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1·1
Chapter 1 Routine maintenance and servicing
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Contents Air cleaner element renewal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34 Fuel filter renewal - fuel injection engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36 Alternator drivebelt check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 Hinge and lock check and lubrication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31 Automatic transmission fluid level check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 Idle speed and mixture adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Automatic transmission selector mechanism check . . . . . . . . . . . .28 Ignition system components check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Battery check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Ignition timing check - models with contact breaker distributor . . .14 Brake components check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38 Intensive maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Brake fluid renewal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Contact breaker points adjustment - models with contact Manual transmission oil level check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26 breaker distributor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Oil filler cap cleaning - OHV and HCS engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Contact breaker points renewal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 Rear brake shoe lining check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 Coolant renewal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 Road test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32 Crankcase emission control filter renewal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 Roadwheel check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 Distributor lubrication - models with contact breaker distributor . .12 Seat belt check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 Driveshaft check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 Spark plug renewal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 Engine oil and filter renewal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Spark plug renewal - RS Turbo models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Exhaust manifold nut check - RS Turbo models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Suspension and steering check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 Exhaust system check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22 Timing belt renewal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37 Fluid leak check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Turbocharger-to-manifold nut check - RS Turbo models . . . . . . . .23 Fluid level checks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Tyre checks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Front brake disc pad check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 Valve clearance adjustment - OHV and HCS engines . . . . . . . . . . .21
Degrees of difficulty Easy , suitable for Fairly easy, suitable Fairly difficult, suitable Difficult, suitable for Very difficult, novice with little for beginner with for competent DIY experienced DIY suitable for expert DIY experience some experience mechanic mechanic or professional 1·2 Servicing Specifications
Engine Oil filter type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Champion C104 Valve clearances ( cold ): OHV engines: Inlet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.22 mm (0.008 in) Exhaust . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.59 mm (0.023 in) HCS engines: Inlet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.22 mm (0.008 in) Exhaust . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.32 mm (0.012 in)
Cooling system Recommended antifreeze concentration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45% by volume
Fuel system Idle speed: Carburettor models: All except Weber 2V TLDM carburettor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 750 to 850 rpm Weber 2V TLDM carburettor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 700 to 800 rpm Bosch K-Jetronic fuel injection models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 750 to 850 rpm Bosch KE-Jetronic fuel injection models: 1985 models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 800 to 900 rpm 1986 models onwards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 920 to 960 rpm Electronic Fuel Injection (EFI) models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 900 ± 50 rpm Idle mixture CO content: Bosch K-Jetronic fuel injection models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.0 to 1.5 % Bosch KE-Jetronic fuel injection models: 1985 models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.25 to 0.75% 1986 models onwards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.5 to 1.1% Electronic Fuel Injection (EFI) models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.8 ± 0.25% (cooling fan running ) Air filter element type: 1.1 litre and 1.3 litre OHV engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Champion W153 1.1 litre and 1.3 litre HCS engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Champion W225 1.1 litre and 1.3 litre CVH engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Champion W127 1.4 litre CVH engine: Carburettor engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Champion W179 Central Fuel Injection (CFI) engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Champion W201 1.6 litre CVH engine (except XR3 models): Up to 1986 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Champion W169 1986 to October 1988 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Champion W201 October 1988 on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Champion W226 1.6 litre CVH engine (XR3 models) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Champion W201
Ignition system Contact breaker points gap: Bosch distributor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.40 to 0.50 mm (0.016 to 0.02 in) Lucas distributor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.40 to 0.59 mm (0.016 to 0.023 in) Dwell angle (contact breaker ignition system) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48º to 52º Ignition timing *: OHV engines: Up to 1984 (contact breaker) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12º BTDC at idle speed 1984-on (contact breaker) and all electronic ignition . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6º BTDC at idle speed CVH engines (all models) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12º BTDC at idle speed * Note : Ignition timing on models with either a Distributorless Ignition Sytem (DIS) or a programmed ignition system (ESC) cannot be adjusted. Refer to Chapter 5, Part B for further information. Spark plugs: Type: OHV and HCS engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Champion RS9YCC or RS9YC CVH engines: Carburettor models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Champion RC7YCC or RC7YC Bosch K-Jetronic fuel injection and Electronic Fuel Injection (EFI) models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Champion C6YCC or RC6YC Bosch KE-Jetronic fuel injection models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Champion C61YC Central Fuel Injection (CFI) models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Champion RC7YCC or RC7YC4 Electrode gap: All except HCS and CFI models: RS9YCC, RC7YCC, C6YCC spark plugs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.8 mm (0.032 in) RS9YC, RC7YC, RC6YC, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.7 mm (0.028 in) HCS and CFI models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.0 mm (0.039 in) Servicing Specifications 1·3
Brakes Minimum front brake disc pad thickness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5 mm (0.06 in) Minimum rear brake shoe lining thickness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.0 mm (0.04 in)
Tyres Tyre pressures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . See "Weekly checks" on page 0·16
Torque wrench settings Nm lbf ft Exhaust manifold nuts - RS Turbo models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 to 17 10 to 13 Turbocharger-to-manifold nuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 to 26 15 to 19 Spark plugs: OHV and HCS engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 to 20 10 to 15 CVH engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 to 38 18 to 28 Seat belt anchor bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 to 41 21 to 30 Roadwheel bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 to 100 52 to 74
Capacities Engine oil (drain and refill) OHV engine: With filter change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.25 litres (5.7 pints ) Without filter change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.75 litres (4.8 pints) CVH engine: Carburettor engines with filter change: Pre- July 1982 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.75 litres (6.6 pints) July 1982 onwards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.50 litres (6.2 pints) 1 Carburettor engines without filter change: Pre-July 1982 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.50 litres (6.2 pints) July 1982 onwards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.25 litres (5.7 pints) Fuel- injected engines with filter change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.85 litres (6.8 pints) Fuel-injected engines without filter change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.60 litres (6.3 pints) Fuel tank All models (except XR3i and Van) pre-May 1983 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 litres (8.8 gallons) All other models (except Van) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 litres (10.6 gallons) Van . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 litres (11.0 gallons) Cooling system 1.1 litre OHV engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.7 litres (11.8 pints) 1.1 litre CVH engine: With small radiator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2 litres (11.0 pints) With large radiator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2 litres (12.6 pints) 1.3 litre OHV engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.1 litres (12.5 pints) 1.3 litre CVH engine: Pre-1986 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.1 litres (12.5 pints) 1986 onwards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.6 litres (13.3 pints) 1.4 litre CVH engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.6 litres (13.3 pints) 1.6 litre CVH engine: Pre-1986 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.9 litres (12.1 pints) 1986 onwards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.8 litres (13.7 pints) Transmission 4-speed manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.8 litres (4.9 pints) 5-speed manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1 litres (5.5 pints) Automatic transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.9 litres (13.9 pints)
Ford Escort maintenance schedule The maintenance intervals in this manual are provided with the If the vehicle is driven in dusty areas , used to tow a trailer , or driven assumption that you, not the dealer, will be carrying out the work . These frequently at slow speeds ( idling in traffic ) or on short journeys, more are the minimum maintenance intervals recommended by the frequent maintenance intervals are recommended. manufacturer for vehicles driven daily . If you wish to keep your vehicle When the vehicle is new, it should be serviced by a factory - in peak condition at all times , you may wish to perform some of these authorised dealer service department , in order to preserve the factory procedures more often. We encourage frequent maintenance, because warranty. it enhances the efficiency, performance and resale value of your vehicle. 1·4 Maintenance schedule
Every 12 000 miles (20 000 km) or 12 months - whichever comes first Every 250 miles (400 km) or weekly In addition to all the items in the 6000 mile (10 000 km) service, carry out the following : See "Weekly checks" On OHV and HCS engines check and if necessary adjust the valve clearances ( Section 21) Check the exhaust system condition and security (Section 22) Every 6000 miles (10 000 km) or On RS Turbo models check the tightness of the turbocharger-to-manifold nuts (Section 23) 6 months ­ whichever comes first Renew the spark plugs (Sections 24 and 15) In addition to all the items in the 250 mile (400 km) service, carry On contact breaker point distributors renew the contact out the following: breaker points (Section 25) Renew the engine oil and filter (Section 6) Check and if necessary top-up the manual transmission On OHV and HCS engines, remove and clean the oil oil (Section 26) filler cap (Section 7) Check the automatic transmission fluid level - where Check the hoses, hose clips and visible joint gaskets for applicable (Section 27) leaks and any signs of corrosion or deterioration (Section 8) Check the operation of the automatic transmission Visually check the fuel pipes and hoses for security, selector mechanism (Section 28) chafing, leaks and corrosion (Section 8) Check the driveshafts for damage or distortion and Check the fuel tank for leaks and any sign of damage or check the condition of the constant velocity joint corrosion (Section 8) bellows (Section 29) On RS Turbo models check the tightness of the Inspect the roadwheels for damage (Section 30) exhaust manifold retaining nuts (Section 9) Check the tightness of the roadwheel bolts (Section 30) Check and if necessary adjust the idle speed and Lubricate all hinges , door locks, check straps and the mixture settings (Section 10) bonnet release mechanism (Section 31) Clean the distributor cap, coil tower and HT leads and Check the operation of all door, tailgate , bonnet release check for tracking (Section 11) and window regulator components (Section 31) On contact breaker point distributors lubricate the Carry out a road test (Section 32) distributor shaft and cam (Section 12) On contact breaker point distributors check and if necessary adjust the points gap (dwell angle), then Every 24 000 miles (40 000 km) or check the ignition timing (Sections 13 and 14) On RS Turbo models renew the spark plugs (Section 15) 2 years - whichever comes first Check the front disc pad thickness (Section 16) In addition to all the items in the 12 000 mile (20 000 km) and Check the rear brake shoe lining thickness (Section 17) 6000 mile (10 000 km) services , carry out the following: Check the steering and suspension components for Renew the coolant (Section 33) any signs of damage and wear (Section 18) Renew the air cleaner element (Section 34) Check the security of the front suspension lower arm On CVH engines renew the crankcase emission control balljoint (Section 18) filter (Section 35) Check the seat belt webbing for cuts or damage and On fuel-injected engines renew the fuel filter (Section 36) check the seat belt operation (Section 19) Carefully inspect the paintwork for damage and the bodywork for corrosion (Chapter 11) Every 36 000 miles (60 000 km) or Check the condition and adjustment of the alternator 3 years - whichever comes first drivebelt (Section 20) In addition to all the items listed in the previous services, carry out the following: On CVH engines renew the timing belt (Section 37) Make a thorough inspection of all brake components and rubber seals for signs of leaks, general deterioration and wear (Section 38) Renew the brake fluid (Section 39) Maintenance - Component location 1·5
Engine and under bonnet component location on 1986 1.4 litre models (air cleaner removed for clarity)
1 Fuse and relay box 2 Windscreen wiper motor 3 Engine oil dipstick 4 Carburettor 5 Fuel pump 6 Battery negative terminal 7 Brake master cylinder reservoir 8 Distributor 9 Ignition coil 10 Washer reservoir 11 Thermostat housing 12 Oil filler cap 13 Vehicle identification plate 14 Engine tuning decal 15 Cooling system expansion tank 16 Suspension strut top mounting
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Engine and under bonnet component locations on 1986 RS Turbo models
1 Fuse and relay box 2 Windscreen wiper motor 3 Crankcase emission control filter 4 Engine oil dipstick 5 Throttle housing 6 Inlet manifold 7 Throttle position sensor 8 Charge air temperature sensor 9 Distributor 10 Brake master cylinder reservoir 11 Battery negative terminal 12 Ignition coil 13 Fuel filter 14 Washer reservoir 15 Air cleaner 16 Fuel distributor 17 Inlet air hose 18 Turbocharger 19 Vehicle identification plate 20 Engine tuning decal 21 Cooling system expansion tank 22 Suspension strut top mounting 1·6 Maintenance - Component location
Engine and underbonnet components location on 1989 1.3 litre HCS model (air cleaner removed for clarity)
1 Ventilation air inlet duct 2 Battery 3 Bonnet hinge 4 Suspension strut upper mounting 5 Brake system fluid reservoir 6 Ignition system ESC module 7 Windscreen washer reservoir filler cap 8 Transmission housing 9 Clutch release lever 10 Cooling fan motor 11 Starter motor 12 Engine oil filler neck (cap removed) 13 Exhaust manifold shield 14 Alternator 15 Coolant thermostat and fan thermal switch 16 Coolant expansion tank 17 Spark plug HT leads 18 Engine oil dipstick 19 Throttle cable 20 Choke cable 21 Carburettor 22 Fusebox 23 Windscreen wiper motor
Front underbody view of a 1986 1.4 litre Saloon model
1 Anti-roll bar clamp 2 Anti-roll bar 3 Front suspension lower arm 4 Steering tie-rod 5 Transmission support crossmember 6 Gearchange rod 7 Gearchange stabiliser 8 Driveshaft 9 Engine oil drain plug 10 Brake caliper 11 Alternator 12 Exhaust front pipe 13 Starter motor Maintenance procedures 1·7
Rear underbody view of a 1986 1.4 litre Saloon model
1 Fuel filler pipe 2 Suspension lower arm 3 Tie-bar 4 Tie-bar front mounting 5 Fuel tank 6 Handbrake cable adjuster 7 Exhaust mounting 8 Exhaust intermediate silencer 9 Exhaust rear silencer 10 Rear towing eye
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another . For example, if the vehicle is raised If engine wear is suspected, a compression for any reason , the exhaust can be inspected test will provide valuable information 1 Introduction at the same time as the suspension and regarding the overall performance of the main steering components. internal components. Such a test can be used The first step in this maintenance program as a basis to decide on the extent of the work General information is to prepare yourself before the actual work to be carried out. If for example a This Chapter is designed to help the home begins . Read through all the Sections relevant compression test indicates serious internal mechanic maintain his/her vehicle for safety , to the work to be carried out, then make a list engine wear, conventional maintenance as economy , long life and peak performance. and gather together all the parts and tools described in this Chapter will not greatly The Chapter contains a master required . If a problem is encountered, seek improve the performance of the engine, and maintenance schedule, followed by Sections advice from a parts specialist , or a dealer may prove a waste of time and money , unless dealing specifically with each task on the service department. extensive overhaul work is carried out first. schedule. Visual checks, adjustments, The following series of operations are those component renewal and other helpful items most often required to improve the are included . Refer to the accompanying 2 Intensive maintenance performance of a generally poor -running illustrations of the engine compartment and engine. the underside of the vehicle for the locations If, from the time the vehicle is new, the a) Clean, inspect and test the battery of the various components. routine maintenance schedule is followed (Section 5). Servicing of your vehicle in accordance with closely and frequent checks are made of fluid b) Check the levels of all the engine related the mileage/time maintenance schedule and levels and high wear items, as suggested fluids (Section 3). the following Sections will provide a planned maintenance program, which should result in throughout this manual, the engine will be c) Check the condition and tension of the a long and reliable service life. This is a kept in relatively good running condition and alternator drivebelt (Section 20). comprehensive plan, so maintaining some the need for additional work will be minimised. d) Check the condition of the spark plugs items but not others at the specified service It is possible that there will be times when and renew if necessary (Section 15). intervals will not produce the same results . the engine is running poorly due to the lack of e) Check the condition of the air cleaner As you service your vehicle, you will regular maintenance. This is even more likely element, and renew if necessary (Sec- discover that many of the procedures can - if a used vehicle, which has not received tion 34). and should - be grouped together because of regular and frequent maintenance checks, is f) Check the condition of all hoses and the particular procedure being performed, or purchased . In such cases , additional work check for fluid leaks. because of the close proximity of two may need to be carried out, outside of the g) Check and if necessary adjust the idle otherwise unrelated components to one regular maintenance intervals. speed (where possible) (Section 10). 1·8 Maintenance procedures
Weekly checks
3 Fluid level checks 4 Tyre checks 5 Battery check
See "Weekly checks" starting on Page 0·10. See "Weekly checks" starting on Page 0·10. See "Weekly checks" starting on Page 0·10.
Every 6000 miles or 6 months 3 Remove the oil filler cap from the rocker cover , 9 Use a clean rag to remove all oil, dirt and then position a container beneath the sump. sludge from the filter sealing area on the 6 Engine oil and filter renewal engine. Check the old filter to make sure that 4 Clean the drain plug and the area around it, then slacken it using a suitable socket or the rubber sealing ring hasn't stuck to the 1 Frequent oil and filter changes are the most spanner (see illustration). If possible, try to engine. If it has, carefully remove it. important preventative maintenance keep the plug pressed into the sump while 10 Apply a light coating of clean oil to the procedures that can be undertaken by the DIY unscrewing it by hand the last couple of turns. sealing ring on the new filter, then screw it into owner . As engine oil ages , it becomes diluted As the plug releases from the threads, move it position on the engine. Tighten the filter firmly and contaminated, which leads to premature away sharply so the stream of oil issuing from by hand only - do not use any tools. Wipe engine wear. the sump runs into the container, not up your clean the exterior of the oil filter. 2 Before starting this procedure, gather sleeve! 11 Remove the old oil and all tools from together all the necessary tools and materials. 5 Allow some time for the old oil to drain, under the vehicle, then (if applicable) lower the noting that it may be necessary to reposition vehicle to the ground . Also make sure that you have plenty of clean 12 Fill the engine with the specified quantity rags and newspapers handy to mop up any the container as the oil flow slows to a trickle. and grade of oil, as described in "Weekly spills. Ideally, the engine oil should be warm , 6 After all the oil has drained, wipe off the checks". Pour the oil in slowly, otherwise it as it will drain better and more built -up sludge drain plug with a clean rag and check the may overflow from the top of the rocker cover. will be removed with it. Take care, however , condition of the sealing washer. Renew the Check that the oil level is up to the correct not to touch the exhaust or any other hot washer if necessary. Clean the area around level on the dipstick, then refit and tighten the parts of the engine when working under the the drain plug opening, then refit and tighten oil filler cap. vehicle. To avoid any possibility of scalding, the plug to the specified torque setting . 13 Run the engine for a few minutes, and and to protect yourself from possible skin 7 Move the container into position under the check that there are no leaks around the oil irritants and other harmful contaminants in oil filter. The oil filter is located at the rear of filter seal and the sump drain plug. used engine oils, it is advisable to wear rubber the cylinder block, and is accessible from 14 Switch off the engine and wait a few gloves when carrying out this work. Access to under the vehicle (see illustration) minutes for the oil to settle in the sump once the underside of the vehicle will be greatly 8 Using an oil filter removal tool , slacken the more. With the new oil circulated and the filter improved if it can be raised on a lift , driven filter initially. Loosely wrap some rags around now completely full , recheck the level on the onto ramps or jacked up and supported on the oil filter, then unscrew it and immediately dipstick and add more oil if necessary. axle stands (see "Jacking and Vehicle position it with its open end uppermost to 15 Dispose of the used engine oil safely with Support"). Whichever method is chosen, prevent further spillage of oil. Remove the oil reference to "General repair procedures" in make sure that the vehicle remains as level as filter from the engine compartment and empty the Reference Sections at the end of this possible, to enable the oil to drain fully. the oil into the container. manual.
