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Inglise leksikoloogia kordamisküsimuste vastused (2)

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LEXICOLOGY
  • Size of English vocabulary
    1) Old English – 50,000 to 60,000 words
    OE – homogeneous; 1/3 of the vocabulary has survived
    About 450 Latin loans (Amosova)
    Viking invasions added 2,000
    2) Middle English – 100,000 – 125,000
    English becomes heterogeneous (Norman French , English, Latin), hybrid of Germanic and Romance languages
    Norman French influence – about 10,000 words, 75 % are still in use (Baugh)
    Latin influence continues
    3) Early Modern English – 200,000 – 250,000
    English becomes a polycentric language ; polyglot, cosmopolitan language
    4) Modern English – 500,000 words (OED)
    At present at least 1 billion lexical units
    Vocabulary of Shakespeare
    • 884,647 words of running text
    • 29,000 different words (incl. work, working,
    worked, which are counted here as separate
    words)
    • 21,000 words
  • Core and periphery
    Core vocabulary – often short (monosyllabic) words of Germanic and Old Norse origin = ie core vocabulary of most frequent words, and vague fuzzy peripherial words. Core meaning is the meaning which is at the centre of the word.periphery – vague.
    Formal usage (often polysyllabic words) from Norman French (rank, courtliness,refinement).
    Learning, science, abstraction: Latin, and Greek .
    The core vocabulary is predominantly Germanic (the, I, you, etc.) Only 4 of the topranked one hundred words in the Brown
    Corpus are of foreign origin. 93 of the first one hundred words in the Brown Corpus are monosyllabic, and the remaining have two syllables (only, about, other , also, many even people)
    Origin of the ten 10000 most frequent words:
    • Old English 31.8 %
    • French 45 %
    • Latin 16.7 %
    • Other Germanic languages 4.2 %
    • Other languages 2.3 %
    Example of stratification
    heart
    core ME [origin unknown] (!)
    cardiac LME [Fr. cardiaque or L cardiacus adjs., f.
    Gk kardiakos, f. kardia]
    cordial ME [med.L cordialis, f. cor(d-) heart]
    They suggest that it is not clear where a word ceases to be part of the English language as there are different levels of technicality, foreignness, and so on. An item like heart is core and should be located in the centre of the diagram, whereas an item like cordial is probably more literary (more likely to be written than spoken), whereas an item like cardiac is more scientific (and perhaps more technical as well). If you refer to your heart as your ticker, you have chosen a more colloquial or slangy term .
  • Native and foreign element.
    Native vocabulary. 3 strata:
    Indo-European words
    names of close relatives, names of natural objects, parts of the body , numerals
    mother , father , night, foot, heart, bear (bore, born), see
    Germanic words
    friend , bridge, ship , life, heaven, glass, death, make v, meet v
    Old English words
    Bad, bird , woman , lady , daisy, gospel
    23,000 – 24,000 items . Only about 3 % are of non-Germanic origin. Etymologically homogeneous. 65-85% of the Old English (OE) vocabulary has been lost
  • Latin borrowings
    From 43 AD to 410 AD Britain was a province of the Roman Empire. Celts in Britain when the Germanic tribes arrived were speakers of both Celtic and Latin. There may also have been contacts with the continent after the Germanic settlement of Britain.
    continental borrowings
    Latin (continental): cheap, pepper, street , mile, butter, cheese, wine, inch, ounce, pound, kitchen, plum, cup, dish, mint
    castrum ‘a Roman encampment or fortress’
    Manchester, Gloucester, Leicester, Worcester, Doncaster, Chester
    colonia - Lincoln
    vicus village ’ - Greenwich, Harwich
    fossa ‘ditch’ - Fossbrook
    religious (6-7th centuries )
    mass, monk, nun, bishop, abbot, minster, apostle, pope, altar, hymn, angel , devil
    literary (renaissance)
    democratic, juvenile, sophisticated, aberration, enthusiasm, pernicious, imaginary, allusion, anachronism, dexterity
    scientific (17th-18th centuries)
    nucleus , formula, vertebra, corpuscle, atomic,carnivorous, incubate, aqueous, molecule
    The plurals of nucleus, verterbra, corpus, etc.
    Latin abbreviations in English
    i.e. = id est that is to say viz = namely etc = et cetera
    Latin adjectives for English nouns
    nose – nasal sun – solar son – filial mother – maternal
    mouth – oral moon – lunar daughter – filial father – paternal stone – lithic
  • Greek borrowings
    The Greek language has contributed 50,000 words to the world. Christianity: New Testament in Greek. Catholic Church – Scclesiastical Latin.
    Examples : abbot, angel, apostle, bishop; school, cylinder, cycle, criterion, dialogue, cardiac, phonetic, gymnasium, marathon (pentathlon, biathlon), athlete, diagnosis, prognosis, analysis , epic , drama, poem , comedy, poetry, theatre, epilogue, prologue, metaphor.
  • Celtic borrowings
