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Introduction and history of the European Union (0)

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Introduction and history of the European Union

History

The European Union is set up with the aim of ending the frequent and bloody wars between neighbours, which culminated in the Second World War. The idea is that countries who trade with one another become economically interdependent and so more likely avoid conflict.The ancestor of the European Union is the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) which was created with the Treaty of Paris (1951) and was signed by France, Italy, Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg and West Germany (total of 6 countries). European Economic Community (EEC) was created with the Treaty of Rome (1958), establishing a customs union ( tolliliit ). The European Union (EU) was created by the Maastricht Treaty which came into effect on November 1st 1993.

Introduction

The European Union (EU) is an economic and political union.EU policies aim to ensure the free movement of people, goods, services , and capital, enact legislation in justice and home affairs, and maintain common policies on trade, agriculture, fisheries, and regional development . Within the Schengen Area, passport controls have been abolished.The monetary union was established in 1999 and came into full force in 2002. It is currently composed of 18 member states that use the euro as their legal tender.
At the moment there are 28 member states in the EU. To become a member, a country must meet the Copenhagen criteria. These require a stable democracy that respects human rights and the rule of law; a functioning marketeconomy; and the acceptance of the obligations of membership , including EU law. No member state has ever left the Union. After 1952, there have been 7 enlargements: 1973, 1981, 1986, 1995, 2004 (including Estonia), 2007, 2013. Most important 5 treaties ( lepingud ) till today are Paris, Rome, Brussels, Maastrict and Lisbon. Leaders: President of the Commission José Manuel Barroso and President of the European Council Herman Van Rompuy.

EU law

The European Union is based on the rule of law. This means that every action taken by the EU is founded on treaties that have been approved voluntarily and democratically by all EU member countries. A treaty is a binding agreement between EU member countries. It sets out EU objectives, rules for EU institutions , how decisions are made and the relationship between the EU and its member countries. European Union law is applied by the courts of member states and where the laws of member states provide for lesser rights European Union law can be enforced by the courts of member states.
European Union institutions
The European Union is governed by seven(7) institutions. Article 13 of the Treaty on European Union lists them in the following order :
  • the European Parliament
  • the European Council
  • the Council of the European Union (simply called "Council")
  • the European Commission
  • the Court of Justice of the European Union
  • the European Central Bank
  • the Court of Auditors
    Most EU institutions were created with the establishment of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) in the 1950s. Much change since then has been in the context the shifting of the power balance away from the Council and towards the Parliament.

    The European Parliament

    The European Parliament (EU Parliament or the EP) is the directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union. Together with the Council of the European Union (the Council) and the European Commission, it exercises the legislative function of the EU and it has been describedas one of the most powerful legislatures in the world. The Parliament is composed of 766 members , who represent the second largest democratic electorate in the world (after the Parliament of India). It has been directly elected every five years by universal suffrage since 1979.
    Although the European Parliament has legislative power that the Council and Commission do not possess, it does not formally possess legislative initiative, as most national parliaments of EU member states do. The Parliament is the " first institution" of the EU and shares equal legislative and budgetary powers with the Council. It likewise has equal control over the EU budget . The European Commission, the executive body of the EU, is accountable to Parliament. In particular , Parliament elects the President of the Commission, and approves (or rejects) the appointment of the Commission as a whole
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    Introduction and history of the European Union #1 Introduction and history of the European Union #2 Introduction and history of the European Union #3 Introduction and history of the European Union #4 Introduction and history of the European Union #5 Introduction and history of the European Union #6 Introduction and history of the European Union #7 Introduction and history of the European Union #8 Introduction and history of the European Union #9 Introduction and history of the European Union #10 Introduction and history of the European Union #11
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    Autor Isabel341 Õppematerjali autor

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    Konspekt Euroopa Liidu õiguse eksamiks, inglise keeles.
    court , member , parliament , mission , European Union , Introduction

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