6.4 Engine oil drain plug (arrowed) - 6.7 Oil filter location - CVH engine CVH engine Every 6000 miles or 6 Months 1·9
Follow the lines to the front of the vehicle Models with Ford VV carburettor 7 Oil filler cap cleaning - OHV carefully inspecting them all the way. Renew and HCS engines damaged sections as necessary. Idle speed 8 From within the engine compartment, 1 With the engine at normal operating 1 Simply pull the oil filler cap from the rocker check the security of all fuel hose attachments temperature, connect a tachometer in cover and, where applicable, disconnect the and pipe unions, and inspect the fuel hoses accordance with the manufacturer's hose(s) from the cap. and vacuum hoses for kinks, chafing and instructions. 2 Inspect the filler cap, and if necessary clean deterioration. 2 Disconnect the wiring multi -plug from the the cap using clean petrol to remove any 9 Where applicable, check the condition of radiator cooling fan thermostatic switch in the deposits. the oil cooler hoses and pipes. thermostat housing and bridge the two 3 Ensure that the cap is completely dry 10 Check the condition of all exposed wiring contacts in the plug using a suitable length of before refitting. harnesses. wire . This is necessary so that the cooling fan 11 Also check the engine and transmission runs continuously during adjustment. components for signs of fluid leaks. 3 On automatic transmission models slacken 8 Fluid leak check the adjuster screw on the throttle valve shaft 9 Exhaust manifold nut check - lever to give clearance of 2 to 3 mm (0.079 to RS Turbo models 0.118 in) - see Chapter 7, Part B. 1 Visually inspect the engine joint faces, 4 Ensure that the air cleaner is fitted and that gaskets and seals for any signs of water or oil Check the tightness of the exhaust its vacuum hoses are not in any way trapped leaks. Pay particular attention to the areas manifold securing nuts using a torque wrench. or pinched, particularly between the air cleaner around the rocker cover, cylinder head, oil body and the top face of the carburettor. filter and sump joint faces. Bear in mind that 5 Run the engine at 3000 rpm for 30 seconds , over a period of time some very slight 10 Idle speed and mixture then allow it to idle and note the idle speed. If seepage from these areas is to be expected adjustment using an exhaust gas analyser it should be but what you are really looking for is any noted that initially the CO% reading will rise , indication of a serious leak. Should a leak be Caution: Certain adjustment but then fall and stabilise after a period of 5 to 1 found , renew the offending gasket or oil seal 25 seconds. The CO reading should then be by referring to the appropriate Chapter(s) in points in the fuel system are protected by "tamperproof" as specified. this manual. caps , plugs or seals. In some Idle mixture 2 Similarly , check the transmission for oil EEC countries (though not yet in the UK) leaks, and investigate and rectify and 6 If necessary, adjust the idle speed it is an offence to drive a vehicle with problems found. adjustment screw to give the specified idle broken or missing tamperproof seals. 3 Check the security and condition of all the speed (see illustration). Before disturbing a tamperproof seal, engine related pipes and hoses. Ensure that 7 Adjustment of the CO content (mixture) is satisfy yourself that you will not be all cable-ties or securing clips are in place and not normally required during routine breaking any local or national laws by in good condition. Clips which are broken or maintenance, but if the reading noted in doing so, and fit a new seal after missing can lead to chafing of the hoses, paragraph 5 is not as given in the adjustment is complete where required by pipes or wiring which could cause more Specifications first remove the tamperproof law. Do not break tamperproof seals on a serious problems in the future. plug, prising it free using a small screwdriver. vehicle which is still under warranty. 4 Carefully check the condition of all coolant, 8 Run the engine at 3000 rpm for 30 seconds, fuel and brake hoses. Renew any hose which then allow it to idle. Adjust the mixture screw Note: Before carrying out any carburettor is cracked, swollen or deteriorated. Cracks (see illustration 10.6) within 30 seconds. If adjustment, ensure that the contact breaker will show up better if the hose is squeezed. more time is required run the engine at 3000 points, ignition timing and spark plug gaps (as Pay close attention to the hose clips that rpm again for 30 seconds. applicable) are set as specified and that the secure the hoses to the system components. 9 Adjust the idle speed if necessary and distributor is operating correctly (where Hose clips can pinch and puncture hoses, recheck the CO content. applicable). To carry out the adjustments an resulting in leaks. If wire type hose clips are 10 Fit a new tamperproof plug to the mixture accurate tachometer will be required and the used, it may be a good idea to replace them adjuster screw on completion. It should be use of an exhaust gas analyser (CO meter ) is with screw-type clips. noted that mixture adjustment without a CO also preferable. 5 With the vehicle raised, inspect the fuel analyser is not accurate and therefore not tank and filler neck for punctures, cracks and recommended. other damage. The connection between the 11 On completion disconnect the filler neck and tank is especially critical . instruments , remove the cooling fan bridging Sometimes a rubber filler neck or connecting wire and reconnect the multi-plug. hose will leak due to loose retaining clamps or 12 On automatic transmission models adjust deteriorated rubber. the downshift linkage (Chapter 7, Part B). 6 Similarly, inspect all brake hoses and metal pipes. If any damage or deterioration is Models with Weber 2V carburettor discovered , do not drive the vehicle until the 13 The procedure is the same as for the Ford necessary repair work has been carried out. VV carburettor as described previously in this Renew any damaged sections of hose or pipe. Section, but the adjusting screw locations are 7 Carefully check all rubber hoses and metal as shown (see illustrations). fuel lines leading away from the petrol tank. Check for loose connections, deteriorated Models with Bosch K-Jetronic hoses, crimped lines and other damage. Pay fuel injection system particular attention to the vent pipes and 10.6 Idle speed adjustment screw (A) and 14 The idle speed and fuel mixture hoses which often loop up around the filler mixture adjustment screw (B) - Ford VV adjustments will normally only be required neck and can become blocked or crimped. carburettor after the installation of new components. 1·10 Every 6000 miles or 6 Months
10.13a Weber 2V carburettor idle speed adjustment screw (A) and 10.13b Weber 2V carburettor mixture adjustment screw (A) and mixture screw (B) - XR3 and 1.4 litre models idle speed adjustment screw (B) - 1.6 litre models
Refer to the caution at the beginning of this Hook out the plug with a sharp pointed tool to 24 If the mixture adjustment cannot be Section before proceeding. gain access. finalised within 30 seconds from the moment 15 On early models the idle speed 17 Before making any adjustments, warm the of stabilising the exhaust gases, repeat the adjustment screw is located on the rear of the engine up to normal operating temperature operations in paragraph 18 before continuing throttle housing, but access is severely limited and connect a tachometer in accordance with the adjustment procedure. unless the heater plenum chamber top cover the manufacturer's instructions. 25 On completion fit a new tamperproof plug is removed as described in Chapter 4, Part B 18 Increase the engine speed to 3000 rpm and disconnect the tachometer and exhaust (see illustration). and hold it at this speed for 30 seconds, then gas analyser. 16 On later models the idle speed adjustment allow the engine to idle, check the tachometer screw is located on top of the throttle housing reading and if necessary turn the idle speed Models with Bosch KE-Jetronic beneath a tamperproof plug (see illustration). adjustment screw as required until the engine fuel injection system is idling at the specified speed. 26 The idle speed and fuel mixture 19 To check the mixture adjustment an adjustments will normally only be required exhaust gas analyser is needed and should be after the installation of new components. connected in accordance with the 27 The idle speed adjustment screw is manufacturer's instructions. A 3 mm Allen key located on the side of the throttle housing will also be required to make any adjustments. (see illustration). 20 Before making any adjustments to the 28 Before making any adjustments, warm the mixture, ensure that the idle speed is correct. engine up to normal operating temperature 21 Remove the tamperproof plug from the and connect a tachometer in accordance with top of the mixture adjustment screw tube on the manufacturer's instructions. top of the fuel distributor (see illustration). 29 Disconnect the wiring multi-plug at the 22 Stabilise the exhaust gases (paragraph 18). pressure actuator on the side of the fuel 23 Insert the Allen key into the mixture screw distributor (see illustration). tube and engage the adjusting screw. Turn 30 Increase the engine speed to 3000 rpm 10.13c Idle speed screw (A) and mixture the screw as necessary until the correct CO and hold it at this speed for 30 seconds, then adjustment screw (B) on Weber 2V TLDM reading is obtained, then if required readjust allow the engine to idle. Check the carburettor (1.1 and 1.3 HCS engines) the idling speed. tachometer reading and if necessary turn the
10.15 Idle speed adjustment screw 10.16 K-Jetronic system idle speed 10.21 K-Jetronic system mixture (arrowed) on early K-Jetronic systems adjustment screw (arrowed) on later adjustment screw location (arrowed) models Every 6000 miles or 6 Months 1·11
10.27 Idle speed adjustment screw 10.29 Pressure actuator wiring multi-plug 10.33 KE-Jetronic system mixture (arrowed) on KE-Jetronic system (arrowed) - KE-Jetronic system adjustment tamperproof plug (arrowed) idle speed adjustment screw as required until Models with Central ( single -point) Make sure that the carbon brush in the centre the engine is idling at the specified speed. Fuel Injection (CFI) system of the cap is free to move and that it protrudes 31 To check the mixture adjustment an significantly from its holder . 39 Both the idle speed and mixture are exhaust gas analyser is needed and should be 2 Check the distributor cap for signs of controlled by the engine management system. connected in accordance with the tracking (indicated by thin black lines on the Adjustment requires the use of specialist manufacturer's instructions. A 3 mm Allen key equipment . If the idle speed is suspected of surface of the cap). Renew the cap if tracking will also be required to make any adjustments. being incorrect, the vehicle must be taken to a is evident. 32 Before proceeding ensure that the idle Ford dealer for diagnostic checks and, if 3 Wipe clean the HT leads and the coil tower. speed is correct. 4 Check the condition and security of all 33 Unscrew the tamperproof plug from the necessary, adjustment. leads and wiring associated with the ignition 1 mixture adjustment orifice on top of the fuel Models with Electronic Fuel system. Make sure that no chafing is distributor (see illustration). Injection (EFI) system occurring on any of the wires and that all 34 Stabilise the exhaust gases (paragraph 30). 40 Idle speed is controlled by the EEC IV connections are secure, clean and free from 35 Insert the Allen key into the mixture module, and cannot be adjusted. corrosion. adjustment orifice and push down to engage 41 To adjust the mixture (CO content), first the adjustment screw. Turn the adjustment run the engine until it reaches normal 12 Distributor lubrication - screw clockwise to increase the CO reading operating temperature. and anti-clockwise to decrease it. Remove the models with contact breaker 42 Connect a CO meter and a tachometer in Allen key, plug the orifice and check the CO accordance with the manufacturer's distributor reading. instructions. 36 If the mixture adjustment cannot be 43 Clear any excess fuel in the inlet manifold 1 Remove the distributor cap and the rotor finalised within 30 seconds from the moment by running the engine at 3000 rpm for arm. of stabilising the exhaust gases, repeat the approximately 15 seconds, then allow the 2 Apply a couple of drops of light oil to the operations in paragraph 30 before continuing engine to idle. felt pad in the top of the shaft. the adjustment procedure. Make sure that the 44 Wait for the test instrument readings to 3 Wipe clean the distributor cam, then apply Allen key is removed before increasing the stabilise, then record the CO content and the a trace of high melting-point grease to the engine speed otherwise the fuel distributor idle speed. four cam lobes. will be damaged. 45 If adjustment of the CO content is 4 Refit the rotor arm and the distributor cap. 37 Continue adjustment until the correct CO required, remove the tamperproof cap from reading is obtained, then if necessary readjust the CO adjustment potentiometer (located on 13 Contact breaker points the idle speed. the wing panel behind the left -hand adjustment - models with 38 Refit the tamperproof screw and suspension turret) and adjust the screw to contact breaker distributor reconnect the pressure actuator multi-plug. obtain the correct CO setting at the specified Disconnect the tachometer and exhaust gas idle speed (see illustration). Note that any 1 Spring back the retaining clips or undo the analyser. adjustment must be made within 30 seconds screws as appropriate and lift off the of the instrument readings stabilising, distributor cap. otherwise the procedure described in 2 Withdraw the rotor arm from the distributor paragraph 43 must be repeated. shaft. 46 On completion of adjustment, stop the 3 Using a screwdriver, gently prise the engine and disconnect all test equipment. Fit contact breaker points open to examine the a new tamperproof cap to the CO adjustment condition of their faces. If they are rough , potentiometer. pitted or dirty they should be renewed as described in the next Section. 11 Ignition system component 4 Assuming that the points are in a satisfactory check condition or that they have just been renewed, the gap between the two faces should be 1 Where applicable, remove the distributor checked and if necessary adjusted. This can be cap and thoroughly clean it inside and out done using feeler blades as described in the with a dry lint -free cloth. Examine the four HT following paragraphs, or preferably by using 10.45 CO adjustment potentiometer lead segments inside the cap. If the segments the more accurate dwell angle method as location (arrowed) - 1.6 EFI engine appear badly burnt or pitted, renew the cap. described from paragraph 8 onwards. 1·12 Every 6000 miles or 6 Months
13.5a Contact breaker points gap (A) - Bosch distributor 13.5b Contact breaker points gap (A) - Lucas distributor
5 To adjust the points using feeler blades, 7 Refit the rotor arm and the distributor cap. accordance with the manufacturer's turn the crankshaft using a spanner on the 8 If a dwell meter is available adjust the instructions. However, the use of one type of crankshaft pulley bolt until the heel of the contact breaker points by measuring and meter is outlined as follows. contact breaker arm is on the peak of one of setting the dwell angle as follows. 11 Remove the distributor cap and rotor arm the four cam lobes and the points are fully 9 The dwell angle is the number of degrees of and connect one lead of the dwell meter to open. A feeler blade of thickness equal to the distributor cam rotation during which the the "+" terminal on the coil and the other lead contact breaker points gap as given in the contact breaker points are closed; ie the to the coil "-" terminal. Specifications should now just slide between period from when the points close after being 12 Whilst an assistant turns on the ignition the point faces (see illustrations). opened by one cam lobe , until they are and cranks the engine on the starter, observe opened again by the next cam lobe. The the reading on the dwell meter scale . With the 6 If adjustment is required, slacken the advantages of setting the points by this engine cranking the reading should be equal retaining screw slightly and move the fixed method are that any wear of the distributor to the dwell angle given in the Specifications. point as necessary to achieve the desired gap shaft or cam lobes is taken into account and 13 If the dwell angle is too small, the contact (see illustrations). After adjustment tighten the inaccuracies associated with using feeler breaker points gap should be reduced and if the retaining screw and recheck the gap. blades are eliminated. Also, on 1.1 litre CVH the dwell angle is excessive the gap should be engines the static ignition timing is accurately increased. The points can be easily set in production and adjustment of the 14 Adjust the points gap while the engine is moved by engaging a screwdriver in the slot on the ignition timing in service has been deleted cranking using the method described in end of the fixed point and from the maintenance schedule. Therefore paragraph 6. When the dwell angle is levering against the corresponding slot dwell angle adjustment is far more critical on satisfactory, disconnect the meter, then refit or raised pips on the baseplate. these engines. the rotor arm and distributor cap. 10 In general a dwell meter should be used in 15 Check the ignition timing (Section 14).
13.6a Contact breaker point components - Bosch distributor 13.6b Contact breaker point components - Lucas distributor A LT lead connector B Contact breaker retaining screw A Secondary movement cam and peg B Contact breaker retaining screw Every 6000 miles or 6 Months 1·13
14.5a Timing mark identification - 14.5b Crankshaft pulley notch (arrowed) 14.7 Distributor clamp pinch-bolt location OHV engines and timing scale - CVH engine (arrowed) - OHV engines A Notch on crankshaft pulley B Timing scale cast into timing cover scale is moulded into the timing belt cover 17 A secondary use of the timing light is to 14 Ignition timing check - models and is situated directly above the pulley. On check that the centrifugal and vacuum with contact breaker distributor all engines the "O" mark on the scale advance functions of the distributor are represents Top Dead Centre (TDC) and the working. Note: With modern ignition systems the only raised projections to the left of TDC are in 18 The tests are not of course precise as suitable way to time the ignition accurately is increments of 4° BTDC (see illustrations). would be the case if sophisticated equipment 6 Remove the distributor cap and check that with a stroboscopic timing light. However, for the rotor arm is pointing towards the No 1 were used, but will at least indicate the 1 initial setting up purposes (ie after major serviceability of the unit . overhaul, or if the timing has been otherwise spark plug lead segment in the cap. 19 With the engine idling, timing light completely lost ) a basic initial static setting 7 Slacken the distributor clamp pinch bolt connected and vacuum pipe disconnected may be used to get the engine started Once (OHV engines) or the three distributor flange securing bolts (CVH engines) (see and plugged as described in the preceding the engine is running, the timing should be paragraphs, increase the engine speed to accurately set using the timing light. Before illustration). 8 Turn the distributor body anti-clockwise 2000 rpm and note the approximate distance carrying out any of the following, ensure that which the pulley mark moves out of alignment slightly until the contact breaker points are the contact breaker points are correctly with the mark on the scale. closed, then slowly turn the distributor body adjusted as described in Section 13. clockwise until the points just open. Hold the 20 Reconnect the vacuum pipe to the 1 In order that the engine can run efficiently , it distributor body in this position and tighten distributor and repeat the test when for the is necessary for a spark to occur at the spark the clamp pinch bolt or flange securing bolts same increase in engine speed, the alignment plug and ignite the fuel/air mixture at the as applicable. differential of the timing marks should be instant just before the piston on the 9 Refit the distributor cap, No 1 spark plug greater than previously observed . compression stroke reaches the top of its and the plug lead. 21 If the timing marks did not appear to move travel . The precise instant at which the spark 10 It should now be possible to start and run during the first test, a fault in the distributor occurs is determined by the ignition timing the engine enabling the timing to be centrifugal advance mechanism is indicated. and this is quoted in degrees before top dead accurately checked with a timing light as No increased movement of the marks during centre (BTDC). follows. the second test indicates a punctured 2 If the timing is being checked as a maintenance or service procedure, refer to Stroboscopic setting diaphragm in the vacuum unit, or a leak in the paragraph 11 onwards. If the distributor has vacuum line. 11 Refer to the Specifications for the timing been dismantled or renewed, or if its position setting applicable to the engine being worked 22 On completion of the adjustments and on the engine has been altered, obtain an on and then highlight the appropriate mark on checks, switch off the engine and disconnect initial static setting as follows. the timing scale and the notch in the pulley the timing light. Static setting with a dab of white paint (see paragraph 5). 12 Connect a timing light to the engine in 15 Spark plug renewal - 3 Pull off the plug lead and remove No 1 accordance with the manufacturer's spark plug (nearest the crankshaft pulley). RS Turbo models instructions ( usually between No 1 spark plug 4 Place a finger over the plug hole and turn and plug lead). the crankshaft in the normal direction of 1 The correct functioning of the spark plugs is 13 Disconnect the vacuum hose at the rotation (clockwise from the crankshaft pulley vital for the correct running and efficiency of distributor vacuum unit and plug the hose. end) until pressure is felt in No 1 cylinder. This the engine. It is essential that the plugs fitted 14 Start the engine and allow it to idle. indicates that the piston is commencing its are appropriate for the engine, and the 15 Point the timing light at the timing marks. compression stroke. The crankshaft can be They should appear to be stationary with the suitable type is specified at the end of this turned with a spanner on the pulley bolt. crankshaft pulley notch in alignment with the chapter. If this type is used and the engine is 5 Continue turning the crankshaft until the appropriate notch on the scale. in good condition, the spark plugs should not notch on the pulley is aligned with the 16 If adjustment is necessary (ie the marks are need attention between scheduled appropriate mark on the timing scale for the not aligned) slacken the distributor clamp pinch replacement intervals. Spark plug cleaning is engine being worked on (see Specifications). bolt or flange securing bolts as applicable, and rarely necessary and should not be attempted On OHV engines the timing scale is cast into turn the distributor body as necessary to align unless specialised equipment is available as the timing cover and situated just above and the marks. Tighten the pinch bolt or flange damage can easily be caused to the firing to the right of the pulley. On CVH engines the bolts when the setting is correct. ends. 1·14 Every 6000 miles or 6 Months
2 To remove the plugs, first mark the HT leads to ensure correct refitment, then pull them off the plugs. When removing the leads, pull the terminal insulator at the end of the lead - not the lead itself. 3 Using a spark plug spanner or deep socket and extension bar, unscrew the plugs and remove them from the engine (see illustration). 4 The condition of the spark plugs will also tell much about the condition of the engine. 5 If the insulator nose of the spark plug is clean and white, with no deposits, this is indicative of a weak mixture, or too hot a plug. 15.3 Tools required for spark plug 15.9 Measuring the spark plug gap with a (A hot plug transfers heat away from the removal, gap adjustment and refitting feeler blade electrode slowly - a cold plug transfers it away quickly.) 9 To set it, measure the gap with a feeler 13 Refit the plug leads in the correct order 6 If the tip and insulator nose are covered blade, and then bend open, or close, the outer ensuring that they are a secure fit over the with hard black-looking deposits, then this is plug electrode until the correct gap is plug ends. Periodically wipe the leads clean to indicative that the mixture is too rich . Should achieved (see illustration). The centre reduce the risk of HT leakage by arcing and the plug be black and oily, then it is likely that electrode should never be bent as this may remove any traces of corrosion that may the engine is fairly worn, as well as the mixture crack the insulation and cause plug failure , if occur on the end fittings. being too rich. nothing worse . 7 If the insulator nose is covered with light tan 10 Special spark plug electrode cap to greyish brown deposits, then the mixture is adjusting tools are available from most motor 16 Front brake disc pad check accessory shops (see illustrations). correct and it is likely that the engine is in 11 Before fitting the plugs first ensure that the good condition. 1 Place a mirror between the roadwheel and plug threads and the seating area in the 8 The spark plug gap is of considerable the caliper and check the thickness of the cylinder head are clean, dry and free of carbon. importance , as if it is too large or too small, friction material of the disc pads (see 12 Screw the plugs in by hand initially and the size of the spark and its efficiency will be illustration). If the material has worn down to then fully tighten to the specified torque. If a seriously impaired . The spark plug gap should the specified minimum or less, the pads must torque wrench is not available, tighten the be set to the figure given in the Specifications be renewed as an axle set (four pads). plugs until initial resistance is felt, then tighten at the beginning of this Chapter. 2 For a comprehensive check, the brake by a further 1/16 of a turn for the taper seat plugs pads should be removed and cleaned . This fitted to OHV engines, or 1/4 of a turn for the will permit the operation of the caliper to be gasket seat type fitted to CVH engines. Do not checked, and the condition of the brake disc over-tighten the spark plugs, otherwise itself to be examined on both sides . Refer to damage to the threads may occur and they Chapter 9 for further information. will also be extremely difficult to remove in the future. 17 Rear brake shoe lining check
1 Due to the fact that the rear brake drums are combined with the hubs, which makes removal of the drums more complicated than is the case with detachable drums, inspection of the shoe linings can be carried out at the
15.10a Measuring the spark plug gap with a wire gauge . . .
It is very often difficult to insert spark plugs into their holes without cross - threading them. To avoid this possibility, fit a short length of 5/16- inch internal diameter rubber hose over the end of the spark plug. The flexible hose acts as a universal joint to help align the plug with the plug hole. Should the plug begin to cross- thread , the hose will slip on the spark plug, preventing thread damage to the 15.10b . . . and adjusting the gap using a aluminium cylinder head. 16.1 Checking the front disc pad wear special adjusting tool using a mirror Every 6000 miles or 6 Months 1·15
17.1a Brake shoe viewing hole location (arrowed) in backplate 17.1b Checking rear brake lining wear with a mirror
specified intervals by prising out the small 5 Using a large screwdriver or flat bar, check Should any fluid be noticed, the suspension inspection plug from the brake backplate and for wear in the suspension mounting bushes strut/ shock absorber is defective internally, observing the linings through the hole using a by levering between the relevant suspension and should be renewed. Note: Suspension mirror (see illustrations). component and its attachment point. Some struts/shock absorbers should always be 1 2 A minimum thickness of friction material movement is to be expected as the mountings renewed in pairs on the same axle. must always be observed on the shoes . If it is are made of rubber, but excessive wear 9 The efficiency of the suspension worn down to this level, renew the shoes. should be obvious. Also check the condition strut/shock absorber may be checked by 3 Do not attempt to re-line shoes yourself but of any visible rubber bushes, looking for splits, bouncing the vehicle at each corner . always obtain factory re-lined shoes. cracks or contamination of the rubber. Generally speaking, the body will return to its 4 Renew the shoes in an axle set (four shoes), 6 With the car standing on its wheels , have an normal position and stop after being even if only one is worn to the minimum. assistant turn the steering wheel back and depressed. If it rises and returns on a forth about an eighth of a turn each way. rebound, the suspension strut/shock 18 Suspension and steering There should be very little, if any, lost absorber is probably suspect. Examine also movement between the steering wheel and check the suspension strut/shock absorber upper roadwheels. If this is not the case, closely and lower mountings for any signs of wear. observe the joints and mountings previously Front suspension and steering described, but in addition, check the steering check column universal joints for wear, and the rack - 19 Seat belt check 1 Raise the front of the vehicle, and securely and-pinion steering gear itself. support it on axle stands (see "Jacking and 7 Visually check that each lower arm balljoint is correctly located in the hub carrier , ensuring 1 Periodically check the belts for fraying or Vehicle Support"). that the Torx type pinch-bolt is fully engaged other damage. If evident, renew the belt. 2 Visually inspect the balljoint dust covers in the groove in the balljoint stud . 2 If the belts become dirty, wipe them with a and the steering rack-and-pinion gaiters for splits, chafing or deterioration (see damp cloth using a little detergent only. Suspension strut/shock absorber 3 Check the tightness of the anchor bolts and illustration). Any wear of these components check will cause loss of lubricant, together with dirt if they are ever disconnected, make quite sure and water entry , resulting in rapid 8 Check for any signs of fluid leakage around that the original sequence of fitting of deterioration of the balljoints or steering gear. the suspension strut/shock absorber body, or washers, bushes and anchor plates is 3 Grasp the roadwheel at the 12 o' clock and from the rubber gaiter around the piston rod. retained . 6 o'clock positions , and try to rock it (see illustration). Very slight free play may be felt, but if the movement is appreciable, further investigation is necessary to determine the source. Continue rocking the wheel while an assistant depresses the footbrake. If the movement is now eliminated or significantly reduced, it is likely that the hub bearings are at fault. If the free play is still evident with the footbrake depressed, then there is wear in the suspension joints or mountings. 4 Now grasp the wheel at the 9 o'clock and 3 o'clock positions, and try to rock it as before. Any movement felt now may again be caused by wear in the hub bearings or the steering track -rod balljoints. If the inner or outer balljoint 18.2 Checking a steering gear gaiter 18.3 Rocking the roadwheel to check is worn, the visual movement will be obvious. steering/suspension components 1·16 Every 6000 miles or 6 Months
20 Alternator drivebelt check
1 A conventional vee drivebelt is used to drive both the alternators and water pump pulleys on OHV and HCS engines, and the alternator pulley only on CVH engines, power being transmitted via a pulley on the engine crankshaft. 2 To remove the drivebelt, slacken the alternator mounting bolts and the bolts on the adjuster link and push the alternator in towards the engine as far as possible (see illustration). 3 Withdraw the belt from the pulleys. In some instances it may also be necessary to remove the adjuster link-to-alternator bolt to avoid straining the drivebelt. 4 Fit the belt by slipping it over the pulley rims. If necessary remove the adjuster link-to- alternator bolt, if not already done, to avoid straining the belt. Never be tempted to remove or refit the drivebelt by prising it over a pulley rim otherwise the pulley or the drivebelt internal webbing will be damaged. 5 To tension the belt pull the alternator away 20.2 Alternator mounting and adjuster link bolts from the engine until the belt is fairly taut, and A Adjuster link-to-alternator bolt C and D Alternator mounting bolts tighten the adjuster link-to-alternator bolt. B Adjuster link-to-engine bolt Check that the total deflection of the belt, using finger pressure at a point midway between the alternator and crankshaft or water pump pulleys, is 10 mm (0.4 in) (see illustrations). A little trial and error may be switched on. If the belt is too tight the 7 If a new belt has been fitted the tension necessary to obtain the correct tension. If the should be rechecked and adjusted again if bearings in the water pump and/or alternator belt is too slack , it will slip in the pulleys and necessary after the engine has run for will soon be damaged. soon become glazed or burnt. This is often approximately ten minutes. indicated by a screeching noise as the engine 6 Once the tension is correct, tighten the is accelerated, particularly when the remaining adjuster link bolt, front mounting headlights or other electrical accessories are bolt and rear mounting bolt in that order.
