occupied Poland, tens of thousands of mostly young Js. Couldn’t go S, Czechoslovakia annexed, Romania fascist and anti-Semitic, sea lanes closed, mostly E. SU identifies as suspect, could be a spy. J identity very different from SU J, more use of Yiddish, more traditional , state of mind diff . Germs had dumped Js on the border, green border policy . Registered as they came over the border, porous. 6 mill SU citizens deported internally, 1920-1952, policy for suspect groups.
What about everybody else? Sovietization mostly on urban centers, more keenly felt than on periphery. Farmers in Bessarabia, barely felt Sovietization, have a talk, mainly to get wine , gratice. 60,000 Polish Js removed, 39-41. 150,000 Js from annexed territories arrive in unoccupied parts. Birobidzhan? Political theater . Where to resettle millions of Js? Esp Ger, Romanian, Pol Js. No thought to SU Js. Birobidzhan bubbled up, some infrastructure, autonomous region to 36, benign. JDC, presence, resettling Js, feelers to SU, knows not ideal . Phillipines, Ghiana, Madagascar, not a lot of viable options. Not mentioned in Evian, under League of Nations, all about Js though not said. SU not interested in Ger/Pol Js, SU knows there will be war against capitalist world, Ger/Pol capitalists sort of. Dominican Republic the answer , 400-500 in 1940, never goes anywhere. Highest rate of Aliyah from former SU from Birobidzhan.
Holocaust – Erad’s book changed the face of research and teaching Holocaust in IL, Heb, not a whole lot in synthetic way in other langs. 2004, much less conjecture. Rev in 1960s -70s about Eur, not SU. Everywhere but SU, records about ind Js on pathways, ghettoization, labor , murder. SU, no Ger records, system fundamentally diff. Still probs w #s. 2/3 killing in camps, ghettos. 2 mill SU Js. Slave labor complex not known until recently, extensive throughout Europe. Not a straightforward subject, several subjects intertwined, SU Holocaust. Js dying en masse certainly at top. Context of total national mobilization for defeat of fascism. Unthinkable human suffering. Tens of mill SU citizens died, many more suffered. Yet regime would never admit, defeat of Germany meant taking up cause of Js. Rise in popular anti-Semitism, as Red Army losing battle , turns around 42-43. Decrease in anti-antisemitism. Dramatic shifts in J demography, not just deaths; color map, location of Js will change , no longer in Eur Russia .
What is written about first year or two of war? Why so hard to find info about what happened? Friendship of nations, collaboration? Wanted to demonize nationalist movements, wrote about this. Utter chaos, almost no SU records, infrastructure in free fall , continuous retreat, killed , captured. Front lines thousands of miles . Napoleon 600,000 troops, Dnieper, beeline for Moscow. Wehrmacht on 3 fronts. Winter of 42. Turnover of personnel. More interested in food, fuel, housing, incapable even of this. Germans did keep records, seemed to be invincible, records shipped back to Berlin , archives sacked. Zones of occupation, military and state archives in London, Moscow, Washington. Freedom of information acts filed, 1990s in Washington.
#s of Js – SU comm, asked locals, took samples by digging. Wanted to be able to tell citizens what fascists had done . Who were the victims? SU citizens, monuments, many in Yiddish.
25 February 2014
Trim down sources . Not a book report . Trim down topic. Take out Bartal. Edited volumes out, articles instead.
400,000 J soldiers in Imperial Russian Army WWI, also many Js in German Army. 450,000 J in Red Army, disproportionate, about 250,000 killed or seriously injured, 40% casualty rate amongst J soldiers, 25% in Red Army. Why higher ? Banal explanation, not conspiratorial answer usually right. Drafting begins after debacle after Winter War in Finland (win war at huge losses). Known that war will be on mainland. Mainly European Russia call-up. Js still in former Pale, European Russia. At front during first months and year of war w/o much training. Wehrmacht greatest fight force to time. Doesn’t matter if great fighter , won’t make it past first few months.
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Notes-Jews in the USSR-1917-2000 #1 Notes-Jews in the USSR-1917-2000 #2 Notes-Jews in the USSR-1917-2000 #3 Notes-Jews in the USSR-1917-2000 #4 Notes-Jews in the USSR-1917-2000 #5 Notes-Jews in the USSR-1917-2000 #6 Notes-Jews in the USSR-1917-2000 #7 Notes-Jews in the USSR-1917-2000 #8 Notes-Jews in the USSR-1917-2000 #9 Notes-Jews in the USSR-1917-2000 #10 Notes-Jews in the USSR-1917-2000 #11
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Jonathan Dekel-Chen lectures, Jews in the USSR, 1917-2000
Jonathan Dekel-Chen lectures , Jews in the USSR , Jonathan Dekel-Chen

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