    Welsh: walnut, bannock a round flat cake of oatmeal,bin, clan loch, sea, slogan
    Celtic personal names:
    Arthur ‘high, noble’ Donald ‘proud chief’ Mac ‘son of’ (Scottish) O’ ‘son of’ (Irish) O’Connor
  • Scandinavian borrowings
    1,000 words, in some sources 2,000
    closed class words: they, them , their
    Danelaw; take, call , cast, hit, thrive, want, raise , widow, husband , fellow, sky, skirt, ski, skin , skill, law, ill, odd, ugly, bread
  • French borrowings
    administration, law, culture, fashion , religion
    crown, court , power, authority, parliament, government, peace, battle, arms, enemy, armour, service, saint, miracle, clergy, sacrifice, chase , scent, falcon, quarry, forest , retrieve, colour , image , design, beauty, music, romance, costume, garment, apparel, dress , train, arch , tower, vault, column, transept.
    grades of aristocracy
    baron, count , countess, duke, duchess, page, marquise, prinke
    Normans ‘adopted’ king , queen, lord, lady
    leisure and pastimes
    cards, chess, the chase, conversation, dice, dance, leisure, recreation, tournament, sport
    culinary words methods of preparing food
    veal, beef, mutton, venison,pork, ham,
    roast, boil, fry
    Norman French (ei – veil, leisure) vs Central French (oi)
  • Spanish borrowings
    Armada, comrade, renegade, flotilla, cockroach, embargo, mosquito, vanilla, cargo, sombrero, siesta, tango, canyon, cigar, tabacco, cafeteria, cocoa, chocolate, chilli, tomato, potato, avocado, tortilla, anchovy, canoe, maze, gringo, tequila, stampede, burrito, bongo, taco, sangria, cha-cha, rumba, ambo, macho, fajita, margarita, cojones
  • Italian borrowings
    music
    opera, piano, solo, soprano, baritone, trio, libretto, concert, violin
    art and architecture, literature
    studio, miniature, balcony, dome, sonnet
    fashion and garments
    umbrella
    mlitary
    battalion, squad, colonel, cavalry, infantry,
    misc
    bimbo, fiasco, influenza , volcano, lava, manifesto,
    Food
    macaroni, vermicelli, pizza, pasta, spaghetti, broccoli, zucchini, tutti-frutti, tiramisu
  • German borrowings
    metals and minerals
    zinc, nickel, quartz
    military
    mauser, rucksack, blitzkrieg
    food
    sauerkraut, bratwurst, lager, schnapps, schnitzel, frankfurter,
    dog
    daschhund, poodle, dobermann,
    misc
    kindergarten, diesel, fuchsia, gerbera, waltz, masterpiece
  • Borrowings from Asian languages
    Hindi: wallah (in charge of specific thing ), curry, juggernaut (lorry), bungalow (from bangla), jungle, bandana, punch (drink), verandah
    Arabic: alcohol (alcool) , sugar, camel, elixir, algebra
    Japanese: kamikaze, karaoke, ramen, bonsai, ikebana, tofu, tsunami, origami, shiatsu
  • Dutch ad Afrikaans borrowings
    nautical terms
    boom, buoy, yacht, skipper, dock, cruise,
    art
    easel, landscape
    misc
    dollar, brandy, tattoo, buckwheat, boss , cookie, coleslaw, apartheid (Afrik), trek (Afrik), tsetse (Afrik)
    NY place names
    The Bronx (Jonas Bronck), Harlem, Brooklyn,
  • Etymological doublets
    Doublet – one of two or more words derived from one source:
    fragile (fragilis), frail (frele) • Triplet – three such
  • 80% sisust ei kuvatud. Kogu dokumendi sisu näed kui laed faili alla
    Vasakule Paremale
    Inglise leksikoloogia kordamisküsimuste vastused #1 Inglise leksikoloogia kordamisküsimuste vastused #2 Inglise leksikoloogia kordamisküsimuste vastused #3 Inglise leksikoloogia kordamisküsimuste vastused #4 Inglise leksikoloogia kordamisküsimuste vastused #5 Inglise leksikoloogia kordamisküsimuste vastused #6 Inglise leksikoloogia kordamisküsimuste vastused #7 Inglise leksikoloogia kordamisküsimuste vastused #8 Inglise leksikoloogia kordamisküsimuste vastused #9 Inglise leksikoloogia kordamisküsimuste vastused #10 Inglise leksikoloogia kordamisküsimuste vastused #11 Inglise leksikoloogia kordamisküsimuste vastused #12
    Punktid 100 punkti Autor soovib selle materjali allalaadimise eest saada 100 punkti.
    Leheküljed ~ 12 lehte Lehekülgede arv dokumendis
    Aeg2015-01-28 Kuupäev, millal dokument üles laeti
    Allalaadimisi 32 laadimist Kokku alla laetud
    Kommentaarid 2 arvamust Teiste kasutajate poolt lisatud kommentaarid
    Autor eva9 Õppematerjali autor

    Lisainfo

    Põhjalikud ja konkreetsed vastused Inglise leksikoloogia kordamisküsimustele. Kasutatud on õppejõu slaide ja muid allikaid (mitte wikipedia). Töö tegemiseks läks ~8 tundi
    leksikoloogia , kordamisküsimused , english lexicology , revision questions , review questions

    Mõisted


    Meedia

    Kommentaarid (2)

    IrisSol profiilipilt
    IrisSol: Konspekti tuleb hoolikalt jälgida - palju ebatäpsusi, kirjavigu jms, mis võib päris tõsiselt segadusse ajada. Internetist kindlasti lisainfot otsida ja abiks on ka teised kättesaadavad konspektid. Puhtalt selle konspekti pealt eksamit ei soorita.
    12:11 16-01-2017
    Martin_ profiilipilt
    19:22 11-01-2016


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