20.5a Drivebelt tension checking point - CVH engines 20.5b Drivebelt tension checking point - OHV engines Maintenance procedures 1·17
Every 12 000 miles or 12 months 5 The clearances for the inlet and exhaust 21 Valve clearance adjustment - valves are different (see Specifications). Use a 23 Turbocharger-to-manifold OHV and HCS engines feeler blade of the appropriate thickness to nut check - RS Turbo models check each clearance between the end of the valve stem and the rocker arm. The gauge Check the tightness of the turbocharger-to- OHV engines should be a stiff sliding fit. If it is not, turn the exhaust manifold securing nuts using a torque adjuster bolt with a ring spanner. These bolts wrench. 1 This operation should be carried out with are of stiff thread type and require no locking the engine cold and the air cleaner and rocker nut. Turn the bolt clockwise to reduce the cover removed. clearance and anti-clockwise to increase it 2 Using a ring spanner or socket on the 24 Spark plug renewal (see illustration). crankshaft pulley bolt, turn the crankshaft in a 6 Refit the air cleaner and rocker cover on clockwise direction until No 1 piston is at TDC completion of adjustment. The procedure is as described for RS Turbo on its compression stroke. This can be models in Section 15. verified by checking that the pulley and timing HCS engines cover marks are in alignment and that the 7 The procedure is as described previously valves of No 4 cylinder are rocking. When the for OHV engines, but note that the valve 25 Contact breaker points valves are rocking, this means that the arrangement has been altered and is now as renewal slightest rotation of the crankshaft pulley in shown below . Take care not to overtighten the either direction will cause one rocker arm to rocker cover bolts on refitting, as this can 1 Spring back the retaining clips or undo the move up and the other to move down. result in leaks. screws as appropriate and lift off the 3 Numbering from the thermostat housing distributor cap. Valve No Cylinder No end of the cylinder head, the valves are 2 Withdraw the rotor arm from the distributor identified as follows. 1 Exhaust 1 shaft. 1 2 Inlet 1 3 On the Bosch distributor disconnect the Valve No Cylinder No 3 Exhaust 2 contact breaker points LT lead at the spade 1 Exhaust 1 4 Inlet 2 connector. On the Lucas distributor ease the 2 Inlet 1 5 Inlet 3 contact breaker spring arm out of the plastic 6 Exhaust 3 3 Exhaust 2 insulator and slide the combined LT and 7 Inlet 4 4 Inlet 2 condenser lead out of the hooked end of the 8 Exhaust 4 5 Exhaust 3 spring arm. 6 Inlet 3 4 Undo the retaining screw and withdraw the 7 Exhaust 4 contact breaker points from the distributor 22 Exhaust system check 8 Inlet 4 baseplate. Take care not to drop the screw 4 Adjust the valve clearances by following the and washer inside the distributor during sequence given in the following table. Turn With the vehicle raised on a hoist or removal and refitting. If possible use a the crankshaft pulley 180º ( half a turn) after supported on axle stands (see "Jacking and magnetic screwdriver, or alternatively, retain adjusting each pair : Vehicle Support"), check the exhaust system the screw on the end of the screwdriver using for signs of leaks, corrosion or damage and a dab of grease. Valves rocking Valves to adjust check the rubber mountings for condition and 5 Wipe clean the distributor cam, then apply 7 and 8 1 (Exhaust), 2 (Inlet) security (see illustration). Where damage or a trace of high-melting-point grease to the 5 and 6 3 (Exhaust), 4 (Inlet) corrosion are evident, renew the system four cam lobes. Also, on OHV engines apply 1 and 2 7 (Exhaust), 8 (Inlet) complete or in sections, as applicable, using two drops of light oil to the felt pad at the top 3 and 4 5 (Exhaust), 6 (Inlet) the information given in Chapter 4, Part E. of the distributor shaft.
21.5 Valve clearance adjustment 22.1 Exhaust silencer mounting 1·18 Every 12 000 miles or 12 Months
26.1a Transmission oil filler plug (A) and selector shaft locking 26.1b Allen type transmission filler plug (arrowed) as fitted to mechanism cap (B) later models
6 Locate the new contact breaker points on from August 1985 have an E as the last letter the baseplate and secure with the retaining of the part number suffix . 27 Automatic transmission fluid screw, lightly tightened only at this stage. On 3 On the early type transmission (suffix letter level check the Lucas distributor ensure that the D) the oil level must be maintained between 5 secondary movement cam is engaged with and 10 mm (0.2 and 0.4 in) below the lower 1 The automatic transmission fluid level must the peg, and that both washers are refitted edge of the filler plug hole. be checked when the engine and with the retaining screw (see illustration 4 If the transmission is of the later type (suffix transmission are at normal operating 13.6b). letter E) the oil level must be maintained temperature; preferably after a short journey. 7 Reconnect the LT lead, then refer to between 0 and 5 mm (0.2 in) below the lower 2 Park the car on level ground, then fully Section 13 and adjust the contact breaker edge of the filler plug hole. apply the handbrake. points gap. 5 To simplify the checking procedure a dipstick can be made from thin rod bent at 3 With the engine running at its normal idle right angles and having marks on one "leg" speed, apply the footbrake and simultaneously 26 Manual transmission oil level made with a file at 5 mm (0.2 in) intervals. Rest move the selector lever through the full range check the unmarked leg on the lower edge of the of positions three times then move it back to filler plug hole with the marked leg immersed the P position. Allow the engine to run at idle 1 With the car on level ground wipe the area in the oil. Remove the dipstick, read off the for a further period of one minute . around the filler plug, then unscrew the plug level and top-up if necessary using the 4 With the engine still idling, extract the using a socket spanner, or on later versions a specified grade of oil. Refit the filler plug on transmission fluid level dipstick and wipe it suitable Torx or Allen key or socket bit, as completion. dry, with a clean non- fluffy cloth. Fully reinsert applicable. Access can be gained from above 6 Renewal of the transmission oil is not a the dipstick and then extract it again and or below the car (see illustrations). service requirement, but if draining is check the fluid level mark, which must be 2 Locate the aluminium build code tag, which necessary prior to a repair or overhaul task between the "MAX" and "MIN" markings (see is secured to one of the transmission housing place a suitable container beneath the illustration) upper bolts, and note the transmission part selector shaft locking mechanism cap nut 5 If topping-up is necessary, use only the number stamped on the tag. If the last letter of located just below the filler plug (see specified fluid type and pour it through the the part number suffix is a D then the illustration). Unscrew the cap nut, remove transmission was manufactured prior to dipstick tube, but take care not to overfill. The the spring and interlock pin and allow the oil August 1985. Transmissions manufactured to drain. level must not exceed the "MAX" mark.
Caution: Take care when unscrewing the cap nut as the tension of the spring may cause the pin to fly out as the cap nut is released . Refit the pin, spring and cap nut when draining is complete, but apply sealer to the cap nut threads (see Specifications). Note that from 1986 onwards the cap nut is shrouded by the transmission support crossmember and cannot be removed in situ. On these models draining can only be carried out after removal of the transmission from 26.6 Selector shaft locking mechanism the car. 27.4 Transmission fluid level dipstick cap nut (arrowed) location and level markings Every 12 000 miles or 12 Months 1·19
6 An improved type of transmission fluid is used in later models and before topping-up or refilling it is necessary to identify the transmission being worked on so that the correct fluid may be obtained. 7 Locate the transmission identification number which is stamped on a metal tag attached to the top of the valve body cover (see illustration). If, at the end of the second line on the metal tag, the prefix E3RP- 27.7 Transmission identification number on valve body tag appears , then the transmission is of the early type. If the prefix is E6RP- then the unit is of the later type. Later transmissions can also be Check for any free play in the joints by first 2 Lightly lubricate the bonnet release identified by having a black dipstick stating holding the driveshaft and attempting to mechanism and exposed sections of inner the fluid specification and type. Having rotate the wheel. Repeat this check by holding cable with a smear of grease. determined whether the transmission is of the the inner joint and attempting to rotate the 3 Check the security and operation of all early or later type, refer to "Lubricants and driveshaft. Any appreciable movement hinges, latches and locks, adjusting them indicates wear in the joints, wear in the where required. Where applicable, check the fluids" for the fluid requirement. Under no driveshaft splines or loose retaining nut. operation of the central locking system. circumstances may the later type fluid be used 5 Road test the car and listen for a metallic 4 Check the condition and operation of the in the early type transmission, and vice versa. clicking from the front as the car is driven tailgate struts, renewing them if either is 8 If the fluid level was below the minimum slowly in a circle with the steering on full lock. leaking or is no longer able to support the mark when checked or is in constant need of If a clicking noise is heard this indicates wear tailgate securely when raised. topping-up, check around the transmission in the outer constant velocity joint caused by for any signs of excessive fluid leaks, and if excessive clearance between the balls in the present then they must be rectified without joint and the recesses in which they operate. 32 Road test 1 delay . Remove and inspect the joint (Chapter 8). 9 If the colour of the fluid is dark brown or 6 If vibration, consistent with road speed, is black this denotes the sign of a worn brake felt through the car when accelerating, there is band or transmission clutches in which case Instruments and electrical a possibility of wear in the inner constant equipment have your Ford dealer check the transmission velocity joint. If so, renewal of the driveshaft at the earliest opportunity . inner joint will be necessary. 1 Check the operation of all instruments and electrical equipment. 2 Make sure that all instruments read 28 Automatic transmission 30 Roadwheel check correctly, and switch on all electrical selector mechanism check equipment in turn to check that it functions properly. Carry out a thorough road test, ensuring Check the wheel rims for distortion, that all gearchanges occur smoothly without damage and excessive run-out. Also make Steering and suspension snatching, and without an increase in engine sure that the balance weights are secure with 3 Check for any abnormalities in the steering, speed between changes. Check that all gear no obvious signs that any are missing. suspension, handling or road " feel ". positions can be engaged with the Check the torque of the wheel bolts. 4 Drive the vehicle, and check that there are appropriate movement of the selector lever, no unusual vibrations or noises. and with the vehicle at rest. Check the operation of the parking pawl when "P" is 31 Hinge and lock check and 5 Check that the steering feels positive , with lubrication no excessive "sloppiness", or roughness, and selected. check for any suspension noises when 1 Work around the vehicle, and lubricate the cornering, or when driving over bumps. 29 Driveshaft check bonnet, door and tailgate hinges with a light Drivetrain machine oil such as Duckhams Home Oil. 6 Check the performance of the engine, 1 Carry out a thorough inspection of the clutch, transmission and driveshafts. driveshafts and joints as follows. 7 Listen for any unusual noises from the 2 Jack up the front of the car and support it engine, clutch and transmission. securely on axle stands (see "Jacking and 8 Make sure that the engine runs smoothly Vehicle Support"). when idling, and that there is no hesitation 3 Slowly rotate the roadwheel and inspect the when accelerating. condition of the outer joint rubber bellows. 9 Where applicable, check that the clutch Check for signs of cracking, splits or action is smooth and progressive, that the deterioration of the rubber which may allow drive is taken up smoothly, and that the pedal the grease to escape and lead to water and travel is not excessive. Also listen for any grit entry into the joint (see illustration). Also noises when the clutch pedal is depressed. check the security and condition of the 10 Check that all gears can be engaged retaining clips. Repeat these checks on the smoothly, without noise, and that the gear inner constant velocity joints. If any damage lever action is not abnormally vague or or deterioration is found, the bellows should "notchy". be renewed as described in Chapter 8. 11 Listen for a metallic clicking sound from 4 Continue rotating the roadwheel and check 29.3 Checking driveshaft outer joint the front of the vehicle, as the vehicle is driven for any distortion or damage to the driveshaft. rubber bellows slowly in a circle with the steering on full lock. 1·20 Every 12 000 miles or 12 Months
Carry out this check in both directions. If a 13 Check that there is no vibration through should be a noticeable "give" in the brake clicking noise is heard, this indicates wear in a the steering when braking. pedal as vacuum builds up. Allow the engine driveshaft joint, in which case, the complete 14 Check that the handbrake operates to run for at least two minutes, and then driveshaft must be renewed (see Chapter 8). correctly, without excessive movement of the switch it off. If the brake pedal is depressed lever, and that it holds the vehicle stationary now, it should be possible to detect a hiss Check the operation and on a slope . from the servo as the pedal is depressed. performance of the braking 15 Test the operation of the brake servo unit After about four or five applications, no further system as follows. With the engine off, depress the hissing should be heard, and the pedal should 12 Make sure that the vehicle does not pull to footbrake four or five times to exhaust the feel considerably firmer. one side when braking, and that the wheels vacuum. Start the engine, holding the brake do not lock prematurely when braking hard. pedal depressed. As the engine starts, there
Every 24 000 miles or 2 years Cooling system flushing Cooling system filling 33 Coolant renewal 6 Providing that the correct mixture of 11 Using the correct antifreeze mixture (See antifreeze and water has previously been following sub-Section) fill the system through maintained in the system, then no flushing the thermostat housing filler neck slowly until Cooling system draining should be necessary and the system can be the coolant is nearly overflowing. Wait a few refilled immediately as described in the moments for trapped air to escape and add 1 It is preferable to drain the system when the following paragraphs. more coolant. Repeat until the level does not coolant is cold. If it must be drained when hot, 7 Where the system has been neglected drop and refit the cap. Pour similar strength release the pressure cap on the thermostat however, and rust or sludge is evident at coolant into the expansion tank up to the housing (or expansion tank on later models) draining, then the system should be flushed "MAX" mark and fit the cap. very slowly, having first covered it with a cloth through using a cold water hose inserted into 12 On later models with a screw type pressure to avoid any possibility of scalding. Having the thermostat housing (thermostat removed - cap on the expansion tank, fill the system in the relieved the pressure, remove the cap. see Chapter 3). Continue flushing until the same way, but through the expansion tank 2 Set the heater control to the maximum heat water flows clean from the disconnected rather than the thermostat housing. position. bottom hose, radiator drain plug and cylinder 13 On all models start the engine and run it to 3 Check to see if a drain plug is fitted to the block drain plug, as applicable. If, after a normal operating temperature then switch off. lower left-hand side of the radiator. If so, reasonable period the water still does not run Once it has cooled, check and carry out any place a suitable container beneath the clear, the radiator can be flushed with a good final topping-up to the expansion tank only. radiator, unscrew the plug and allow the proprietary cleaning system. 8 If the radiator is suspected of being Antifreeze mixture coolant to drain (see illustration). clogged, remove and reverse flush it as 14 Never operate the vehicle with plain water 4 If a drain plug is not fitted, place the described in Chapter 3. in the cooling system. Apart from the danger container beneath the radiator bottom hose. 9 When the coolant is being changed, it is of freezing during winter conditions , an Slacken the clip , release the hose and allow recommended that the overflow pipe is important secondary purpose of antifreeze is the coolant to drain. disconnected from the expansion tank and to inhibit the formation of rust and to reduce 5 A cylinder block drain plug is also fitted to the coolant drained from the tank. If the corrosion. certain models on the forward facing side of interior of the tank is dirty, remove it and 15 The coolant must be renewed at the the cylinder block, towards the flywheel end. thoroughly clean it out. intervals specified. Although the antifreeze Where this is the case, unscrew the plug and 10 After draining or flushing, reconnect all properties of the coolant will remain allow the cylinder block to drain into the disconnected hoses and refit the drain plugs indefinitely , the effectiveness of the rust and container (see illustrations). where applicable. corrosion inhibitors will gradually weaken.
33.3 Radiator drain plug location 33.5a Cylinder block drain plug location 33.5b Cylinder block drain plug location (arrowed) (arrowed) - OHV engines (arrowed) - CVH engines Every 24 000 miles or 2 Years 1·21
34.1a Removing the air cleaner retaining 34.1b . . . and air cleaner retaining screw 34.2 Release the air cleaner lid retaining screws on a 1.3 litre CVH engine . . . locations on 1.4 litre CVH engine clips, where fitted
16 It is recommended that Ford Super Plus Bosch K-Jetronic fuel injection antifreeze is used for filling and topping-up, as models it has been specially formulated for use in 34 Air cleaner element renewal Ford mixed metal engines (see "Lubricants 5 Disconnect the battery earth lead. and fluids"). 6 Unscrew and loosen off the air ducting-to- 17 A solution of 45% antifreeze must be Carburettor and Central Fuel sensor plate unit securing band, then maintained in the system all year round which Injection (CFI) models separate the two (see illustrations). will provide adequate protection against frost , 1 To remove the air cleaner lid undo and 7 Carefully pull free the shut -off valve hose rust and corrosion. remove the retaining screws or bolts on the from the air ducting connector. The hose is a 1 18 After filling with antifreeze, a label should top face of the lid (see illustrations). press fit (see illustration). be attached to the radiator stating the type of 2 Where applicable release the lid retaining 8 Unscrew and remove the six air sensor antifreeze and the date installed. Any clips around the side of the air cleaner body plate-to-cleaner top cover retaining screws, subsequent topping-up should be made with (see illustration). the same type and concentration of antifreeze. 3 Lift off the lid, remove and discard the but leave the plate unit in position. 19 Do not use engine antifreeze in the screen paper element and wipe out the inside of the 9 Prise free and release the air cleaner cover washer system, as it will cause damage to the air cleaner body and lid (see illustration). retaining clips and detach the hose from the vehicle paintwork. Screen wash antifreeze is 4 Place a new element in position and refit cover at the front (see illustration). available from most motor accessory shops. the lid. 10 Carefully lift the sensor plate clear, together with its gasket, and pivot it back out of the way. Withdraw the shut-off valve from the rear end of the cleaner case cover, then lift out the cover and remove the element from the casing (see illustrations). 11 If the air cleaner casing is to be removed you will need to detach the fuel filter from the side of the cleaner casing (leave the fuel lines attached to the filter) and the air inlet hose from the front end of the case. Unscrew and remove the casing retaining nuts from the inner wing panel and lift out the casing. 12 Refitting is the reversal of the removal 34. 3 Removing the air cleaner element 34.6a Slacken the securing band procedure. Wipe the casing clean before screw . . . inserting the new element. When fitting the
34.6b . . . and lift the air duct away from 34.7 Detach the shut-off valve hose - 34.9 Detach the hose from the front of the the sensor plate unit - K-Jetronic system K-Jetronic system air cleaner cover - K-Jetronic system 1·22 Every 24 000 miles or 2 Years
34.10a Lift the sensor plate clear . . . 34.10b . . . withdraw the shut-off valve . . .
34.10c . . . lift out the cover . . . 34.10d . . . and withdraw the element - 34.12 Locating the sensor unit gasket K-Jetronic system sensor plate unit into position on the top 15 Unclip the retaining clips and lift off the air cover check that the gasket is in good cleaner top cover. Remove the filter element 35 Crankcase emission control condition and aligned correctly (see (see illustration). filter renewal - CVH engines illustration). 16 Clean the inside of the air cleaner body 13 Check that all connections are secure on and fit a new filter element. Place the top completion. cover in position and secure with the clips. Carburettor and Central Fuel Bosch KE-Jetronic fuel injection 17 Refit the unit to the air sensor plate and Injection (CFI) engines secure with the two bolts. models 1 Where fitted, the crankcase ventilation filter 14 Undo the two bolts securing the air Electronic Fuel Injection (EFI) is located in the base of the air cleaner. cleaner assembly to the air sensor plate unit models 2 The filter can be renewed by pulling it out of and remove the air cleaner assembly (see 18 Proceed as described in paragraphs 15 the air cleaner after disconnecting the hoses illustration). and 16. (see illustration).
34.14 KE-Jetronic air cleaner retaining 34.15 Lift off the air cleaner and remove 35.2 Crankcase ventilation filter renewal bolts (arrowed) the element - KE-Jetronic system on CVH engines with carburettor Every 24 000 miles or 2 Years 1·23
35.4 Crankcase ventilation filter location on KE-Jetronic fuel 36.3 Fuel filter inlet pipe (A), outlet pipe (B) and clamp screw (C) injection engines 3 Ensure that the sealing grommet is in Bosch K-Jetronic and KE-Jetronic 9 Refitting is a reversal of the removal position in the air cleaner before pushing a fuel injection models procedure, but ensure that the flow direction new filter into place. markings on the filter casing are correctly 1 Disconnect the battery negative lead. Bosch K-Jetronic and KE-Jetronic 2 Relieve the system pressure (Chapter 4, orientated, and tighten the unions to the 1 Part B). specified torque. fuel injection engines 10 On completion, switch the ignition on and 3 Place absorbent rags beneath the filter and 4 The filter is located on the right-hand side disconnect the fuel inlet and outlet off at least five times, and check for fuel of the engine and can be removed after connections (see illustration). leakage. disconnecting the hoses (see illustration). On 4 Slacken the clamp bracket screw and early versions, detach the filter from its withdraw the filter from the bracket. Electronic Fuel Injection (EFI) support bracket. 5 Refitting is the reversal of removal, but models 5 Refitting is a reversal of removal, ensuring ensure that the arrows on the filter body point 11 The filter is located in the engine that the hoses are correctly reconnected. in the direction of fuel flow; ie towards the compartment. outlet pipe union. On completion check for 12 Depressurise the fuel system as Electronic Fuel Injection (EFI) fuel leaks with the engine running. described in Chapter 4, Part D, then engines disconnect the inlet and outlet unions from Central Fuel Injection (CFI) 6 The filter is located in the hose run to the air the filter. models cleaner. Note the locations of the hoses to 13 Note the orientation of the flow direction ensure correct reconnection. 6 Disconnect the battery negative lead. markings on the filter casing, then remove the 7 Position a suitable container beneath the clamp bolt and withdraw the filter from the fuel filter to catch any escaping fuel, then vehicle. Note that the filter will still contain 36 Fuel filter renewal - fuel slowly slacken the fuel inlet pipe union, fuel, and care should be taken to avoid injection engines allowing the pressure in the fuel line to spillage. dissipate. When fully dissipated, disconnect 14 Refitting is a reversal of the removal Warning: This procedure may the fuel inlet and outlet pipe unions. Take adequate fire precautions. procedure, but ensure that the flow direction result in some fuel spillage. Before 8 Note the orientation of the flow direction markings on the filter casing are correctly carrying out any operation on the markings on the filter casing, then remove the orientated, and tighten the unions to the fuel system refer to the precautions given in Safety First! at the clamp bolt and withdraw the filter from the specified torque. beginning of this manual and follow them vehicle. Note that the filter will still contain 15 On completion, switch the ignition on and implicitly. Petrol is a highly dangerous and fuel, and care should be taken to avoid off at least five times, and check for fuel volatile liquid and the precautions necessary spillage. leakage. when handling it cannot be overstressed.
Every 36 000 miles or 3 years 2 The rigid and flexible hydraulic pipes and 37 Timing belt renewal - CVH hoses should be inspected for leaks or 38 Brake components check damage regularly. Although the rigid lines are engines plastic-coated in order to preserve them Refer to Chapter 2, Part B. 1 Inspect the thickness of the friction linings against corrosion, check for damage which on the disc pads and brake shoes (as may have occurred through flying stones , described earlier in this Chapter) at the careless jacking or the traversing of rough intervals specified. ground. 1·24 Every 36 000 miles or 3 Years
3 Bend the hydraulic flexible hoses sharply 1 The procedure is similar to that for the 4 Work through all the remaining bleed with the fingers and examine the surface of bleeding of the hydraulic system as described screws in the sequence until new fluid can be the hose for signs of cracking or perishing of in Chapter 9, except that the brake fluid seen at all of them. Be careful to keep the the rubber. Renew if evident. reservoir should be emptied by siphoning, master cylinder reservoir topped-up to above 4 Renew the brake fluid at the specified using a clean poultry baster or similar before the "MIN" level at all times, or air may enter intervals and examine all rubber components starting, and allowance should be made for the system and greatly increase the length of ( including master cylinder and piston seals) the old fluid to be expelled when bleeding a the task. section of the circuit . 5 When the operation is complete, check that with a critical eye, renewing where necessary. 2 Working as described in Chapter 9, open all bleed screws are securely tightened, and the first bleed screw in the sequence, and that their dust caps are refitted. Wash off all pump the brake pedal gently until nearly all traces of spilt fluid, and recheck the master 39 Brake fluid renewal cylinder reservoir fluid level. the old fluid has been emptied from the master cylinder reservoir. Top-up to the 6 Check the operation of the brakes before Warning: Brake hydraulic fluid "MAX" level with new fluid, and continue taking the car on the road. can harm your eyes and damage pumping until only the new fluid remains in the painted surfaces, so use extreme reservoir, and new fluid can be seen emerging caution when handling and from the bleed screw. Tighten the screw, and pouring it. Do not use fluid that has been top the reservoir level up to the "MAX" level standing open for some time, as it line. absorbs moisture from the air. Excess 3 Old hydraulic fluid is invariably much darker moisture can cause a dangerous loss of in colour than the new, making it easy to braking effectiveness. distinguish the two. 2A·1
Chapter 2 Part A: OHV and HCS engines Contents Crankcase emission control filter renewal . . . . . . . . . .See Chapter 1 Engine/transmission - removal and separation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Crankshaft front oil seal - renewal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Examination and renovation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Cylinder head - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 General information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Cylinder head and pistons - decarbonising . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 Major operations possible with the engine in the car . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Engine - complete dismantling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Major operations requiring engine removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Engine - method of removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Oil filler cap cleaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .See Chapter 1 Engine - reassembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Oil pump - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Engine oil and filter renewal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .See Chapter 1 Piston/connecting rod assemblies removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . .8 Engine oil level check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .See "Weekly checks" Rocker gear - dismantling and reassembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Engine/transmission mountings - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . .9 Sump - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Engine/transmission - reconnection and installation . . . . . . . . . . . .16 Valve clearance adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .See Chapter 1
Degrees of difficulty Easy, suitable for Fairly easy, suitable Fairly difficult, Difficult, suitable for Very difficult, novice with little for beginner with suitable for competent experienced DIY suitable for expert DIY 2A experience some experience DIY mechanic mechanic or professional
Specifications General Engine type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Four-cylinder, in-line overhead valve Capacity : 1.1 litre: OHV engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1117 cc HCS engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1118 cc 1.3 litre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1297 cc Bore : All except 1.1 litre HCS engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73.96 mm 1.1 litre HCS engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68.68 mm Stroke: All except 1.1 litre OHV engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75.48 mm 1.1 litre OHV engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64.98 mm Compression ratio : 1.1 litre OHV engines (pre-1986) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.15:1 1.1 litre OHV engines (1986 onwards) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.5:1 1.1 litre HCS engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.5:1 1.3 litre OHV engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.3:1 1.3 litre HCS engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.5:1 Firing order . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2-4-3 (No 1 at timing cover end)
Cylinder block Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cast iron Number of main bearings: 1.1 litre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.3 litre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Cylinder bore diameter: All except 1.1 litre HCS engines: Standard (1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73.940 to 73.950 mm Standard (2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73.950 to 73.960 mm Standard (3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73.960 to 73.970 mm Standard (4) - all except HCS engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73.970 to 73.980 mm Oversize 0.5 mm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74.500 to 74.510 mm Oversize 1.0 mm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75.000 to 75.010 mm 2A·2 OHV and HCS engines
Cylinder bore diameter (continued): 1.1 litre HCS engine: Standard (1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68.680 to 68.690 mm Standard (2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68.690 to 68.700 mm Standard (3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68.700 to 68.710 mm Oversize 0.5 mm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69.200 to 69.210 mm Oversize 1.0 mm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69.700 to 69.710 mm Main bearing shell inner diameter: Standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57.009 to 57.036 mm 0.254 mm undersize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56.755 to 56.782 mm 0.508 mm undersize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56.501 to 56.528 mm 0.762 mm undersize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56.247 to 56.274 mm Camshaft bearing inner diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39.662 to 39.682 mm
Crankshaft Main bearing journal diameter: Standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56.990 to 57.000 mm Standard with yellow dot (1.1 litre only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56.980 to 56.990 mm 0.254 mm undersize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56.726 to 56.746 mm 0.508 mm undersize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56.472 to 56.492 mm 0.762 mm undersize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56.218 to 56.238 mm Main bearing running clearance: All except 1.3 litre HCS engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.009 to 0.046 mm 1.3 litre HCS engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.009 to 0.056 mm Crankpin (big-end) diameter: OHV engines: Standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42.99 to 43.01 mm 0.254 mm undersize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42.74 to 42.76 mm 0.508 mm undersize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42.49 to 42.51 mm 0.762 mm undersize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42.24 to 42.26 mm HCS engines: Standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40.99 to 41.01 mm 0.254 mm undersize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40.74 to 40.76 mm 0.508 mm undersize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40.49 to 40.51 mm 0.762 mm undersize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40.24 to 40.26 mm Thrustwasher thickness: Standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.80 to 2.85 mm Oversize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.99 to 3.04 mm Crankshaft endfloat: OHV engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.079 to 0.279 mm HCS engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.075 to 0.285 mm Maximum permissible journal and crankpin ovality and taper . . . . . . . . 0.0254 mm
Camshaft Number of bearings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Single chain Thrust plate thickness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.457 to 4.508 mm Camshaft bearing diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39.615 to 39.636 mm Camshaft bearing bush internal diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39.662 to 39.682 mm Camshaft endfloat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.02 to 0.19 mm Number of links /Length of drive chain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46/438.15 mm
Piston and piston rings Diameter: All except 1.1 litre HCS engines: Standard (1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73.910 to 73.920 mm Standard (2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73.920 to 73.930 mm Standard (3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73.930 to 73.940 mm Standard (4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73.940 to 73.950 mm 0.5 mm oversize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74.460 to 74.485 mm 1.0 mm oversize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74.960 to 74.985 mm 1.1 litre HCS engines: Standard (1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68.65 to 68.66 mm Standard (2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68.66 to 68.67 mm Standard (3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68.67 to 68.68 mm 0.5 mm oversize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69.20 to 69.21 mm 1.0 mm oversize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69.70 to 69.71 mm Piston-to-bore clearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.015 to 0.050 mm Piston ring end gap: Compression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.25 to 0.45 mm Oil control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.20 to 0.40 mm OHV and HCS engines 2A·3
Cylinder head Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cast iron Maximum permissible cylinder head distortion measured over entire length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.15 mm Minimum combustion chamber depth after skimming : OHV engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.07 mm HCS engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.4 ± 0.15 mm Valve seat angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45° Valve seat width : OHV engines: Inlet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.20 to 1.75 mm Exhaust . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.20 to 1.70 mm HCS engines (inlet and exhaust) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.18 to 1.75 mm Seat cutter correction angle: Upper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30° Lower . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75° Valve guide bore (standard) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.907 to 7.938 mm
Valves - general Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cam followers and pushrods Valve timing: Pre-1986 OHV engines: Inlet valve opens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21° BTDC Inlet valve closes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55° ABDC Exhaust valve opens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70° BBDC Exhaust valve closes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22° ATDC 1986 onwards OHV engines: Inlet valve opens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14° BTDC Inlet valve closes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46° ABDC 2A Exhaust valve opens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65° BBDC Exhaust valve closes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11° ATDC 1.1 litre HCS engines: Inlet opens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14° BTDC Inlet closes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46° ABDC Exhaust opens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49° BBDC Exhaust closes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11° ATDC 1.3 litre HCS engines: Inlet opens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16° BTDC Inlet closes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44° ABDC Exhaust opens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51° BBDC Exhaust closes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9° ATDC Valve clearance (cold): Inlet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.22 mm Exhaust: OHV engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.59 mm HCS engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.32 mm Cam follower diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.081 to 13.094 mm Cam follower clearance in bore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.016 to 0.062 mm Valve spring free length: OHV engines: Pre-1986 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42.0 mm 1986 onwards: 1.1 litre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41.2 mm 1.3 litre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42.4 mm HCS engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41.0 mm
Inlet valve Length: OHV engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105.45 to 106.45 mm HCS engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103.70 to 104.40 mm Head diameter: OHV engines: Pre-1986 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38.02 to 38.28 mm 1986 onwards: 1.1 litre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32.89 to 33.15 mm 1.3 litre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38.02 to 38.28 mm HCS engines: 1.1 litre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32.90 to 33.10 mm 1.3 litre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34.40 to 34.60 mm 2A·4 OHV and HCS engines
Inlet valve (continued) Stem diameter: OHV engines: Standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.866 to 7.868 mm 0.076 mm oversize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.944 to 7.962 mm 0.38 mm oversize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.249 to 8.267 mm HCS engines: Standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.025 to 7.043 mm 0.076 mm oversize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.225 to 7.243 mm 0.381 mm oversize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.425 to 7.443 mm Valve stem clearance in guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.021 to 0.070 mm
Exhaust valve Length: OHV engines: Pre-1986 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105.15 to 106.15 mm 1986 onwards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106.04 to 107.04 mm HCS engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104.02 to 104.72 mm Head diameter: OHV engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29.01 to 29.27 mm HCS engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28.90 to 29.10 mm Stem diameter: OHV engines: Standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.846 to 7.864 mm 0.076 mm oversize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.922 to 7.940 mm 0.38 mm oversize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.227 to 8.245 mm HCS engines: Standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.999 to 7.017 mm 0.076 mm oversize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.199 to 7.217 mm 0.381 mm oversize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.399 to 7.417 mm Valve stem clearance in guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.043 to 0.092 mm
Lubrication system Oil pump type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rotor, external driven by gear on camshaft Minimum oil pressure at 80° C (175° F): Engine speed 750 rpm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.6 bar (8.5 lbf/in2) Engine speed 2000 rpm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5 bar (21.3 lbf/in2) Oil pressure warning lamp operates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.32 to 0.53 bar (4.5 to 7.5 lbf/in2) Relief valve opens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.41 to 2.75 bar (34.3 to 39.1 lbf/in2) Oil pump clearances: Outer rotor-to-body . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.14 to 0.26 mm Inner-to-outer rotor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.051 to 0.127 mm Rotor endfloat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.025 to 0.06 mm
Torque wrench settings Nm lbf ft Main bearing cap bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 to 102 65 to 75 Connecting rod (big-end bearing cap) bolts: OHV engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 to 36 21 to 27 HCS engines: Stage 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3 Stage 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tighten by a further 90° Tighten by a further 90° Rear oil seal retainer bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 to 20 12 to 15 Flywheel bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 to 70 47 to 52 Timing chain tensioner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 to 9 5 to 7 Camshaft thrust plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 to 5 3 to 4 Camshaft sprocket bolt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 to 20 12 to 15 Timing cover bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 to 10 5 to 8 Crankshaft pulley bolt: OHV engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 to 59 40 to 44 HCS engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 to 120 74 to 89 Oil pump to crankcase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 to 20 12 to 15 Oil pump cover bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 to 12 6 to 9 Sump bolts: Stage 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 to 8 4 to 6 Stage 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 to 11 6 to 8 Stage 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 to 11 6 to 8 Sump drain plug . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 to 28 15 to 21 Oil pressure switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 to 15 10 to 11 OHV and HCS engines 2A·5
Torque wrench settings (continued) Nm lbf ft Rocker shaft pedestal bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 to 46 30 to 34 Cylinder head bolts: OHV engines: Stage 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 to 15 8 to 11 Stage 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 to 50 30 to 37 Stage 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 to 90 59 to 66 Stage 4 (after 10 to 20 minutes) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 to 110 74 to 81 HCS engines: Stage 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 22 Stage 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tighten by a further 90° Tighten by a further 90° Stage 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tighten by a further 90° Tighten by a further 90° Rocker cover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 to 5 3 to 4 Engine to transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 to 45 26 to 33 Right-hand engine mounting to body . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 to 58 30 to 43 Right-hand engine mounting bracket to engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 to 72 40 to 53 Right-hand engine mounting rubber insulator to brackets . . . . . . . . . . . 70 to 95 52 to 70 Front transmission mounting bracket to transmission (pre-1986) . . . . . 41 to 51 30 to 38 Front and rear transmission mounting bolts (pre-1986) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 to 64 38 to 47 Transmission mountings to transmission (1986 onwards) . . . . . . . . . . . 80 to 100 59 to 74 Transmission support crossmember to body (1986 onwards) . . . . . . . . 52 38
passages to all bearing surfaces. A drilling in A further development of the Ford "lean the big-end provides lubrication for the burn " principle, the HCS engine is basically 1 General information similar to the previous OHV engine, being of gudgeon pins and cylinder bores. The timing chain and sprockets are lubricated by an oil four cylinder, in-line OHV construction , but ejection nozzle. nearly every aspect of the engine has been re- 2A OHV engines designed. The major differences are in the The 1.1 litre and 1.3 litre OHV engines are HCS engines cylinder head, where the inlet valve ports and of four-cylinder, in-line overhead valve type The 1.1 and 1.3 litre High Compression combustion chambers are designed to impart ( hence OHV), mounted transversely together Swirl (HCS) engines were introduced at the a high level of "swirl" to the incoming fuel/air with the transmission, at the front of the car. beginning of 1989 and fitted to certain 1.1 mixture. The valve arrangement is also The crankshaft on 1.1 litre engines is Escort models and all 1.3 Escort models, different, being of "mirror" design, where the supported in three shell type main bearings, inlet valves of the centre cylinders are next to including the Van and Combi, replacing the whereas the 1.3 litre unit features a five main each other. Combined with the DIS fully previous OHV engine. bearing crankshaft. Apart from this difference and other minor alterations, the two engines are virtually the same in design and construction. The connecting rods are attached to the crankshaft by horizontally split shell type big- end bearings and to the pistons by interference fit gudgeon pins. The aluminium alloy pistons are of the slipper type and are fitted with three piston rings; two compression and one oil control. The camshaft is chain driven from the crankshaft and operates the valves via pushrods and rocker arms. The inlet and exhaust valves are each closed by a single valve spring and operate in guides integral with the cylinder head. The oil pump and distributor are driven by a skew gear on the camshaft while an eccentric cam operates the fuel pump lever. The oil pump is mounted externally on the cylinder block just below the distributor, and the full flow type oil filter is screwed directly into the oil pump. Engine oil contained in the sump is drawn through a strainer and pick -up tube by an externally mounted oil pump of twin rotor design. The oil is then forced through the full-flow, throw -away type oil 1.1 Cutaway view of the 1.1 litre filter. Oil pressure is regulated by a relief valve OHV engine integral in the oil pump. The pressurised oil is directed through the various galleries and 2A·6 OHV and HCS engines
electronic ignition system which has no moving parts, the result is an economical engine with cleaner exhaust emissions which can run on leaded or unleaded fuel without adjustment to the ignition system. Although most components of the HCS engine have been redesigned, for the most part the servicing and overhaul procedures remain unchanged, unless otherwise stated .
2 Major operations possible with the engine in the car The following work can be carried out 4.6a Heater hose connection on choke 4.6b Heater hose connection at inlet without having to remove the engine: housing manifold a) Cylinder head - removal and refitting. b) Valve clearances - adjustment (see 8 On manual choke models disconnect the progressively in the reverse order to that given Chapter 1). choke cable from the linkage lever and for tightening (see illustration 4.27). Remove c) Sump - removal and refitting. support bracket. the cylinder head. d) Rocker gear - overhaul. 9 Disconnect the fuel and vacuum pipes from 22 To dismantle the cylinder head, refer to e) Crankshaft front oil seal - renewal . the carburettor. Section 13. f) Pistons/connecting rods - removal and 10 Disconnect the breather hose from the inlet manifold. Refitting refitting. g) Engine mountings - renewal. 11 On vehicles with servo- assisted brakes, 23 Before refitting the cylinder head, remove h) Oil filter - removal and refitting. disconnect the vacuum hose from the inlet every particle of carbon, old gasket and dirt I) Oil pump - removal and refitting. manifold. from the mating surfaces of the cylinder head 12 Disconnect the HT leads from the spark and block. Do not let the removed material plugs. drop into the cylinder bores or waterways, if it 3 Major operations requiring 13 Disconnect the electrical leads from the does, remove it. Normally, when a cylinder engine removal temperature sender unit, the anti-run-on head is removed, the head is decarbonised solenoid valve at the carburettor, and the and the valves ground in as described in The following work can only be carried out radiator fan thermal switch. Section 14 to remove all trace of carbon. after removal of the engine from the car: 14 Unbolt and remove the hot air box from Clean the threads of the cylinder head bolts a) Crankshaft main bearings - renewal . the exhaust manifold. and mop out oil from the bolt holes in the b) Crankshaft - removal and refitting. 15 Disconnect the exhaust downpipe from cylinder block. In extreme cases, screwing a c) Flywheel - removal and refitting. the manifold by unbolting the connecting bolt into an oil- filled hole can cause the block d) Crankshaft rear oil seal - renewal. flanges. Support the exhaust system at the to fracture due to hydraulic pressure. e) Camshaft - removal and refitting. front end. 24 If there is any doubt about the condition of f) Timing gears and chain - removal and 16 Remove the oil filler cap with breather hose. the inlet or exhaust gaskets, unbolt the refitting. 17 Extract the four screws and remove the manifolds and fit new ones to perfectly clean rocker cover. mating surfaces. 4 Cylinder head - removal and 18 Unscrew and remove the four fixing bolts 25 Locate a new cylinder head gasket on the and lift away the rocker shaft assembly from cylinder block, making quite sure that the bolt refitting the cylinder head. holes, coolant passages and lubrication holes 19 Withdraw the pushrods, keeping them in are correctly aligned. Removal their originally fitted sequence. A simple way 26 Lower the cylinder head carefully into to do this is to punch holes in a piece of card position on the block. Note: On HCS engines, cylinder head bolts and number them 1 to 8 from the thermostat 27 Screw in all the bolts finger tight and then may be used a total of three times (including housing end of the cylinder head. tighten them in the stages given (see initial fit) and must be suitably marked to 20 Remove the spark plugs. Specifications), and in the sequence shown to indicate each removal operation. A new 21 Unscrew the cylinder head bolts the specified torque (see illustration). Note that cylinder head gasket must be used on refitting. 1 If the engine is in the car carry out the preliminary operations described in paragraphs 2 to 16. 2 Disconnect the battery negative terminal. 3 Remove the air cleaner (Chapter 4, Part A). 4 Drain the cooling system (Chapter 1). 5 Disconnect the hoses from the thermostat housing. 6 Disconnect the heater hose from the upper connection on the automatic choke housing, or inlet manifold as applicable (see illustrations). 7 Release the throttle cable from the carburettor operating lever by moving the spring clip and removing the bracket fixing 4.7 Throttle cable disconnection points 4.27 Cylinder head bolt tightening bolt (see illustration). sequence OHV and HCS engines 2A·7
on all except HCS engines with M11 necked- shank (a reduced diameter section between the bolt head and the threaded portion) cylinder head bolts there are four tightening stages. On HCS engines with M11 necked-shank cylinder head bolts there are three tightening stages. 28 Refit the pushrods in their original order. 29 Lower the rocker shaft assembly into position, making sure that the rocker adjusting screws engage in the sockets at the ends of the pushrods. 30 Screw in the rocker pedestal bolts finger tight. At this stage, some of the rocker arms will be applying pressure to the ends of the valve stems and some of the rocker pedestals 5.6a Sump gasket fitting details at timing 5.6b Fitting the sump gasket sealing strips will not be in contact with the cylinder head. cover end (A) and flywheel end (B) to overlap the tabs on the gasket The pedestals will be pulled down however 2 Refer to Chapter 5, Part A and remove the when the bolts are tightened to the specified starter motor. 6 Rocker gear - dismantling and torque, which should now be done. 3 Unbolt and remove the clutch cover plate. 31 Adjust the valve clearances as described reassembly 4 Extract the sump securing bolts and in Chapter 1. remove the sump. If it is stuck, prise it gently 32 Refit the rocker cover, using a new with a screwdriver but do not use excessive Dismantling gasket. Do not exceed the specified torque for leverage. If it is very tight, cut round the 1 With the rocker assembly removed as the securing screws; this may result in oil gasket joint using a sharp knife . described in Section 4, extract the split pin leaks at the rocker cover/cylinder head mating Refitting from one end of the rocker shaft (see face. illustration). 33 Fit the oil filler cap and breather hose and 5 Before refitting the sump, remove the front 2 Take off the spring and plain washers from the spark plugs. Tighten these to the specified and rear sealing strips and gaskets. Clean the torque. They are of tapered seat type, no the end of the shaft. 2A mating surfaces of the sump and cylinder 3 Slide off the rocker arms, support pedestals sealing washers being used. block. and coil springs , keeping them in their 34 Connect the exhaust downpipe and fit the 6 Stick new gaskets into position on the originally fitted order. Clean out the oil holes in hot air box. block using thick grease to retain them, then the shaft. 35 Reconnect all electrical leads, vacuum install new sealing strips into their grooves so and coolant hoses. that they overlap the gaskets (see Reassembly 36 Reconnect the throttle and choke cables illustrations). 4 Apply engine oil to the rocker shaft before as described in Chapter 4, Part A. 7 Before offering up the sump, check that the reassembling and make sure that the flat on 37 Refit the air cleaner as described in gap between the sump and the oil baffle is the end of the shaft is to the same side as the Chapter 4, Part A and fill the cooling system between 2.0 and 3.8 mm (see illustration). rocker arm adjuster screws. This is essential as described in Chapter 1. 8 Screw in the sump bolts and tighten in for proper lubrication of the components. 38 Reconnect the battery negative terminal. three stages to the specified torque in the sequence shown (see illustration). a) Stage 1- in alphabetical order 7 Crankshaft front oil seal - 5 Sump - removal and refitting b) Stage 2 - in numerical order renewal c) Stage 3 - in alphabetical order 9 It is important to follow this procedure in 1 Disconnect the battery negative lead. Note: New gaskets and sealing strips must be 2 Slacken the alternator mounting and order to provide positive sealing against oil used on refitting. adjuster bolts and after pushing the alternator leakage. Removal 10 Refit the clutch cover plate and the starter in towards the engine, slip off the drivebelt. motor and reconnect the battery. 3 Unscrew and remove the crankshaft pulley 1 Disconnect the battery negative lead and bolt. To prevent the crankshaft turning while 11 Refill the engine with the correct grade drain the engine oil (see Chapter 1). the bolt is being released, jam the teeth of the and quantity of oil.
5.7 Sump and oil baffle clearance details A Sump B Baffle 5.8 Sump bolt tightening sequence 6.1 Rocker shaft assembly components 2A·8 OHV and HCS engines
starter ring gear on the flywheel after removing the clutch cover plate or starter motor (Chapter 5, Part A) for access. 4 Remove the crankshaft pulley. This should come out using the hands but if it is tight, prise it carefully with two levers placed at opposite sides under the pulley flange. 5 Using a suitable claw tool, prise out the defective seal and wipe out the seat. 6 Install the new seal using a suitable distance piece, the pulley and its bolt to draw it into position. If it is tapped into position, the seal may be distorted or the timing cover fractured. 7 When the seal is fully seated, remove the 8.2 Connecting rod and big-end cap 8.9 Piston ring end gap positioning pulley and bolt, apply grease to the seal rubbing identification numbers diagram surface of the pulley, install it and tighten the off before the piston/rod is pushed out of the 15 Wipe the bearing shell seat in the big-end securing bolt to the specified torque. top of the cylinder block. Take care when cap clean and insert the bearing shell. 8 Refit the clutch cover or starter motor. doing this not to score the cylinder bore 16 Fit the cap, screw in the bolts and tighten 9 Fit and tension the drivebelt as described in surfaces. to the specified torque. Chapter 1, and reconnect the battery. 6 Push the piston/connecting rod out of the 17 Repeat the operations on the remaining block, retaining the bearing shell with the rod pistons/connecting rods. 8 Piston/connecting rod if it is to be used again. 18 Refit the sump (Section 5) and the cylinder assemblies - removal and 7 Dismantling the piston/rod is covered in head (Section 4). Refill with oil and coolant. refitting Section 13. 8 Repeat the operations on the remaining 9 Engine/transmission Note: A piston ring compressor tool will be piston/rod assemblies. mountings - removal and required for this operation. Refitting refitting Removal 9 To install a piston/rod assembly, have the 1 Remove the cylinder head and the sump as piston ring gaps staggered as shown, oil the Pre-1986 models described in Sections 4 and 5 respectively. Do rings and apply a piston ring compressor (see illustration). Compress the piston rings. 1 The engine mountings can be removed if not remove the oil pick-up filter or pipe, which the weight of the engine/transmission is first is an interference fit. 10 Oil the cylinder bores. 11 Wipe out the bearing shell seat in the taken by one of the three following methods. 2 Note the location numbers stamped on the 2 Either support the engine under the sump connecting rod big-ends and caps, and to connecting rod and insert the shell. using a jack and a block of wood , or attach a which side they face. No 1 assembly is 12 Lower the piston/rod assembly into the hoist to the engine lifting lugs. A third method nearest the timing cover and the assembly cylinder bore until the base of the piston ring is to make up a bar with end pieces which will numbers are towards the camshaft side of the compressor stands squarely on the top of the engage in the water channels at the sides of engine (see illustration). block (see illustration). the bonnet lid aperture . Using an adjustable 3 Turn the crankshaft by means of the pulley 13 Check that the directional arrow on the hook and chain connected to the engine lifting bolt until the big-end cap bolts for No 1 piston crown faces towards the timing cover lugs, the weight of the engine can be taken off connecting rod are in their most accessible end of the engine and then apply the wooden the mountings. position. Unscrew and remove the bolts and handle of a hammer to the piston crown (see illustrations). Strike the head of the hammer Rear mountings the big-end cap complete with bearing shell. If the cap is difficult to remove, tap it off with a sharply to drive the piston into the cylinder Removal plastic-faced hammer. bore. 3 Unbolt the mounting, according to type from 4 If the bearing shells are to be used again 14 Oil the crankpin and draw the connecting the body member or panel, also from the engine (Section 13), keep the shell taped to its cap. rod down to engage with the crankshaft. or transmission. With the mounting withdrawn , 5 Feel the top of the cylinder bore for a wear Check that the bearing shell is still in position the centre bolt can be unscrewed and the ridge . If one is detected, it should be scraped in the connecting rod. flexible component detached (see illustrations).
8.13a Relative positions of piston 8.12 Fitting a piston/connecting rod directional arrow and oil squirt hole in 8.13b Arrow on piston crown must face assembly with ring compressor in position connecting rod the timing cover when installed OHV and HCS engines 2A·9
9.3a Transmission left-hand rear 9.3b Removing transmission left-hand rear 9.3c Right-hand rear engine mounting mounting-to-bracket attachment - mounting - pre-1986 models attachments - pre-1986 models pre-1986 models A Mounting to side member crossmember at the front and rear and B Mounting to inner wheel arch Refitting 4 Refitting is a reversal of removal. Make sure remove it from under the car. Remove the 8 Top-up the engine oil to replenish any lost that the original sequence of assembly of relevant mounting. during the operations. washers and plates is maintained. Refitting Front left-hand mounting 11 Refitting is the reversal of removal. Make 11 Engine/transmission - Removal sure that the original sequence of assembly of removal and separation 5 Removal of the front mounting on the washers and plates is maintained. transmission requires a different removal Note: Suitable lifting tackle will be required for procedure. Remove the centre bolt from the 10 Oil pump - removal and this operation. mounting and then using one of the methods refitting described, raise the transmission just enough OHV engines 2A to be able to unbolt and remove the two Note: A new gasket must be used on refitting. insulator bolts and withdraw the insulator (see Removal illustration). Removal 1 The engine is removed complete with the Refitting transmission in a downward direction and then 1 The oil pump is externally mounted on the 6 Refitting is a reversal of removal. Make sure rear facing side of the crankcase. withdrawn from under the front of the car. that the original sequence of assembly of 2 Using a strap wrench or similar, unscrew and 2 Disconnect the battery negative lead. washers and plates is maintained. remove the oil filter cartridge and discard it. 3 Place the transmission in fourth gear on four- 1986 models onwards 3 Unscrew the three mounting bolts and speed versions, or reverse gear on the five- withdraw the oil pump from the engine (see speed unit to aid adjustment of the gearchange Removal illustration). linkage when refitting. On models produced from 4 Clean away the old gasket. February 1987 onwards, place the transmission 7 From 1986 onwards a longitudinal crossmember is mounted beneath the Refitting in second gear on four-speed versions, or fourth transmission, and the front and rear left-hand gear on five-speed versions. 5 If a new pump is being fitted. it should be mountings are attached to it. Removal of the 4 Remove the bonnet (Chapter 11). primed with engine oil before installation. Do rear right-hand mounting is as previously 5 Remove the air cleaner (Chapter 4, Part A). this by turning its shaft while filling it with described, but removal of the front and rear clean engine oil. 6 Drain the cooling system (Chapter 1). left-hand mountings is as follows. 6 Locate a new gasket on the pump 7 Disconnect both the radiator hoses and the 8 Support the engine; see paragraphs 1 and 2. mounting flange, insert the pump shaft and expansion tank hose at the thermostat housing. 9 Undo the nuts securing the mountings to bolt the pump into position. 8 Disconnect the heater hoses from the stub the transmission support crossmember and to 7 Grease the rubber sealing ring of a new filter on the lateral coolant pipe, automatic choke the brackets on the transmission. and screw it into position on the pump, using housing or inlet manifold as applicable (see 10 Unbolt the transmission support hand pressure only, not the removal tool. illustration).
9.5 Transmission left-hand front mounting 10.3 Removing the oil pump 11.8 Heater hose attachments at lateral attachments - pre-1986 models coolant pipe (A) and choke housing (B) 2A·10 OHV and HCS engines
11.22 Gearchange rod and stabiliser 11.24 Typical lifting gear connection to 11.26 Engine right-hand mounting disconnection points - washer fitted engine attachment at side member (A) and inner behind stabiliser arrowed wing panel (B) 9 Disconnect the choke cable (where fitted) 18 The vehicle should now be jacked up and 25 Just take the weight of the and the throttle cable from the carburettor safety stands fitted to provide sufficient engine/transmission assembly so that the throttle lever. Unbolt the cable support clearance beneath it to be able to remove the tension is relieved from the mountings. bracket and tie the cable assembly to one engine/transmission from below. A distance 26 Unbolt the rear right-hand engine side of the engine compartment. of 686 mm (27.0 in) is recommended between mounting (complete with coolant hose support 10 Disconnect the fuel pipe from the fuel the floor and the bottom edge of the front on early models) from the side member and pump and plug the pipe. panel. from the inner wing panel (see illustration). 11 On vehicles equipped with power- 19 Disconnect the exhaust system from its 27 On pre-1986 models unbolt the front and assisted brakes, disconnect the vacuum pipe flexible mountings and remove the system rear transmission mountings from their from the inlet manifold. complete. brackets, and remove the front mounting and 12 Disconnect the leads from the following 20 Disconnect the starter motor leads and anti-roll bar support plates from the body on electrical components: the engine earth strap. both sides (see illustration). a) Alternator and electric fan temperature 21 Disconnect the gearchange rod from the 28 On 1986 models onwards undo the nuts switch. transmission selector shaft by releasing the and bolts securing the transmission support clamp bolt and withdrawing the rod. Tie the crossmember to the body (see illustrations). b) Oil pressure sender. rod to the stabiliser and then where fitted, The crossmember is removed with the c) Coolant temperature sender. unhook the tension spring. engine/transmission assembly. d) Reversing lamp switch. 22 Unscrew the single bolt and disconnect 29 Carefully lower the engine/transmission e) Anti-run on solenoid valve. the stabiliser from the transmission housing, and withdraw it from under the car. 13 Disconnect the HT and LT (distributor) noting the washer fitted between the stabiliser wires from the coil terminals . To ease the withdrawal trunnion and the transmission (see 14 Unscrew the speedometer drive cable operation, lower the engine/ illustration). from the transmission and release the transmission onto a crawler 23 Remove the driveshafts from the breather hose. transmission using the procedure described in board or a sheet of 15 Disconnect the clutch cable from the the manual transmission removal procedure in substantial chipboard placed on rollers release lever and from its transmission Chapter 7, Part A. Note that on pre-1986 or lengths of pipe. support. models equipped with an anti-roll bar the 16 Unbolt and remove the hot air box from right-hand mounting clamp should also be the exhaust manifold. Separation undone and the bar lowered together with the 17 Disconnect the exhaust downpipe from suspension arms. 30 Unscrew and remove the starter motor the manifold by extracting the two flange 24 Connect a suitable hoist to the engine bolts and remove the starter. bolts. Support the exhaust pipe to avoid using chains and brackets (see illustration). 31 Unbolt and remove the clutch cover plate straining it. from the lower part of the clutch bellhousing.
11.28a Transmission support 11.27 Remove the anti-roll bar support crossmember front mounting bolts (A) and 11.28b Transmission support plates on both sides - pre-1986 models anti-roll bar support plate bolts (B) - crossmember rear mounting bolts - 1986 models onwards 1986 models onwards OHV and HCS engines 2A·11
11.35 A locally made-up lifting eye - 11.41a Radiator lower mounting bolt . . . 11.41b . . . and upper locating peg - HCS engine HCS engine 32 Unscrew and remove the bolts from the mild steel bar, approximately 3" long and 11/2" 46 Disconnect the fuel inlet ( blue clip) and clutch bellhousing-to-engine mating flange. wide , with two 1/2" holes drilled in them (see outlet ( green clip) pipes from the fuel pump 33 Withdraw the transmission from the illustration). (see Chapter 4, Part A). engine. Support its weight so that the clutch 36 Remove the bonnet (Chapter 11). 47 Disconnect the brake servo vacuum hose assembly is not distorted while the input shaft 37 Disconnect the battery negative lead. from the inlet manifold. On later models is still in engagement with the splined hub of 38 Remove the air cleaner (Chapter 4, Part A). depress the flanged collar towards the the clutch driven plate. 39 Drain the engine oil (Chapter 1). manifold, and pull out the hose (see 40 Drain the coolant (Chapter 1). illustration). Do not pull the hose at an angle, HCS engines 41 Remove the radiator (Chapter 3) (see or use excessive force , or the hose may lock illustrations). in position. Removal 42 Disconnect the heater hoses from the inlet 48 Disconnect the earth lead from the inlet 34 The engine can be lifted from the engine manifold and the water pump. manifold. bay provided the radiator and certain other 2A 43 Disconnect the lead at the anti-run-on 49 Disconnect the following electrical ancillary components are removed first to give valve solenoid on the carburettor. connections: room for manoeuvring. These are detailed in 44 Disconnect the throttle cable (Chapter 4, a) Cooling fan thermal switch on thermostat the removal procedure. Part A). housing (see illustration). 35 Before commencing work it will be 45 Disconnect the choke cable (Chapter 4, b) Coolant temperature sender (see necessary to make up two lifting eyes from 1/4" Part A). illustration). c) Alternator. d) Ignition (DIS) coil (Chapter 5, Part B). e) Oil pressure switch. f) Engine coolant temperature sensor (Chapter 5, Part B). g) Engine speed sensor (Chapter 5, Part B). h) Reversing light switch (Chapter 7, Part A). I) Transmission housing earth lead. 50 Disconnect the speedometer cable (see illustration). 51 Disconnect the exhaust downpipe from the exhaust manifold flange. The nuts are easier to reach from underneath the vehicle. Once undone, support the exhaust on wire. 52 Disconnect the starter motor and engine 11.41c Lifting out the radiator - 11.47 Disconnecting the brake vacuum earth lead which is under one of the starter HCS engine servo hose - HCS engine motor bolts (Chapter 5, Part A).
11.49a Disconnecting the cooling fan 11.49b . . . and coolant temperature 11.50 Disconnecting the speedometer thermal switch . . . sender - HCS engine cable - HCS engine 2A·12 OHV and HCS engines
11.57a Right-hand engine mounting 11.57b One bolt (arrowed) is accessible 11.58 Torx headed bolt (arrowed) securing nuts/bolts (arrowed) - HCS engine from within the wheelarch - HCS engine the mounting to the bracket - HCS engine 53 Remove the starter lead support bracket 58 Once removed, undo the Torx headed 64 Remove the nut from the left-hand front from the transmission housing. bolt securing the mounting to the bracket (see engine mounting. 54 Disconnect the gearchange mechanism illustration). 65 Remove the nut from the left-hand rear (Chapter 7, Part A). 59 Refit the bracket to the cylinder block and mounting. Remove the nuts securing the 55 Remove the driveshafts (Chapter 8). Note: bolt one of the made-up lifting eyes to the mounting bracket to the transmission housing On removal of the driveshafts, push a length of bracket using one of the spare bolts (see and remove the bracket (see illustrations). wooden dowel into the hole vacated by the illustration). 66 Commence lifting the engine slowly, driveshaft in the transmission housing to 60 Fit the other lifting eye to the transmission checking all round that everything has been prevent the sun gears of the differential housing (see illustration). disconnected and that the engine does not becoming misaligned. A piece of broom 61 Secure suitable lifting gear to the engine foul other components as it is lifted. Swing the handle is ideal , but will have to be turned down and just begin to take the weight. Note: If the engine and tilt it as necessary to clear somewhat. carburettor is likely to be damaged because of obstacles (see illustrations). 56 Support the right-hand side of the engine on the angle of the lifting sling/chain, remove the 67 Once out of the engine bay, swing the a trolley jack; just take the weight of the engine. carburettor as described in Chapter 4, Part A. engine clear and lower it onto a suitable work 57 Remove the right-hand engine mounting by 62 Remove the alternator (Chapter 5, Part A) surface. undoing the top nut on the wing panel, removing to give more room for manoeuvring the engine the bolt accessible from inside the wheelarch, out. Separation and the three bolts securing the mounting 63 Pull the transmission breather hose from 68 Proceed as described previously in this bracket to the engine (see illustrations). inside the wing panel. Section for OHV engines
11.65a Mounting nut location (A) and 11.59 Lifting eye (arrowed) bolted to right- 11.60 . . . and on transmission housing - bracket-to-transmission housing nuts (B) - hand mounting position on cylinder block . . . HCS engine HCS engine
11.65b Removing the mounting bracket - 11.66a Lifting the engine and transmission 11.66b . . . and out of the engine HCS engine upwards . . . compartment OHV and HCS engines 2A·13
12.13 Keep the pushrods in strict order 12.28 Removing the timing chain tensioner 12.31 Camshaft thrust plate removal after removal 10 Unbolt the thermostat housing cover and of the crankshaft sprocket. remove it together with the thermostat (refer 27 Slide the chain tensioner arm from its 12 Engine - complete dismantling to Chapter 3). pivot pin on the front main bearing cap. 11 Remove the rocker cover. 28 Unbolt and remove the chain tensioner 12 Remove the rocker shaft assembly (four (see illustration). OHV engines bolts). 29 Bend back the lockplate tabs from the 1 The need for dismantling will have been 13 Withdraw the pushrods, keeping them in camshaft sprocket bolts and unscrew and dictated by wear or noise in most cases. their originally fitted order (see illustration). remove the bolts. Although there is no reason why only partial 14 Remove the cylinder head complete with 30 Withdraw the sprocket complete with dismantling cannot be carried out to renew manifolds as described in Section 4. timing chain. such items as the timing chain or crankshaft 15 Remove the distributor as described in 31 Unbolt and remove the camshaft thrust rear oil seal, when the main bearings or big- Chapter 5, Part B. plate (see illustration). end bearings have been knocking and 16 Unbolt and remove the fuel pump. 32 Rotate the camshaft until each cam 2A especially if the vehicle has covered a high 17 Remove the oil pump (Section 10). follower (tappet) has been pushed fully into its mileage, then it is recommended that a 18 Pinch the two runs of the water pump hole by its cam lobe. complete strip down is carried out and every drivebelt together at the pump pulley to 33 Withdraw the camshaft, taking care not to engine component examined (Section 13). prevent the pulley rotating and release the damage the camshaft bearings (see illustration). 2 Position the engine so that it is upright on a pulley bolts. 34 Withdraw each of the cam followers, bench or other convenient working surface. If the exterior is very dirty it should be cleaned 19 Release the alternator mounting and keeping them in their originally fitted before dismantling using paraffin and a stiff adjuster link bolts, push the alternator in sequence by marking them with a piece of brush or a water- soluble solvent . towards the engine and remove the drivebelt. numbered tape or using a box with divisions 3 Remove the coolant pipe from the side of 20 Unbolt the alternator bracket and remove (see illustration). the engine by disconnecting the hose clips the alternator. 35 From the front end of the crankshaft, draw and the securing bolt. 21 Unbolt and remove the water pump. off the sprocket using a two-legged extractor. 4 If not already done, drain the engine oil. 22 Unscrew the crankshaft pulley bolt. To do 36 Check that the main bearing caps are 5 Remove the dipstick and unscrew and this, the flywheel starter ring gear will have to be marked F (Front), C (Centre) and R (Rear). The discard the oil filter. jammed to prevent the crankshaft from turning. caps are also marked with an arrow which 6 Disconnect the HT leads from the spark 23 Remove the crankshaft pulley. If this does indicates the timing cover end of the engine, a plugs, release the distributor cap and lift it not pull off by hand, carefully use two levers point to remember when refitting the caps. away complete with leads. behind it placed at opposite points. 37 Check that the big-end caps and 7 Unscrew and remove the spark plugs. 24 Place the engine on its side and remove connecting rods have adjacent matching 8 Disconnect the breather hose from the inlet the sump. Do not invert the engine at this numbers facing towards the camshaft side of manifold and remove it with the oil filler cap. stage, or sludge and swarf may enter the the engine. Number 1 assembly is nearest the 9 Disconnect the fuel and vacuum pipes from oilways. timing chain end of the engine. If any markings the carburettor and unbolt and remove the 25 Unbolt and remove the timing chain cover. are missing or indistinct, make some of your carburettor (refer to Chapter 4, Part A). 26 Take off the oil slinger from the front face own with quick -drying paint (see illustration).
12.33 Withdrawing the camshaft from the 12.34 Using a valve grinding tool suction 12.37 Connecting rod and big-end cap front of the engine cup to withdraw the cam followers markings 2A·14 OHV and HCS engines
38 Unbolt and remove the big-end bearing caps. If the bearing shell is to be used again, tape the shell to the cap. 39 Now check the top of the cylinder bore for a wear ring. If one can be felt, it should be removed with a scraper before the piston/rod is pushed out of the cylinder. 40 Remove the piston/rod by pushing it out of the top of the block. Tape the bearing shell to the connecting rod. 41 Remove the remaining three piston/rod assemblies in a similar way. 42 Unbolt the clutch pressure plate cover from the flywheel. Unscrew the bolts evenly and progressively until spring pressure is 13.7a Crankshaft main bearing journal 13.7b Bearing shell colour identification relieved, before removing the bolts. Be size identification mark on balance web markings (arrowed) prepared to catch the clutch friction plate as (arrowed) the cover is withdrawn. timing chain end, the main bearing caps Specifications), then the crankshaft should be 43 Unbolt and remove the flywheel. It is are numbered 1 to 3 or 1 to 5 as reground by your dealer or engine heavy , do not drop it. If necessary, the starter applicable, and have an arrow on them reconditioning company to accept the ring gear can be jammed to prevent the which must point towards the timing undersize main and big-end shell bearings flywheel rotating. There is no need to mark the chain end of the engine. which are available. Normally, the company fitted position of the flywheel to its mounting g) The crankshaft thrust bearings are still doing the regrinding will supply the necessary flange as it can only be fitted one way. Take fitted either side of the centre main undersize shells. off the adapter plate (engine backplate). bearing. 5 If the crankshaft is in good condition, it is 44 Unbolt and remove the crankshaft rear oil h) rear oil seal carrier is secured in place by wise to renew the bearing shells as it is almost seal retainer. Torx type bolts. certain that the original ones will have worn. 45 Unbolt the main bearing caps. Remove This is often indicated by scoring of the the caps, tapping them off if necessary with a bearing surface or by the top layer of the plastic-faced hammer. Retain the bearing 13 Examination and renovation bearing metal having worn through to expose shells with their respective caps if the shells the metal underneath. are to be used again, although unless the 6 Each shell is marked on its back with the engine is of low mileage this is not 1 Clean all components using paraffin and a part number. Undersize shells will have the recommended (see Section 13). To improve stiff brush, except the crankshaft, which undersize stamped additionally on their backs. access to the No 2 main bearing bolt on 1.3 litre should be wiped clean and the oil passages 7 Standard size crankshafts having main engines the oil pick-up tube can be removed cleaned out with a length of wire. bearing journal diameters at the lower end of by drifting it out. A new pick-up tube must be 2 Never assume that a component is unworn the tolerance range are marked with a yellow obtained for reassembly together with simply because it looks all right. After all the spot on the front balance weight. You will find suitable adhesive to secure it in position. effort which has gone into dismantling the that with this type of crankshaft, a standard 46 Lift the crankshaft from the crankcase and engine, refitting worn components will make shell is fitted to the seat in the crankcase but a lift out the upper bearing shells, noting the the overhaul a waste of time and money. yellow colour-coded shell to the main bearing thrustwashers either side of the centre Depending on the degree of wear, the cap (see illustrations). bearing. Keep these shells with their overhauler's budget and the anticipated life of 8 If a green spot is seen on the crankshaft respective caps, identifying them for refitting the vehicle, components which are only then this indicates that 0.25 mm (0.0098 in) to the crankcase if they are to be used again. slightly worn may be refitted, but if in doubt it undersize big-end bearings are used (see 47 With the engine now completely is always best to renew. illustration). dismantled, each component should be Crankshaft, main and big-end Cylinder bores, pistons, rings and examined as described in Section 13 before bearings connecting rods reassembling. 3 The need to renew the main bearing shells HCS engines 9 Cylinder bore wear will usually have been or to have the crankshaft reground will usually evident from the smoke emitted from the 48 The procedure is as described previously have been determined during the last few in this Section for OHV engines, noting the miles of operation when perhaps a heavy following differences. knocking has developed from within the a) There is no coolant transfer pipe along the crankcase or the oil pressure warning lamp front of the engine. has stayed on denoting a low oil pressure b) Disconnect and remove the HT leads with probably caused by excessive wear in the reference to Chapter 5, Part B. bearings. c) There is no distributor to remove. The 4 Even without these symptoms, the journals procedure for removal of the DIS coil is and crankpins on a high mileage engine given in Chapter 5, Part B. should be checked for out-of-round (ovality) d) big-end cap bolts are Torx type bolts. and taper. For this a micrometer will be e) Remove the engine speed sensor as needed to check the diameter of the journals described in Chapter 5, Part B before and crankpins at several different points removing the flywheel to prevent damage around them. A motor factor or engineer can to the sensor. do this for you. If the average of the readings f) There are three main bearings on 1.1 shows that either out-of-round or taper is 13.8 Crankshaft big-end journal size engines and five on 1.3 engines. From the outside permitted tolerance (see identification mark on crank throw web OHV and HCS engines 2A·15
13.14 Checking piston ring end gap 13.24a Exploded view of the oil pump 13.24b Lift off the oil pump cover and remove the O-ring A Pump cover F Blind plug exhaust during recent operation of the vehicle B O-ring G Oil pressure relief 21 Place the flywheel in the household on the road, coupled with excessive oil C Pump body valve refrigerator for about an hour and then heat consumption and fouling of spark plugs. D Oil filter H Outer rotor the new ring gear to between 260 and 280°C 10 Engine life can be extended by fitting attachment stud J Inner rotor (500 and 536°F) in a domestic oven . Do not special oil control rings to the pistons. These E Filter relief valve K Drive gear heat it above 290°C (554°F) or its hardness are widely advertised and will give many more will be lost. thousands of useful mileage without the need not to cut your fingers, piston rings are sharp. 22 Slip the ring onto the flywheel and gently for a rebore, although this will be inevitable The cylinder bores should be roughened with tap it into position against its register . Allow it eventually. If this remedy is decided upon , fine glass paper to assist the bedding-in of the to cool without quenching. remove the piston/connecting rods (Section 8) new rings. 23 The clutch friction surface on the flywheel and fit the proprietary rings in accordance should be checked for grooving or tiny hair Timing sprockets and chain cracks, the latter being caused by with the manufacturer's instructions. overheating. If these conditions are evident, it 2A 11 Where a more permanent solution is 16 The teeth on the timing sprockets rarely wear, but still check for broken or hooked teeth. may be possible to surface grind the flywheel decided upon, the cylinder block can be 17 The timing chain should always be provided its balance is not upset . Otherwise, a rebored by your dealer or engineering works , or renewed at time of major engine overhaul. A new flywheel will have to be fitted consult your by one of the mobile workshops which now dealer about this. undertake such work. The cylinder bore will be worn chain is evident if when supported measured both for out-of-round and for taper horizontally at both ends it takes on a deeply Oil pump to decide how much the bores should be bored bowed appearance. 24 The oil pump should be checked for wear out. A set of matching pistons will be supplied 18 Finally check the rubber cushion on the by unbolting and removing the cover plate in a suitable oversize to suit the new bores. tensioner spring leaf . If grooved or chewed and O-ring and checking the following 12 Due to the need for special heating and up, renew it. tolerances (see illustrations): installing equipment for removal and refitting Flywheel a) Outer rotor to pump body gap. of the interference type gudgeon pin, the b) Inner rotor to outer rotor gap. removal and refitting of pistons to the 19 Inspect the starter ring gear on the c) Rotor endfloat (use a feeler blade and connecting rods is definitely a specialist job, flywheel for wear or broken teeth. If evident, straight -edge across pump body). preferably for your Ford dealer. the ring gear should be renewed in the 25 Use feeler blades to check the tolerances 13 The removal and refitting of piston rings is following way. Drill the ring gear with two and if they are outside the specified values , however well within the scope of the home holes, approximately 7 or 8 mm (0.3 in) renew the pump (see illustration). mechanic. Do this by sliding two or three old diameter and offset slightly. Make sure that feeler blades round behind the top you do not drill too deeply or you will damage Oil seals and gaskets compression ring so that they are at the flywheel. 26 Renew the oil seals on the timing cover equidistant points. The ring can now be slid 20 Tap the ring gear downward off its and the crankshaft rear retainer as a matter of up the blades and removed. Repeat the register and remove it. routine at time of major overhaul. Oil seals are removal operations on the second cheap, oil is not! Use a piece of tubing as a compression ring and then the oil control ring. removal and installing tool. Apply some This method will not only prevent the rings grease to the oil seal lips and check that the dropping onto empty grooves as they are small tensioner spring in the oil seal has not withdrawn, but it will also avoid ring breakage. been displaced by the vibration caused during 14 Even when new piston rings have been fitting of the seal. supplied to match the pistons, always check 27 Renew all the gaskets by purchasing the that they are not tight in their grooves and appropriate "de-coke", short or full engine set. also check their end gaps by pushing them Oil seals may be included in the gasket sets . squarely down their particular cylinder bore and measuring with a feeler blade (see Crankcase illustration). Adjustment of the end gap can 28 Clean out the oilways with a length of wire be made by careful grinding to bring it within or by using compressed air. Similarly clean the specified tolerance. the coolant passages. This is best done by 15 If new rings are being fitted to an old flushing through with a cold water hose. piston, always remove any carbon from the 13.25 Check the oil pump rotor-to-body Examine the crankcase and block for stripped grooves beforehand. The best tool for this job clearance (A) and the inner-to-outer rotor threads in bolt holes; if evident, thread inserts is the end of a broken piston ring. Take care clearance (B) can be fitted. 2A·16 OHV and HCS engines
13.38 Compress the valve spring to 13.39 Remove the valve spring retainer 13.40 . . . followed by the valve remove the collets and spring . . .
29 Renew any core plugs which appear to be blow with a hammer. Refit the compressor spring with the closer coils to the cylinder leaking or which are excessively rusty. and compress the spring. head, followed by the spring retainer. 30 Cracks in the casting may be rectified by 38 Extract the split collets and then gently Compress the spring and engage the split specialist welding , or by one of the cold metal release the compressor and remove it (see collets in the cutout in the valve stem. Hold key interlocking processes available. illustration). them in position while the compressor is 39 Remove the valve spring retainer, the gently released and removed. Camshaft and bearings spring and the oil seal (see illustration). 48 Repeat the operations on the remaining 31 Examine the camshaft gear and lobes for 40 Withdraw the valve (see illustration). valves, making sure that each valve is returned damage or wear. If evident a new camshaft 41 Repeat the removal operations on the to its original guide or if new valves have been must be purchased, or one which has been remaining seven valves. Keep the valves in fitted, into the seat into which it was ground. "built-up" such as are advertised by firms their originally fitted sequence by placing 49 On completion, support the ends of the specialising in exchange components. them in a piece of card which has holes cylinder head on two wooden blocks and 32 The bearing internal diameters should be punched in it and numbered 1 to 8 (from the strike the end of the valve stem with a plastic checked against the specifications if a timing cover end). or copper -faced hammer, just a light blow to suitable gauge is available; otherwise, check 42 Place each valve in turn in its guide so that settle the components. for movement between the camshaft journal approximately one third of its length enters the and the bearing. Worn bearings should be guide. Rock the valve from side to side. If there 14 Cylinder head and pistons - renewed by your dealer. is any more than an imperceptible movement, 33 Check the camshaft endfloat by the guides will have to be reamed (working decarbonising temporarily refitting the camshaft and the from the valve seat end) and oversize thrust plate. If the endfloat exceeds the stemmed valves fitted. If you do not have the OHV engines specified tolerance, renew the thrust plate. necessary reamer (tool No 21-242), leave this 1 With the cylinder head removed (Section 4), work to your Ford dealer. Cam followers the carbon deposits should be removed from 43 Examine the valve seats . Normally, the the combustion spaces using a scraper and a 34 It is seldom that the cam followers wear in seats do not deteriorate but the valve heads wire brush fitted into an electric drill. Take care their bores, but it is likely that after a high are more likely to burn away in which case, not to damage the valve heads, otherwise no mileage, the cam lobe contact surface will new valves can be ground in as described in special precautions need be taken as the show signs of a depression or grooving. the next Section. If the seats require re- cylinder head is of cast iron construction. 35 Where this condition is evident, renew the cutting, use a standard cutter available from 2 Where a more thorough job is to be carried cam followers. Grinding out the wear marks most accessory or tool stores or consult your out, the cylinder head should be dismantled will only reduce the thickness of the hardened motor engineering works. (Section 13), so that the valves may be ground metal of the cam follower and accelerate 44 Renewal of any valve seat which is in and the ports and combustion spaces further wear. cracked or beyond recutting is definitely a job cleaned, brushed and blown out after the for your dealer or motor engineering works. manifolds have been removed. Cylinder head and rocker gear 45 If the cylinder head mating surface is 3 Before grinding in a valve, remove the 36 The usual reason for dismantling the suspected of being distorted due to persistent carbon and deposits completely from its head cylinder head is to de-carbonise and to grind leakage of coolant at the gasket joint, then it and stem. With an inlet valve, this is usually in the valves. Reference should therefore be can be checked and surface ground by your quite easy, simply scraping off the soft carbon made to Section 14, in addition to the with a blunt knife and finishing with a wire dealer or motor engineering works. Distortion brush. With an exhaust valve the deposits are dismantling operations described here . First is unlikely under normal circumstances with a much harder and those on the head may need remove the manifolds. cast iron head. a rub on coarse emery cloth to remove them. 37 Using a standard valve spring 46 Check the rocker shaft and rocker arms compressor, compress the spring on No 1 pads which bear on the valve stem end faces valve (valve nearest the timing cover). Do not for wear or scoring, also for any broken coil An old woodworking chisel is over compress the spring or the valve stem springs. Renew components as necessary a useful tool to remove the may bend. If it is found that when screwing after dismantling as described in Section 6. If worst of the head deposits. down the compressor tool, the spring retainer the springs have been in use for 50 000 miles does not release from the collets, remove the (80 000 km) or more, they should be renewed. 4 Ensure that the valve heads are really clean, compressor and place a piece of tubing on 47 Reassemble the cylinder head by fitting otherwise the suction cup of the grinding tool the retainer so that it does not impinge on the new valve stem oil seals. Install No 1 valve will not stick during the grinding-in operations. collets and strike the end of the tubing a sharp (lubricated) into its guide and fit the valve OHV and HCS engines 2A·17
14.14a View of the swirl chamber in the 14.14b View of the cylinder head with 14.14c Tape the end of the valve stem cylinder head showing the valve seats valves fitted - HCS engine before fitting the valve stem seal - (arrowed) - HCS engine A Inlet side 1 Inlet valves HCS engine 5 Before starting to grind in a valve, support B Exhaust side 2 Exhaust valves the cylinder head so that there is sufficient clearance under for the valve stem to project HCS engines fully without being obstructed. 14 The procedure is as described previously 6 Take the first valve and apply a little coarse in this Section for OHV engines, noting the grinding paste to the bevelled edge of the following. valve head. Insert the valve into its guide and a) When cleaning out the swirl ports, great apply the suction grinding tool to its head. care must be exercised not to damage Rotate the tool between the palms of the the valve seats, especially if using power hands in a back-and-forth rotary movement tools (see illustration). until the gritty action of the grinding-in b) The valve arrangement is different, being 2A process disappears. Repeat the operation of mirror effect , where the inlet valves for with fine paste and then wipe away all traces number 2 and 3 cylinders are next to each of grinding paste and examine the seat and other (see illustration). bevelled edge of the valve. A matt silver c) When refitting the valve stem oil seals, tape 14.14d Using a long reach socket to push mating band should be observed on both the end of the stem to prevent damage to the seal fully home - HCS engine components, without any sign of black spots. the seal as it is fitted, and use a long reach followers and inserting them fully in their If some spots do remain, repeat the grinding- socket or length of tube to push the seals original sequence. in-process until they have disappeared. A fully down (see illustrations). Remove the 2 Lubricate the camshaft bearings and insert drop or two of paraffin applied to the contact tape on completion. the camshaft from the timing cover end of the surfaces will increase the speed of grinding- d) The valve seats cannot be re-worked engine. in, but do not allow any paste to run down into using conventional tools. 3 Fit the thrust plate and tighten the fixing the valve guide. On completion, wipe away bolts to the specified torque. The endfloat will every trace of grinding paste using a paraffin- already have been checked as described in moistened cloth. 15 Engine - reassembly Section 13. Secure the bolts with the locktabs 7 Repeat the operations on the remaining (see illustration). valves, taking care not to mix up their 4 Wipe clean the main bearing shell seats in originally fitted sequence. Note: Ensure that all necessary new oil seals the crankcase and fit the shells. Using a little 8 The valves are refitted as described in and gaskets have been obtained before grease, stick the semi-circular thrustwashers Section 13. starting the reassembly procedure. on either side of the centre bearing so that the 9 An important part of the decarbonising oil grooves are visible when the washers are OHV engines installed (see illustration). operation is to remove the carbon deposits from the piston crowns. To do this, turn the 1 With everything clean, commence 5 Check that the Woodruff key is in position crankshaft so that two pistons are at the top reassembly by oiling the bores for the cam on the front end of the crankshaft and tap the of their stroke and press some grease between these pistons and the cylinder walls. This will prevent carbon particles falling down into the piston ring grooves. Stuff rags into the other two bores. 10 Cover the oilways and coolant passages with masking tape and then using a blunt scraper remove all the carbon from the piston crowns. Take care not to score the soft alloy of the crown or the surface of the cylinder bore. 11 Rotate the crankshaft to bring the other two pistons to TDC and repeat the operations. 12 Wipe away the circle of grease and carbon from the cylinder bores. 15.4 Fit the upper main bearing shell and 13 Clean the top surface of the cylinder block 15.3 Secure the camshaft thrust plate thrustwashers (arrowed) to the centre by careful scraping. bolts with the locktabs bearing 2A·18 OHV and HCS engines
12 Engage the camshaft sprocket within the timing chain and then engage the chain around the teeth of the crankshaft sprocket. Push the camshaft sprocket onto its mounting flange. The camshaft sprocket bolt holes should now be in alignment with the tapped holes in the camshaft flange and both sprocket timing marks in alignment. Turn the camshaft as necessary to achieve this, also withdraw the camshaft sprocket and reposition it within the loop of the chain. This is a "trial and error" operation which must be continued until exact alignment of bolt holes and timing marks is achieved (see 15.9 Using feeler blades to check 15.10 Oil pick-up tube details - illustrations). crankshaft endfloat 1.3 litre engine 13 Screw in the sprocket bolts to the A Area for application of adhesive specified torque and bend up the tabs of a crankshaft sprocket into place using a piece new lockplate (see illustration). B Edge must be parallel with engine of tubing. 14 Bolt the timing chain tensioner into longitudinal axis 6 Oil the bearing shells and lower the position, retract the tensioner cam spring and crankshaft into the crankcase. renewed, the endfloat should be within the then slide the tensioner arm onto its pivot pin. 7 Wipe the seats in the main bearing caps and specified tolerance. If it is not, oversize Release the cam tensioner so that it bears fit the bearing shells into them. Install the caps thrustwashers are available (see Specifications). upon the arm (see illustration). so that their markings are correctly positioned 10 If the oil pick-up tube was previously 15 Fit the oil slinger to the front of the as explained at dismantling in Section 12. removed on 1.3 litre engines a new tube crankshaft sprocket so that its convex side is 8 Screw in the cap bolts and tighten evenly to should now be fitted. Apply a suitable against the sprocket (see illustration). the specified torque. adhesive (available from Ford dealers) to the 16 Using a new gasket, fit the timing cover, 9 Now check the crankshaft endfloat. Ideally a area shown, and fit the tube with the flat edge which will already have been fitted with a new dial gauge should be used, but feeler blades are of the mounting flange parallel with the oil seal (see Section 13) (see illustration). an alternative if inserted between the face of the longitudinal axis of the engine (see One fixing bolt should be left out at this stage thrustwasher and the machined surface of the illustration). as it also holds the water pump. Grease the oil crankshaft balance weight after having prised 11 Rotate the crankshaft so that the timing seal lips and fit the crankshaft pulley. Tighten the crankshaft first in one direction and then the mark on its sprocket is directly in line with the the pulley bolt to the specified torque. other (see illustration). Provided the centre of the camshaft sprocket mounting 17 Using a new gasket, bolt the crankshaft thrustwashers at the centre bearing have been flange. rear oil seal retainer into position. Tighten the
15.12a Crankshaft and camshaft sprocket 15.12b Fit the timing chain and camshaft 15.12c . . . with the sprocket timing marks timing mark locations sprocket . . . aligned with the shaft centres
15.13 Secure the camshaft sprocket bolts 15.14 Refit the timing chain tensioner and 15.15 Fit the oil slinger with its convex with the locktabs arm side against the sprocket OHV and HCS engines 2A·19
15.16 Fitting the timing cover 15.17 Fitting the crankshaft rear oil seal 15.18a Locate the engine adapter plate retainer over the dowels (arrowed) . . . bolts to the specified torque (see illustration). the oil hole in the connecting rod is on the left 18 Locate the engine adapter (back) plate on (see illustration 8.13a). Oil the cylinder bores. its dowels and then fit the flywheel (see 22 Install the pistons/connecting rods as illustrations). described in Section 8. 19 Screw in and tighten the flywheel bolts to 23 Fit the sump as described in Section 5. the specified torque. To prevent the flywheel 24 Fit the oil pressure sender unit, if removed. turning, the starter ring gear can be jammed or 25 Turn the crankshaft until No 1 piston is at a piece of wood placed between a crankshaft TDC (crankshaft pulley 3rd timing cover marks balance weight and the inside of the crankcase. aligned) and fit the oil pump complete with a 20 Install and centralise the clutch as new gasket and a new oil filter as described in described in Chapter 6. Section 10. 21 The pistons/connecting rods should now 26 Using a new gasket, fit the fuel pump. If 2A be installed. Although new pistons may have the insulating block became detached from been fitted to the rods by your dealer or the crankcase during removal, make sure that supplier (see Section 13), it is worth checking a new gasket is fitted to each side of the 15.18b . . . then refit and secure the to ensure that with the piston crown arrow block. flywheel pointing to the timing cover end of the engine, 27 Fit the water pump using a new gasket. 28 Fit the cylinder head as described in 35 Fit the pulley to the water pump pulley Section 4. flange. 29 Refit the pushrods in their original 36 Fit the alternator and the drivebelt and sequence and the rocker shaft, also as tension the belt as described in Chapter 1. described in Section 4. 37 Refit the distributor as described in 30 Adjust the valve clearances (Chapter 1) Chapter 5, Part B. and refit the rocker cover using a new gasket. 38 Refit the distributor cap and reconnect the 31 Fit the inlet and exhaust manifolds using spark plug HT leads. new gaskets and tightening the nuts and bolts 39 Bolt on and connect the coolant pipe to to the specified torque (Chapter 4, Part E). the side of the cylinder block. 32 Refit the carburettor using a new flange 40 Fit the breather pipe from the oil filler cap gasket and connect the fuel pipe from the to the inlet manifold and fit the cap. pump (Chapter 4, Part A). 41 Check the sump drain plug for tightness. 33 Screw in the spark plugs and the coolant A new seal should be fitted at regular intervals temperature switch (if removed). to prevent leakage. Refit the dipstick. 15.43a Line up the flange using a spanner 34 Refit the thermostat and the thermostat 42 Refilling with oil should be left until the - HCS engine housing cover. engine is installed in the vehicle.
15.43b Fitting the flywheel to the 15.43c Using the correct tool . . . 15.43d . . . and using a card template to crankshaft (dowel arrowed) - HCS engine angle-tighten the big-end cap bolts - HCS engine 2A·20 OHV and HCS engines
HCS engines Reconnection linkage using the procedure described in Chapter 7, Part A. 43 The procedure is as described previously 2 Reconnection of the engine and 10 Fit the starter motor leads to their in this Section for OHV engines, noting the transmission is a reversal of separation, but if terminals. following points. the clutch has been dismantled, check that 11 Connect the engine earth leads. a) Tighten the main bearing cap bolts to the the friction plate has been centralised as 12 Refit the exhaust system and bolt the specified torque before fitting the oil pick- described in Chapter 6. downpipe to the manifold. Refit the hot air box up tube. Installation which connects with the air cleaner. b) When fitting the oil pick-up tube, use a 13 Reconnect the clutch operating cable. spanner on the flats of the flange to line it OHV engines 14 Reconnect the electrical leads, the fuel up (see illustration). 3 First check that the engine sump drain plug pipe, the brake vacuum hose and the c) The flywheel is dowelled to the crankshaft is tight and then, where applicable refit the speedometer cable. and cannot be fitted off-centre (see selector shaft cap nut (removed to drain the 15 Reconnect the throttle cable and the illustration). transmission oil) together with its spring and choke cable (where applicable) as described d) The big-end bearing cap bolts are angle- interlock pin. Apply sealer to the cap nut in Chapter 4, Part A. tightened after an initial torque load (see threads when refitting (see Specifications 16 Reconnect the radiator coolant hoses, Specifications). Use the correct tool if it is Chapter 7, Part A). and heater hoses. available or make up a card template with 17 Fill up with engine oil, transmission oil and 4 Manoeuvre the engine/transmission under the specified angle marked on it (see coolant, then reconnect the battery (photo). the vehicle and attach the lifting hoist. Raise illustrations). 18 Refit the bonnet, bolting the hinges to the engine/transmission carefully until the e) Apart from lining up the camshaft and their originally marked positions. Reconnect right-hand rear mounting can be engaged. the screen washer pipe. crankshaft sprocket timing marks (for Refit the mounting nut and bolt loosely only at 19 Fit the air cleaner and reconnect the valve timing), there is no ignition timing this stage. hoses and the air cleaner inlet spout. mark to worry about. 5 On pre-1986 models refit the front 20 Once the engine is running, check the f) Fit the rocker cover using a new gasket. mounting and anti-roll bar support plates, dwell angle, timing, idle speed and mixture Do not exceed the specified torque for then refit the left-hand front and rear adjustment as applicable (refer to Chapter 1). the securing screws; this may result in oil mountings loosely only. 21 If a number of new internal components leaks at the rocker cover/cylinder head 6 On 1986 models onwards refit the have been installed, run the vehicle at mating face. transmission support crossmember. restricted speed for the first few hundred miles 7 Lower the hoist and let the power unit rest to allow time for the new components to bed on its mountings. Ensure that none of the 16 Engine/transmission - in. It is also recommended that with a new or mountings are under strain , then tighten all the reconnection and installation rebuilt engine, the engine oil and filter are mounting nuts and bolts and remove the hoist. changed at the end of the running-in period. 8 The driveshafts and suspension arms 1 This is a direct reversal of removal and should now be refitted using the procedure HCS engines separation from the transmission. Take care described in the manual transmission refitting 22 Refitting is a reversal of the removal not to damage the radiator or front wings procedure in Chapter 7, Part A. procedure described in Section 11. during installation. 9 Reconnect and adjust the gearchange 2B·1
Chapter 2 Part B: CVH engines Contents Camshaft - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Engine/transmission - removal and separation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Crankcase emission control filter renewal . . . . . . . . . .See Chapter 1 Engine/transmission mountings - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . .10 Cylinder head - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Examination and renovation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Cylinder head and pistons - decarbonising . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 General information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Engine - complete dismantling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Major operations possible with the engine in the car . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Engine oil and filter renewal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .See Chapter 1 Major operations requiring engine removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Engine oil cooler - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 Oil seals - renewal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Engine oil level check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .See "Weekly checks" Pistons/connecting rods - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Engine - reassembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Sump - removal and refitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Engine/transmission - reconnection and installation . . . . . . . . . . . .16 Timing belt - removal, refitting and adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
Degrees of difficulty Easy, suitable for Fairly easy, suitable Fairly difficult, Difficult, suitable for Very difficult, 2B novice with little for beginner with suitable for competent experienced DIY suitable for expert DIY experience some experience DIY mechanic mechanic or professional
Specifications General Engine type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Four-cylinder, in-line overhead camshaft Capacity: 1.1 litre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1117 cc 1.3 litre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1296 cc 1.4 litre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1392 cc 1.6 litre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1597 cc Bore: 1.1 litre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73.96 mm 1.3 and 1.6 litre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79.96 mm 1.4 litre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77.24 mm Stroke: 1.1 litre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64.98 mm 1.3 litre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64.52 mm 1.4 litre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74.30 mm 1.6 litre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79.52 mm Compression ratio: All except 1.6 litre Turbo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.5:1 1.6 litre Turbo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3:1 Firing order . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3-4-2 (No 1 at timing belt end)
Cylinder block Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cast iron Number of main bearings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Cylinder bore (diameter): 1.1 litre: Standard (1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73.94 to 73.95 mm Standard (2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73.95 to 73.96 mm Standard (3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73.96 to 73.97 mm Standard (4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73.97 to 73.98 mm Oversize (A) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74.23 to 74.24 mm Oversize (B) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74.24 to 74.25 mm Oversize (C) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74.25 to 74.26 mm 2B·2 CVH engines
Cylinder bore (diameter) (continued): 1.3 and 1.6 litre: Standard (1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79.94 to 79.95 mm Standard (2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79.95 to 79.96 mm Standard (3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79.96 to 79.97 mm Standard (4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79.97 to 79.98 mm Oversize (A) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80.23 to 80.24 mm Oversize (B) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80.24 to 80.25 mm Oversize (C) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80.25 to 80.26 mm 1.4 litre: Standard (1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77.22 to 77.23 mm Standard (2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77.23 to 77.24 mm Standard (3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77.24 to 77.25 mm Standard (4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77.25 to 77.26 mm Oversize (A) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77.51 to 77.52 mm Oversize (B) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77.52 to 77.53 mm Oversize (C) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77.53 to 77.54 mm Main bearing shell inner diameter: Standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58.011 to 58.038 mm Undersize 0.25 mm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57.761 to 57.788 mm Undersize 0.50 mm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57.511 to 57.538 mm Undersize 0.75 mm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57.261 to 57.288 mm
Crankshaft Main bearing journal diameter: Standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57.98 to 58.00 mm Undersize 0.25 mm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57.73 to 57.75 mm Undersize 0.50 mm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57.48 to 57.50 mm Undersize 0.75 mm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57.23 to 57.25 mm Main bearing running clearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.011 to 0.058 mm Thrustwasher thickness: Standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.301 to 2.351 mm Oversize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.491 to 2.541 mm Crankshaft endfloat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.09 to 0.30 mm Crankpin (big-end) diameter: 1.1 engines: Standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42.99 to 43.01 mm Undersize 0.25 mm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42.74 to 42.76 mm Undersize 0.50 mm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42.49 to 42.51 mm Undersize 0.75 mm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42.24 to 42.26 mm Undersize 1.00 mm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41.99 to 42.01 mm 1.3, 1.4 and 1.6 engines: Standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47.89 to 47.91 mm Undersize 0.25 mm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47.64 to 47.66 mm Undersize 0.50 mm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47.39 to 47.41 mm Undersize 0.75 mm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47.14 to 47.16 mm Undersize 1.00 mm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46.89 to 46.91 mm Big-end bearing running clearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.006 to 0.060 mm
Camshaft Number of bearings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Toothed belt Thrust plate thickness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.99 to 5.01 mm Camshaft bearing diameter: 1 .................................................... 44.75 mm 2 .................................................... 45.00 mm 3 .................................................... 45.25 mm 4 .................................................... 45.50 mm 5 .................................................... 45.75 mm Camshaft endfloat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.05 to 0.15 mm
Pistons and piston rings Diameter 1.1 litre: Standard 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73.910 to 73.920 mm Standard 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73.920 to 73.930 mm Standard 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73.930 to 73.940 mm Standard 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73.940 to 73.950 mm Standard service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73.930 to 73.955 mm Oversize 0.29 mm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74.210 to 74.235 mm Oversize 0.50 mm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74.460 to 74.485 mm CVH engines 2B·3
Pistons and piston rings (continued) Diameter - 1.3 and 1.6 litre: Standard 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79.910 to 79.920 mm Standard 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79.920 to 79.930 mm Standard 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79.930 to 79.940 mm Standard 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79.940 to 79.950 mm Standard service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79.930 to 79.955 mm Oversize 0.29 mm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80.210 to 80.235 mm Oversize 0.50 mm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80.430 to 80.455 mm Diameter - 1.4 litre: Standard 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77.190 to 77.200 mm Standard 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77.200 to 77.210 mm Standard 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77.210 to 77.220 mm Standard 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77.220 to 77.230 mm Standard service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77.210 to 77.235 mm Oversize 0.29 mm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77.490 to 77.515 mm Oversize 0.50 mm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77.710 to 77.735 mm Piston-to-bore clearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.010 to 0.045 mm Piston ring end gap: 1.1 litre: Compression rings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.25 to 0.45 mm Oil control ring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.20 to 0.40 mm 1.3, 1.4 and 1.6 litre: Compression rings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.30 to 0.50 mm Oil control ring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.40 to 1.40 mm
Connecting rod Big-end bore diameter: 1.1 litre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46.685 to 46.705 mm 1.3, 1.4 and 1.6 litre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50.890 to 50.910 mm 2B Small-end bore diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.589 to 20.609 mm Big-end bearing shell inside diameter: 1.1 litre: Standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43.016 to 43.050 mm Undersize 0.25 mm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42.766 to 42.800 mm Undersize 0.50 mm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42.516 to 42.550 mm Undersize 0.75 mm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42.266 to 42.300 mm Undersize 1.00 mm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42.016 to 42.050 mm 1.3, 1.4 and 1.6 litre: Standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47.916 to 47.950 mm Undersize 0.25 mm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47.666 to 47.700 mm Undersize 0.50 mm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47.416 to 47.450 mm Undersize 0.75 mm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47.166 to 47.200 mm Undersize 1.00 mm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46.916 to 46.950 mm Big-end bearing running clearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.006 to 0.060 mm
Cylinder head Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Light alloy Maximum permissible cylinder head distortion (over entire length) . . . . 0.15 mm Minimum combustion chamber depth after skimming: 1.1 litre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18.22 mm 1.3 and 1.6 litre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19.60 mm 1.4 litre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17.40 mm Valve seat angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45° Valve seat width . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.75 to 2.32 mm Seat cutter: Upper correction angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18° Lower correction angle: 1.1 litre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80° (inlet), 70° (exhaust) 1.3, 1.4 and 1.6 litre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75° (inlet), 70° (exhaust) Valve guide bore: Standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.063 to 8.094 mm Oversize 0.2 mm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.263 to 8.294 mm Oversize 0.4 mm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.463 to 8.494 mm
Valves - general Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rocker arms and hydraulic cam followers Valve timing: 1.1 litre and 1.3 litre: Inlet valve opens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13° ATDC Inlet valve closes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28° ABDC 2B·4 CVH engines
Valve timing (1.1 litre and 1.3 litre) (continued): Exhaust valve opens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30° BBDC Exhaust valve closes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15° BTDC 1.4 litre: Inlet valve opens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15° ATDC Inlet valve closes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30° ABDC Exhaust valve opens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28° BBDC Exhaust valve closes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13° BTDC 1.6 litre (except carburettor versions 1986 onwards): Inlet valve opens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8° ATDC Inlet valve closes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36° ABDC Exhaust valve opens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34° BBDC Exhaust valve closes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6° BTDC 1.6 litre (carburettor versions - 1986 onwards): Inlet valve opens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4° ATDC Inlet valve closes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32° ABDC Exhaust valve opens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38° BBDC Exhaust valve closes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10° BTDC Valve lift: Inlet: 1.1, 1.3 and 1.4 litre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.56 mm 1.6 litre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.09 mm Exhaust: 1.1, 1.3 and 1.4 litre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.52 mm 1.6 litre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.06 mm Valve spring free length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47.2 mm
Inlet valve Length: 1.1 litre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135.74 to 136.20 mm 1.3 and 1.6 litre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134.54 to 135.0 mm 1.4 litre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136.29 to 136.75 mm Head diameter: 1.1 litre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37.9 to 38.1 mm 1.3 and 1.6 litre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41.9 to 42.1 mm 1.4 litre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39.9 to 40.1 mm Stem diameter: Standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.025 to 8.043 mm 0.20 mm oversize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.225 to 8.243 mm 0.40 mm oversize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.425 to 8.443 mm Valve stem clearance in guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.020 to 0.063 mm
Exhaust valve Length: 1.1 litre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132.62 to 133.08 mm 1.3 litre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131.17 to 131.63 mm 1.4 litre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132.97 to 133.43 mm 1.6 litre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131.57 to 132.03 mm Head diameter: 1.1 litre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32.1 to 32.3 mm 1.3 litre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33.9 to 34.1 mm 1.4 litre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33.9 to 34.1 mm 1.6 litre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36.9 to 37.1 mm Valve stem diameter: Standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.999 to 8.017 mm 0.20 mm oversize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.199 to 8.217 mm 0.40 mm oversize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.399 to 8.417 mm Valve stem clearance in guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.046 to 0.089 mm
Lubrication Oil filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Champion C104 Oil pump type: Pre-1986 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gear type driven by crankshaft 1986 onwards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rotor type driven by crankshaft Minimum oil pressure at 80°C (176°F): At 750 rpm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.0 bar (14.5 lbf/in2) At 2000 rpm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.8 bar (40.6 lbf/in2) Oil pressure warning lamp operates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.3 to 0.5 bar (4.3 to 7.2 lbf/in2) CVH engines 2B·5
Lubrication (continued) Relief valve opens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.0 bar (58 lbf/in2) Oil pump clearances (rotor type pump only): Outer rotor to body . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.060 to 0.190 mm Inner to outer rotor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.050 to 0.180 mm Rotor endfloat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.014 to 0.100 mm
Torque wrench settings Nm lbf ft Main bearing caps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 to 100 66 to 74 Connecting rod bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 to 36 22 to 26 Oil pump to crankcase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 to 11 6 to 8 Oil pump cover bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 to 11 6 to 8 Oil pump pick-up tube to block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 to 23 12 to 17 Oil pump pick-up tube to pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 to 11 6 to 8 Oil cooler threaded sleeve to block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 to 60 40 to 44 Rear oil seal carrier bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 to 11 6 to 8 Sump with multi-piece gasket: Stage 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 to 11 6 to 8 Stage 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 to 11 6 to 8 Sump with one-piece gasket: Stage 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 to 8 4 to 6 Stage 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 to 8 4 to 6 Flywheel to crankshaft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 to 92 60 to 68 Torque converter drive plate to crankshaft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 to 88 59 to 65 Crankshaft pulley bolt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 to 115 74 to 85 Cylinder head bolts: Stage 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 18 Stage 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 40 2B Stage 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tighten by a further 90° Tighten by a further 90° Stage 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tighten by a further 90° Tighten by a further 90° Camshaft thrust plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 to 13 7 to 10 Camshaft sprocket bolt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 to 59 40 to 43 Timing belt tensioner bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 to 20 12 to 15 Rocker arm studs in head: Plain stud . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 to 15 7 to 11 Stud with nylon insert . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 to 23 13 to 17 Rocker arm nut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 to 29 18 to 21 Rocker cover screws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 to 8 4 to 6 Timing belt cover bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 to 11 7 to 8 Sump drain plug . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 to 28 15 to 21 Engine to manual transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 to 45 26 to 33 Engine to automatic transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 to 50 22 to 37 Right-hand engine mounting to body . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 to 58 30 to 43 Right-hand engine mounting bracket to engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 to 104 56 to 77 Right-hand engine mounting rubber insulator to brackets . . . . . . . . . . . 41 to 58 30 to 43 Front transmission mounting bracket to transmission (pre-1986 models) 41 to 51 30 to 38 Front and rear transmission mounting bolts (pre-1986 models) . . . . . . 52 to 64 38 to 47 Transmission mountings to transmission (1986 models onwards) . . . . . 80 to 100 59 to 74 Transmission support crossmember to body (1986 models onwards) . 52 38 Oil pressure switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 to 22 13 to 16
construction, supporting the overhead of starting up as the cam followers are camshaft in five bearings. Camshaft drive is pressurised with oil. 1 General information by a toothed composite rubber belt, driven The water pump is mounted on the timing from a sprocket on the crankshaft. belt end of the cylinder block and is driven by The 1.1 litre, 1.3 litre, 1.4 litre and 1.6 litre The distributor (where applicable) is driven the toothed belt. CVH (Compound Valve angle, Hemispherical from the rear (flywheel) end of the camshaft by A gear or rotor type oil pump is mounted on combustion chambers) engines are of four means of an offset dog. the timing belt end of the cylinder block and is cylinder in-line overhead camshaft type, The cam followers are of hydraulic type, driven by a gear on the front end of the mounted transversely, together with the which eliminates the need for valve clearance crankshaft. transmission, at the front of the car (see adjustment. If the engine has been standing A full-flow oil filter of throw-away type is illustrations). idle for a period of time, or after overhaul, located on the side of the crankcase. The crankshaft is supported in five main when the engine is started up, valve clatter An engine oil cooler is located under the oil bearings within a cast iron crankcase. may be heard. This is a normal condition and filter on fuel-injection and automatic The cylinder head is of light alloy will gradually disappear within a few minutes transmission models. 2B·6 CVH engines
2 Major operations possible with 1.1a Cutaway view of the CVH engine the engine in the car
The following work can be carried out without having to remove the engine: a) Timing belt - renewal. b) Camshaft oil seal - renewal. c) Camshaft - removal and refitting. d) Cylinder head - removal and refitting. e) Crankshaft front oil seal - renewal. f) Sump - removal and refitting. g) Piston/connecting rod - removal and refitting. h) Engine/transmission mountings - removal and refitting.
3 Major operations requiring engine removal
The following work can only be carried out after removal of the engine from the car: a) Crankshaft main bearings - renewal. b) Crankshaft - removal and refitting. c) Flywheel - removal and refitting. d) Crankshaft rear oil seal - renewal. e) Oil pump - removal and refitting.
1.1b 1.6 litre EFI engine
1 Inlet manifold (upper) 2 Throttle housing 3 Throttle position sensor 4 Fuel rail 5 Fuel hose 6 Air inlet duct 7 Timing belt cover 8 Exhaust heat shield 9 Exhaust manifold 10 Coolant inlet pipe 11 Crankshaft pulley 12 Flywheel ribs 13 Flywheel 14 Oil cooler 15 Oil filter 16 Inlet manifold (lower) 17 Fuel injection wiring harness CVH engines 2B·7
4.3a Crankshaft pulley notch (arrowed) 4.3b Camshaft sprocket at TDC position 4.4a Where a two-piece timing belt cover aligned with TDC (0) mark on belt cover is fitted, undo the bolts . . . scale that the timing mark on the camshaft sprocket Refitting 4 Timing belt - removal, refitting is opposite the TDC mark on the cylinder head 10 Before refitting the belt, check that the and adjustment (see illustrations). crankshaft is still at TDC (the small projection 4 On early models unscrew the four bolts and on the belt sprocket front flange in line with remove the one-piece timing belt cover. On the TDC mark on the oil pump housing) and Removal later models fitted with a two-piece cover, that the timing mark on the camshaft sprocket Note: From April 1988 (build code JG) a unscrew the two upper bolts and remove the is opposite the TDC mark on the cylinder head modified timing belt tensioner incorporating a top half, then unscrew the two lower bolts. (see illustrations). Adjust the position of the larger diameter tensioner roller was The lower half cannot be removed at this sprockets slightly, but avoid any excessive introduced, and from October 1988 an stage (see illustrations). movement of the sprockets while the belt is improved timing belt was used. When renewal 5 Undo the bolts and remove the right-hand off, as the piston crowns and valve heads may 2B of the timing belt becomes necessary, only the engine splash shield. make contact. latest, improved timing belt must be used (the 6 Using a ring spanner unscrew the 11 Engage the timing belt with the teeth of older type will no longer be available). On crankshaft pulley retaining bolt. Remove the the crankshaft sprocket and then pull the belt models produced before April 1988 this will starter motor as described in Chapter 5, Part vertically upright on its right-hand run. Keep it also entail renewal of the tensioner roller. taut and engage it with the teeth of the A and lock the flywheel ring gear with a cold 1 Disconnect the battery negative lead. camshaft sprocket. Check that the positions chisel or similar tool to prevent the crankshaft 2 Release the alternator mounting and of the sprockets have not altered (see rotating (see illustration). Remove the pulley, adjuster link bolts, push the alternator in illustration). followed by the timing belt cover lower half on towards the engine and slip the drivebelt off 12 Wind the belt round the camshaft later models. the pulleys. sprocket, around and under the tensioner and 3 Using a spanner on the crankshaft pulley 7 Slacken the two bolts which secure the timing belt tensioner and, using a large over the water pump sprocket. bolt, turn the crankshaft until the notch on the 13 Refit the crankshaft pulley and tighten the pulley is aligned with the TDC (0) mark on the screwdriver, prise the tensioner to one side to bolt, using the same procedure as used timing belt cover scale. On models with a relieve the tautness of the belt (see previously to stop the crankshaft turning. On distributor, now remove the distributor cap illustration). If the tensioner is spring-loaded, later models make sure that the timing belt and check that the rotor arm is pointing tighten one of the bolts to retain it in the cover lower half is placed in position before towards the No 1 cylinder HT lead segment in slackened position. refitting the pulley. the cap. If the rotor arm is pointing towards 8 If the original belt is to be refitted, mark it the No 4 cylinder segment, turn the crankshaft for direction of travel and also the exact tooth Adjustment through another complete turn and realign the positions on all three sprockets. Note: Accurate adjustment of the timing belt pulley notch with the TDC mark. On EFI 9 Slip the timing belt off the camshaft, water entails the use of Ford special tools. An engine models (see Chapter 4, Part D), check pump and crankshaft sprockets. approximate setting can be achieved using the
4.4b . . . and remove the upper half 4.6 Using a stout bar to lock the flywheel 4.7 Timing belt tensioner retaining bolts ring gear (arrowed) 2B·8 CVH engines
4.10a Crankshaft sprocket projection 4.10b . . . and camshaft sprocket timing 4.11 Place the timing belt in position (arrowed) aligned with TDC mark on oil mark aligned with TDC mark on cylinder pump housing head method described in this Section, but the 14 Slacken the belt tensioner bolts, lever the tension should be checked by a dealer on tensioner to one side and retighten the bolts. completion. 5 Oil seals - renewal With the belt slack, it can now be slipped from 14 To adjust the belt tension, slacken the the sprockets. Before removing the belt note tensioner and move it towards the front of the its original position on the sprockets (mark the car to apply an initial tension to the belt. Camshaft oil seal teeth with quick-drying paint), also its Secure the tensioner in this position. direction of travel. Note: Thread locking compound will be 15 Rotate the crankshaft clockwise through 15 Withdraw the crankshaft sprocket. If it is required to coat the camshaft sprocket bolt on two complete revolutions, then return to the tight you will need to use a special extractor, refitting. TDC position. Check that the camshaft but due to the confined space available you 1 Disconnect the battery negative lead. sprocket is also at TDC as previously may need to lower the engine from its 2 Release the timing belt from the camshaft described. mounting on that side. Before resorting to sprocket, as described in Section 4. 16 Grasp the belt between thumb and this, try levering the sprocket free using 3 Pass a bar through one of the holes in the forefinger at a point midway between the screwdrivers. If the mounting is to be camshaft sprocket to anchor the sprocket disconnected refer to Part A of this Chapter. crankshaft and camshaft sprocket on the while the retaining bolt is unscrewed. Remove 16 Remove the dished washer from the straight side of the belt. When the tension is the sprocket. crankshaft, noting that the concave side is correct it should just be possible to twist the 4 Using a suitable tool, hooked at its end, against the oil seal. belt through 90° at this point. Slacken the prise out the oil seal (see illustration). 17 Using a suitably hooked tool, prise out the tensioner and using a large screwdriver as a 5 Apply a little grease to the lips of the new oil seal from the oil pump housing. lever, move it as necessary until the tension is seal and draw it into position using the 18 Grease the lips of the new seal and press correct. Tighten the tensioner bolts, rotate the sprocket bolt and a suitable distance piece. it into position using the pulley bolt and camshaft to settle the belt, then recheck the 6 Refit the sprocket, tightening the bolt to the suitable distance piece made from a piece of tension. It will probably take two or three specified torque wrench setting. Thread tubing. attempts to achieve success. locking compound should be applied to the 19 Fit the thrustwasher (concave side to oil 17 It must be emphasised that this is an threads of the bolt. seal), the belt sprocket and the pulley to the approximate setting only and should be 7 Refit and tension the timing belt (Section 4). crankshaft. On models with a two-piece rechecked by a Ford dealer at the earliest 8 Reconnect the battery. timing belt cover, place the lower half in opportunity. position before refitting the pulley. Crankshaft front oil seal 20 Fit and tension the timing belt by the 18 Refit the starter motor, engine splash shield, distributor cap and timing belt cover/s. 9 Disconnect the battery negative lead. method described in Section 4. 10 Release the alternator mounting and 21 Fit the timing belt cover. 19 Refit the alternator drivebelt and adjust its adjuster link bolts, push the alternator in 22 Refit and tension the alternator drivebelt tension as described in Chapter 1. towards the engine and slip the drivebelt from (Chapter 1). 20 Reconnect the battery. the pulleys. 23 Remove the starter ring gear jamming 11 Unbolt and remove the timing belt cover. device (if fitted), refit the starter motor and On models with a two-piece cover only the reconnect the battery. upper half can be removed at this stage. 12 Locate a spanner onto the crankshaft pulley bolt and turn the crankshaft over in its 6 Camshaft - removal and normal direction of travel until the timing refitting marks of the crankshaft sprocket and cylinder head are in alignment. 13 You will now need to remove the Carburettor engines crankshaft pulley. To prevent the crankshaft Note: Thread locking compound will be turning, place the vehicle in gear and have an required to coat the camshaft sprocket bolt on assistant apply the brakes or unbolt and refitting. remove the starter motor so that the flywheel Removal ring gear can be jammed with a cold chisel or suitable implement. Unbolt the crankshaft 1 Disconnect the battery negative lead. pulley and remove it with its thrustwasher. 2 Refer to the relevant Part of Chapter 4 and 5.4 Removing the camshaft oil seal Where a two-piece timing belt cover is fitted, remove the air cleaner and the fuel pump. remove the lower half. 3 Disconnect the throttle and where fitted the CVH engines 2B·9
6.12 Removing the camshaft sprocket 6.13a Unscrew the camshaft thrust plate 6.13b . . . and withdraw the thrust plate bolts . . . choke cable ends from the carburettor 13 Extract the two bolts and pull out the When in position tighten the cover retaining linkage, then undo the bolts and move the camshaft thrustplate (see illustrations). screws to the specified torque setting. cable support bracket to one side. 14 Carefully withdraw the camshaft from the 22 Refit the remainder of the components 4 Where applicable, refer to Chapter 5, Part B distributor end of the cylinder head (see with reference to their relevant Chapters . Do and remove the distributor. illustration). not forget the timing belt cover bolts. 5 Remove the timing belt cover-to-cylinder head attachment bolts. Refitting Fuel injection engines 6 Disconnect the crankcase ventilation hoses 15 Refitting the camshaft is a reversal of Note: Thread locking compound will be at the rocker cover, undo and remove the bolts removal, but observe the following points. required to coat the camshaft sprocket bolt on and washers and remove the rocker cover. 16 Lubricate the camshaft bearings before refitting. 7 Unscrew the securing nuts and remove the inserting the camshaft into the cylinder head. rocker arms and guides. Keep the components 17 It is recommended that a new oil seal is Removal in their originally installed sequence by marking always fitted after the camshaft has been 23 Disconnect the battery negative lead. 2B them with a piece of numbered tape or by installed (see preceding Section). Apply thread 24 Where necessary, disconnect any hoses using a suitably sub- divided box. locking compound to the sprocket bolt threads. and wiring restricting access to the timing belt 8 Withdraw the hydraulic cam followers, Tighten the bolt to the specified torque. cover and/or the rocker cover. If necessary, again keeping them in their originally fitted 18 Fit and tension the timing belt, as refer to the relevant Part(s) of Chapters 4 and 5 sequence. described in Section 4. 9 Slacken the alternator mounting and for details. 19 Oil the hydraulic cam followers with 25 On XR3i and Cabriolet models with adjuster link bolts, push the alternator in hypoid type transmission oil before inserting towards the engine and slip the drivebelt from mechanical (Bosch K-Jetronic) fuel injection, them into their original bores. disconnect the inlet air hose between the fuel the pulleys. 20 Refit the rocker arms and guides in their 10 Unbolt and remove the timing belt cover distributor and throttle housing and position it original sequence, use new nuts and tighten to (top half only on later models with two-piece out of the way. the specified torque. It is essential that before cover) and turn the crankshaft to align the 26 On RS Turbo models disconnect the inlet each rocker arm is installed and its nut tightened, timing mark on the camshaft sprocket with air hose and the small connecting hose at the the respective cam follower is positioned at its the one on the cylinder head. inlet air duct, then undo the two bolts and lowest point (in contact with cam base circle). 11 Slacken the bolts on the timing belt remove the air duct from the rocker cover. tensioner, lever the tensioner against the Turn the camshaft (by means of the crankshaft 27 Proceed as described in paragraphs 4 to 14 tension of its coil spring (if fitted) and retighten pulley bolt) as necessary to achieve this.
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Punktid 100 punkti Autor soovib selle materjali allalaadimise eest saada 100 punkti.
Leheküljed ~ 256 lehte Lehekülgede arv dokumendis
Aeg2009-05-03 Kuupäev, millal dokument üles laeti
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Autor timps16 Õppematerjali autor

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Sisukord

  • Chapter 1
  • Routine maintenance and servicing
  • Easy
  • Fairly easy
  • Fairly difficult
  • Difficult
  • Very difficult
  • Degrees of difficulty
  • Contents
  • Engine oil (drain and refill)
  • Fuel tank
  • Cooling system
  • Transmission
  • Ford Escort maintenance schedule
  • Engine and under bonnet component locations on 1986 RS Turbo models
  • Weekly checks
  • CVH engine
  • Idle speed
  • Idle mixture
  • see illustration 10.6)
  • RS Turbo models
  • Idle speed adjustment screw (A) and
  • see illustration)
  • K-Jetronic system idle speed
  • b Weber 2V carburettor mixture adjustment screw (A) and
  • Idle speed adjustment screw
  • arrowed) on early K-Jetronic systems
  • K-Jetronic system mixture
  • Pressure actuator wiring multi-plug
  • arrowed) - KE-Jetronic system
  • Idle speed adjustment screw
  • arrowed) on KE-Jetronic system
  • CO adjustment potentiometer
  • KE-Jetronic system mixture
  • see illustrations)
  • a Contact breaker point components - Bosch distributor
  • b Contact breaker point components - Lucas distributor
  • b Crankshaft pulley notch (arrowed)
  • Distributor clamp pinch-bolt location
  • OHV engines
  • Tools required for spark plug
  • a Brake shoe viewing hole location (arrowed) in backplate
  • Rocking the roadwheel to check
  • Checking a steering gear gaiter
  • Alternator mounting and adjuster link bolts
  • Valve No
  • Cylinder No
  • Valves rocking
  • Valves to adjust
  • OHV and HCS engines
  • Valve clearance adjustment
  • Exhaust silencer mounting
  • Selector shaft locking mechanism
  • a Transmission oil filler plug (A) and selector shaft locking
  • Transmission fluid level dipstick
  • Checking driveshaft outer joint
  • Transmission identification number on valve body tag
  • Radiator drain plug location
  • arrowed)
  • a Cylinder block drain plug location
  • b Cylinder block drain plug location
  • a Removing the air cleaner retaining
  • Release the air cleaner lid retaining
  • K-Jetronic system
  • KE-Jetronic air cleaner retaining
  • Crankcase ventilation filter renewal
  • Locating the sensor unit gasket
  • Crankcase ventilation filter location on KE-Jetronic fuel
  • Specifications
  • OHV engine
  • Cylinder head bolt tightening
  • Throttle cable disconnection points
  • Sump and oil baffle clearance details
  • Sump bolt tightening sequence
  • Rocker shaft assembly components
  • Rear mountings
  • Removal
  • Fitting a piston/connecting rod
  • a Relative positions of piston
  • Connecting rod and big-end cap
  • Piston ring end gap positioning
  • Refitting
  • Front left-hand mounting
  • a Transmission left-hand rear
  • b Removing transmission left-hand rear
  • c Right-hand rear engine mounting
  • Transmission left-hand front mounting
  • Heater hose attachments at lateral
  • Separation
  • Gearchange rod and stabiliser
  • Remove the anti-roll bar support
  • a Transmission support
  • models onwards
  • b Transmission support
  • Typical lifting gear connection to
  • Engine right-hand mounting
  • HCS engine
  • a Disconnecting the cooling fan
  • Disconnecting the brake vacuum
  • Disconnecting the speedometer
  • a Right-hand engine mounting
  • Lifting eye (arrowed) bolted to right
  • Torx headed bolt (arrowed) securing
  • a Lifting the engine and transmission
  • Withdrawing the camshaft from the
  • Removing the timing chain tensioner
  • Camshaft thrust plate removal
  • Using a valve grinding tool suction
  • Connecting rod and big-end cap
  • Crankshaft big-end journal size
  • a Crankshaft main bearing journal
  • b Bearing shell colour identification
  • Check the oil pump rotor-to-body
  • Remove the valve spring retainer
  • Secure the camshaft thrust plate
  • Secure the camshaft sprocket bolts
  • Refit the timing chain tensioner and
  • litre engine
  • a Crankshaft and camshaft sprocket
  • see illustration 8.13a)
  • Fitting the timing cover
  • Fitting the crankshaft rear oil seal
  • HCS engines
  • CVH engines
  • a Crankshaft pulley notch (arrowed)
  • Timing belt tensioner retaining bolts
  • a Crankshaft sprocket projection
  • Removing the camshaft oil seal
  • Removing the camshaft sprocket
  • Withdrawing the camshaft
  • Disconnecting the hose from the
  • Disconnect the choke cable from the
  • Fuel return pipe location (arrowed)
  • litre carburettor engine
  • Vacuum hose attachments at the inlet
  • Cylinder head bolt removal sequence
  • Disconnect the brake servo vacuum
  • XR3i and Cabriolet models with
  • CFI (Central Fuel Injection) and 1.6
  • EFI (Electronic Fuel Injection) engines
  • a Cylinder head bolt tightening
  • b Tightening the cylinder head bolts
  • Wiring connections on the fuel-injection system - XR3i and Cabriolet
  • Air inlet duct connecting hose clip (A) charge air temperature
  • Remove the clutch housing cover plate
  • Wiring connections and hose attachments on the fuel
  • And the right-hand engine splash
  • Connecting rod and main bearing
  • Disconnecting the throttle cable end
  • litre carburettor engine)
  • a Disconnecting the alternator multi
  • b Installing a piston/connecting rod
  • Disconnect the speedometer cable
  • arrowed) at the transmission
  • Disconnect the gearchange rod at
  • Anti-roll bar mounting plate
  • Separation (manual transmission
  • Separation (automatic transmission
  • a Remove the right-hand splash
  • a Rear right-hand engine mounting
  • Transmission support crossmember
  • Removing the engine/transmission
  • Anti-lock Braking System (ABS) pipe
  • XR3i and Cabriolet models with mechanical
  • Bosch K-Jetronic) fuel injection
  • Electronic Fuel Injection) engines
  • Air cleaner retaining bolts (arrowed)
  • Vacuum and breather hose
  • Coolant temperature sensor (A)
  • Separation (all models)
  • Removing the alternator heat shield
  • Remove the rocker cover
  • Unscrew the oil pressure switch
  • Crankcase ventilation baffle
  • Piston/connecting rod orientation
  • Checking crankshaft endfloat with a
  • Using masking tape to eliminate the
  • Locating the crankshaft
  • Fitting the crankshaft sprocket with
  • Crankshaft rear oil seal retainer with
  • Fitting the right-hand engine
  • Fitting the alternator mounting
  • Fitting the selector shaft cap nut
  • a Connecting the crankcase rear
  • Engine oil cooler assembly
  • Notes
  • Chapter 3
  • Cooling, heating and ventilation systems
  • models
  • Radiator fan shroud retaining bolts
  • Radiator fan shroud retaining bolts
  • Fan motor retaining nuts - pre-1986
  • Radiator fan removal details
  • RS Turbo
  • Pre-1986 models
  • Inspection
  • Intercooler retaining bolt (A) and
  • RS Turbo from 1986 onwards
  • Disconnecting radiator fan wiring plug
  • Inspection and refitting
  • Testing
  • Radiator lower retaining bolts (A) and
  • Intercooler upper air hose
  • Radiator and intercooler retaining
  • onwards
  • Expansion tank hose (A) and radiator
  • Thermostat location in cylinder head
  • Testing and refitting
  • Disconnect the expansion tank hose
  • Testing the thermostat
  • Crankshaft pulley notch aligned with
  • Timing belt tensioner retaining bolts
  • Removing the timing belt tensioner
  • Refitting (all models)
  • a Temperature gauge sender unit
  • b Temperature gauge sender unit
  • Heater control cable connections
  • arrowed) - pre-1986 models
  • Coolant hose connections at heater
  • Heater mounting nut location - left
  • Air distribution valve lever and gear
  • Heater motor/fan assembly - viewed
  • Carburettor fuel system
  • Weber 2V DFTM
  • Primary
  • Secondary
  • Weber 2V TLDM
  • Disconnecting the crankcase
  • Thermostatically controlled air cleaner
  • Petrol is a highly dangerous and volatile
  • Thermostatically-controlled air cleaner
  • Waxstat type air cleaner components
  • see illustration)
  • Removing the fuel pump push-rod
  • litre HCS engines
  • Fuel tank support strap bolt (arrowed)
  • Fuel tank assembly
  • Fuel tank flexible hose connections at
  • Throttle cable attachment at pedal end
  • Release the cable end fitting spring
  • Adjustment
  • Choke cable adjustment spacer
  • Choke knob pulled out for adjustment
  • Choke cable adjustment at
  • Removing choke assembly warning
  • Choke unit retaining screw locations
  • Ford VV carburettor
  • Correct position of choke control spring leg - Ford VV carburettor
  • Ford VV carburettor
  • Checking
  • Removing the automatic choke bi
  • Automatic choke linkage lever centre
  • Weber 2V carburettor choke linkage
  • XR3 models
  • Carburettor disconnection points
  • Weber 2V carburettor fast idle
  • Weber 2V carburettor fast idle
  • Weber 2V carburettor fast idle
  • Weber 2V carburettor fast idle
  • Weber 2V carburettor automatic
  • Weber 2V carburettor vacuum pull
  • Weber 2V carburettor vacuum pull
  • Weber 2V carburettor choke phasing
  • Weber 2V carburettor heat shield
  • Weber 2V carburettor choke housing
  • Weber 2V carburettor vacuum pull
  • Weber 2V carburettor choke phasing
  • Weber 2V carburettor choke housing
  • Weber 2V carburettor pull-down
  • Exploded view of the Weber 2V carburettor automatic
  • Weber 2V carburettor disconnection points - XR3 models
  • litre models
  • b Correct routing of the anti-run-on
  • Weber 2V carburettor mounting
  • Anti-run-on valve solenoid (arrowed)
  • Removing a Torx through-bolt
  • Bosch K-Jetronic and KE-Jetronic
  • KE-Jetronic system
  • Bosch K-Jetronic system
  • The fuel pump
  • The fuel accumulator
  • The fuel filter
  • The fuel distributor/mixture control
  • The throttle valve assembly
  • The injector valves
  • The warm-up regulator
  • The auxiliary air device
  • The start valve
  • K-Jetronic system main
  • The safety module
  • The fuel shut-off valve
  • Bosch KE-Jetronic system
  • K-Jetronic system speed sensing
  • KE-Jetronic fuel-injection system layout and components
  • KE-Jetronic air cleaner retaining bolts
  • Warm-up regulator fuel feed pipe (A)
  • KE-Jetronic system cold start valve
  • Fuel pump outlet pipe (A), electrical
  • Fuel pipe connections (arrowed) at the
  • Disconnecting the cold start valve
  • KE-Jetronic system cold start valve
  • K-Jetronic system auxiliary air device
  • K-Jetronic system auxiliary air device
  • KE-Jetronic system auxiliary air
  • K-Jetronic fuel distributor pipe
  • K-Jetronic system fuel distributor
  • KE-Jetronic fuel distributor retaining
  • Component attachments at the
  • KE-Jetronic throttle housing
  • Air inlet duct retaining bolts
  • KE-Jetronic fuel pressure regulator
  • KE-Jetronic fuel pressure regulator
  • removal and refitting
  • K-Jetronic system warm-up regulator
  • Pressure actuator wiring multi-plug
  • Remove the plenum chamber rubber
  • Fan motor wiring engaged in housing
  • Charge air temperature sensor
  • Thermo-time switch (A) and temperature sensor (B) on the
  • KE-Jetronic system (viewed from under the car)
  • K-Jetronic system idle speed compensator location
  • Waste gate solenoid control valve
  • Turbocharger and waste gate
  • Intercooler mountings and attachments - 1986 models onwards
  • Turbocharger oil feed union (A)
  • Intercooler upper air hose
  • Central (single-point)
  • Fuel Injection (CFI) system
  • Air system
  • Fuel system
  • Engine management and emission
  • Ignition system
  • Catalytic converter
  • Integral fuel level sender unit/fuel
  • Unscrewing the CFI unit securing bolts
  • Exploded view of fuel pressure
  • Disconnecting the fuel injector wiring
  • a Removing an injector retaining collar
  • b Removing the injector retaining
  • Removing the seal from the injector
  • Align locating peg on injector with
  • Throttle position sensor (TPS)
  • Withdrawing the injector from the CFI
  • Disconnecting the ACT sensor wiring
  • Manifold absolute pressure (MAP)
  • Heated exhaust gas oxygen (HEGO)
  • Fuel cut-off (inertia) switch location
  • Electronic Fuel Injection (EFI) system
  • Air inlet system
  • Fuel pressure regulator assembly
  • Throttle position sensor
  • Fuel injection wiring harness securing
  • Air charge temperature sensor
  • Mixture (CO) adjustment
  • Manifolds, exhaust and
  • Carburettor engines
  • Central Fuel Injection (CFI) engine
  • Carburettor engine models
  • b Alternative emission control system
  • Typical crankcase ventilation system as used on CVH engines with carburettor
  • a Emission control system
  • c Emission control system layout for manual transmission
  • d Emission control system layout for automatic transmission
  • Carburettor speed control system
  • Carbon canister location (wheelarch
  • Carbon canister purge solenoid
  • Crankcase ventilation filter renewal on
  • CVH engines with carburettor - pull valve
  • Crankcase ventilation filter location
  • arrowed) on KE-Jetronic fuel-injected
  • Cars with Mk 2 crankcase ventilation
  • a Unscrewing the plenum chamber
  • b Later type crankcase ventilation
  • a Early type crankcase ventilation
  • Spark delay/sustain valve
  • Ported vacuum switch
  • Fuel trap
  • Heater Exhaust Gas Oxygen (HEGO)
  • Fuel trap marked for direction of fitting
  • Starting and charging systems
  • Ambient temperature
  • Above 25ºC
  • Below 25ºC
  • Battery types
  • Alternator mounting and adjuster link
  • a Correct fitting of alternator mounting
  • b Alternator mounting bolt
  • Mitsubishi alternator
  • a Exploded view of the Mitsubishi alternator
  • Exploded view of the Motorola alternator
  • Disconnecting the wiring from the
  • Ignition switch removal using a
  • Ignition switch removal using a
  • Ignition systems
  • litre fuel injection engines
  • litre Electronic Fuel Injection
  • Engine fails to start
  • Engine misfires
  • All engines
  • CVH engines
  • Distributor turned through 120° for
  • Bosch distributor condenser renewal
  • Lucas distributor condenser renewal
  • b Ignition coil terminal identification
  • DIS coil location (plastic cover
  • Injection engine
  • Distributor removal - OHV engines
  • contact breaker system)
  • Distributor flange retaining bolt
  • Align distributor shaft drive dog with
  • Distributor mounting flange and
  • Disconnecting the distributor LT
  • OHV engines (electronic breakerless
  • Distributor flange upper retaining
  • Checking the distributor O-ring seal
  • a Distributor mounting flange and
  • CVH engines (electronic breakerless
  • b Distributor mounting flange and
  • Make alignment marks (arrowed)
  • Correct alignment of distributor
  • Electronic Spark Control (ESC II)
  • ESC module
  • a Electronic amplifier securing screw
  • arrowed) - later type Bosch distributor
  • b Removing the electronic amplifier
  • Electronic amplifier module locations
  • Spark control module wiring multi
  • TFI IV module
  • EEC IV module
  • E-DIS 4 module
  • Unscrewing the ESC module wiring
  • ESC module securing screws
  • E-DIS-4 module location
  • Engine coolant temperature sensor
  • Disconnecting the engine speed
  • Disconnecting the vacuum hose from
  • Chapter 9
  • Braking system
  • Disc pad retaining clip
  • Disconnect the disc pad wear sensor
  • Withdraw the caliper piston housing
  • Checking brake disc run-out
  • Caliper anchor bracket-to-hub carrier
  • Brake disc retaining screw location
  • Removing the brake shoe hold-down
  • Removing the leading brake shoe
  • Removing the handbrake cable from
  • Separating the trailing brake shoe
  • Removing the drum retaining screw
  • Estate models
  • b Automatic adjuster assembly on
  • Van, fuel-injected models and later Saloon
  • Rear wheel cylinder retaining bolts
  • Wheel cylinder identification letter
  • Handbrake cable identification
  • Handbrake cable adjuster nylon
  • Handbrake adjustment plunger
  • b Primary cable-to-equaliser clevis pin
  • Removing handbrake cable abutment
  • Handbrake cable connector spring clip
  • a Handbrake cable layout
  • conventional braking system)
  • Removing handbrake lever clevis pin
  • Master cylinder push rod-to-pedal
  • Master cylinder reservoir rubber seals
  • Exploded view of the master cylinder
  • Pressure regulating valve-to-bracket
  • b Pressure regulating valves and
  • a Pressure regulating valve mounting
  • Master cylinder primary piston components
  • Master cylinder secondary piston components
  • Light laden valve linkage adjustment
  • Light laden valve linkage adjustment
  • Light laden valve adjustment diagram
  • Light laden valve components - Van models
  • Removing a flexible hose spring
  • Brake pipe flare
  • Heater plenum chamber removal
  • a Vacuum servo unit connecting
  • Brake pedal components
  • Removing handbrake warning switch
  • Brake stop-lamp switch locknut
  • Anti-lock braking system
  • Removing the belt break switch from
  • a Modulator and drivebelt details
  • b Drivebelt cover retaining nuts
  • c Right-hand side ABS modulator
  • Modulator adjuster bolt (arrowed)
  • Removing suspension lower arm
  • Left-hand drivebelt cover retaining
  • Modulator fluid return pipes at master
  • Hydraulic pipe and hose unions
  • Right-hand modulator adjuster and
  • Left-hand modulator adjuster and
  • Load apportioning valve adjusting
  • Load apportioning valve assembly
  • anti-lock braking system)
  • Modulator bypass valve (A) location
  • Modulator auto bleed plunger
  • Separating apportioning valve
  • Chapter 10
  • Suspension and steering
  • Front suspension
  • Rear suspension (Saloon and Estate models)
  • Rear suspension (Van models)
  • Steering
  • Roadwheels
  • Exploded view of the front suspension
  • Removing the lower arm balljoint
  • Torx type pinch-bolt
  • Staking the driveshaft retaining nut
  • Suspension lower arm disconnected at
  • Anti-roll bar-to-lower arm mounting
  • Method of fitting lower arm inboard
  • a Anti-roll bar front mounting clamp
  • b Anti-roll bar front mounting clamp
  • Anti-roll to lower arm retaining nut
  • Front tie-bar mountings - pre-May
  • a Suspension strut-to-turret mounting
  • models
  • Front tie-bar
  • Coil spring retained with spring
  • Exploded view of the suspension
  • Rear hub outboard bearing removal
  • Rear shock absorber top mounting
  • Removing the shock absorber top
  • Brake hydraulic hose-to-shock
  • Removing the rear shock absorber
  • Tie-bar-to-stub axle carrier retaining
  • Anti-roll bar-to-lower arm shackle
  • Rear roadspring U-bolt nuts
  • Disconnecting the rear anti-roll bar shackles - Saloon and
  • Fuel tank attachment details
  • Steering tie-rod outer balljoint
  • Releasing tie-rod balljoint using
  • Bellows-to-rack and pinion housing
  • Steering gear bellows
  • a Steering column lock assembly
  • a Removing the steering column
  • Removing the bonnet release lever
  • Removing the facia lower panel
  • a Steering column lower mounting
  • b Steering gear mounting details
  • a Steering gear-to-bulkhead mounting
  • Camber
  • Castor
  • Steering axis inclination
  • Wheel alignment diagram
  • Slackening tie-rod balljoint locknut
  • Chapter 11
  • Bodywork and fittings
  • Models from 1986 onwards
  • Pre-1986 models except Van
  • Bumper overrider details - pre-1986
  • Front bumper retaining nuts in engine
  • Rear bumper attachments - pre-1986
  • Removing rear quarter bumper
  • Front bumper attachments - pre-1986
  • Front bumper-to-arch screw (A) and
  • Models from 1986 onwards except
  • Van models
  • Rear bumper attachments in luggage
  • Disconnecting the windscreen washer
  • Bonnet bump stop (arrowed)
  • Bonnet cable attachment at latch and
  • Radiator grille spring clip - pre-1988
  • Removing the remote control handle
  • Unscrew the armrest
  • Saloon and Estate models
  • arrowed) on 1986 models onwards
  • All models except Cabriolet
  • Cabriolet models
  • Door lock cylinder retaining clip
  • Door lock retaining screws
  • Door exterior handle retaining screws
  • Remote control handle retaining
  • Saloon, Estate and Van models
  • Glass run extension retaining screw
  • Removing the rear door quarter
  • b Regulator retaining rivet location
  • Withdrawing the window regulator
  • Peeling back the door waterproof
  • a Removing the regulator retaining
  • Electric window regulator
  • Withdrawing the window motor and
  • b Window motor driveshaft circlip (A)
  • Window motor mounting bolt
  • Adjusting screws (arrowed) for
  • Electric window regulator securing
  • Rear quarter window adjustments - Cabriolet models
  • Tailgate lock retaining screws
  • Electrical connections at the tailgate (1986 model shown)
  • Releasing tailgate strut retaining clip
  • Front door
  • Central locking solenoid relay
  • models
  • Rear door
  • Tailgate
  • Boot lid (Cabriolet)
  • Front and rear doors
  • Tailgate and boot lid
  • a Remote control mirror handle circlip
  • b Removing the remote control handle
  • Tailgate lock and solenoid
  • Removing the door mirror retaining
  • Protection cover screw (A) and
  • Cable tensioning block nut
  • arrowed) - Cabriolet models
  • Fixing sequence for sunroof panel
  • Sunroof sliding gear to roof screws
  • Filling the power-operated folding
  • Power-operated folding roof hydraulic
  • Power-operated folding roof fluid
  • Routing of power-operated folding
  • Removing tailgate adhesive badge
  • a Centre console lower retaining
  • b Centre console fixings
  • Removing cowl side trim panel
  • Rear pillar trim panel securing
  • Rear quarter trim panel securing clip
  • Removing a sill scuff plate securing
  • Releasing a tailgate moulded cover
  • Chapter 12
  • Electrical system
  • Wiper delay switch
  • Rear foglamp, heated rear window
  • Steering column multi-function
  • b Fusebox location (arrowed) on engine
  • Rear window wash/wipe switch
  • Local space lamp switch - Cabriolet
  • Courtesy lamp switch
  • Ignition switch
  • Reversing lamp switch
  • Manual transmission
  • Automatic transmission
  • Stop-lamp switch/handbrake warning
  • Heater blower motor switch
  • Electric window switch
  • Loudspeaker balance control joystick
  • Heated windscreen/rear window, rear
  • Steering column multi-function switch
  • Removing the speaker balance
  • Speaker balance control removal
  • Courtesy lamp switch removal from
  • Removing the heater blower motor
  • Door mirror control switch
  • a Unscrewing the steering column
  • Heater control panel retaining screw
  • Releasing headlamp bulb spring clip
  • Headlamp bulb removal
  • Sidelamp bulb location (arrowed) in
  • Front indicator bulbholder accessible
  • Glove compartment lamp
  • Heater control illumination lamp
  • Hazard warning switch lamp
  • Interior lamp
  • Load space lamp
  • Front auxiliary lamp lens retaining
  • Removing the rear lamp bulbholder
  • Removing the number plate lamp
  • Hazard warning switch bulb renewal
  • Disconnecting auxiliary lamp earth
  • Removing the auxiliary lamp
  • Load space lamp (Cabriolet)
  • Roof-mounted clock illumination lamp
  • Manual choke knob warning lamp
  • Fuel computer lamp
  • a Releasing the headlamp side plastic
  • b Headlamp upper plastic retaining clip
  • Release the direction indicator side
  • a Instrument panel upper retaining
  • Removing an instrument panel
  • Bezel lower retaining clip (arrowed)
  • Disconnecting the speedometer
  • a Extracting the instrument panel bezel
  • b Removing the instrument panel bezel
  • pre-1986 model
  • Instrument panel bulb renewal
  • a Instrument panel assembly
  • b Instrument panel assembly upper
  • a Extracting speedometer retaining
  • b Removing the speedometer
  • Fuel computer component layout on fuel
  • Disconnecting wiper blade from arm
  • Windscreen wiper motor fixing bolts
  • Windscreen wiper crankarm
  • Tailgate wiper motor retaining bolts
  • Engine compartment-mounted
  • Windscreen washer pump - wing
  • Saloon models
  • Single jet system - pre-1986 models
  • Twin jet system - pre-1986 models
  • Twin jet windscreen washer layout - pre-1986 models
  • Tailgate washer pump retaining screws (A) - Estate models
  • Early models
  • Later models
  • Pre-1986 models (except Cabriolet)
  • models onwards (except
  • Cabriolet)
  • Later type radio retaining tang
  • Radio/cassette player extractor tool
  • Radio/cassette player removal using
  • Releasing the extractor tool after
  • Cowl mounted loudspeaker retaining
  • Rear parcel shelf-mounted
  • Manually operated aerial
  • Manually operated aerial upper
  • Cowl mounted loudspeaker panel
  • Cowl mounted loudspeaker retaining
  • Manually operated aerial location on
  • Power operated aerial attachments
  • Power operated aerial location on
  • Wiring diagrams commence overleaf
  • Internal connection details, all models
  • Buying Spare Parts and Vehicle Identification .
  • Dimensions and Weights
  • Length (distance)
  • Volume (capacity)
  • Mass (weight)
  • Force
  • Pressure
  • Torque (moment of force)
  • Power
  • Velocity (speed)
  • Fuel consumption*
  • Temperature
  • Vehicle Identification Numbers
  • Officially-appointed garages
  • Accessory shops
  • Motor factors
  • Tyre and exhaust specialists
  • Other sources
  • Vehicle identification plate location
  • Jacking and support points on vehicle
  • Sockets and reversible ratchet drive
  • Clutch plate alignment set
  • Piston ring compressor
  • Spline bit set
  • Valve spring compressor
  • Stroboscopic timing light
  • Stud extractor set
  • Compression tester
  • Dial test indicator (“dial gauge”)
  • Micrometer set
  • Checks carried out
  • FROM THE DRIVER’S SEAT
  • FROM THE DRIVER’S
  • WITH THE VEHICLE
  • ON THE GROUND
  • RAISED AND THE
  • WHEELS FREE TO
  • Checks carried out on
  • YOUR VEHICLE’S
  • EXHAUST EMISSION
  • SYSTEM
  • GROUND
  • WITH THE VEHICLE RAISED
  • YOUR VEHICLE’S EXHAUST
  • EMISSION SYSTEM
  • Introduction
  • Engine
  • Cooling system
  • Pre-ignition (pinking) or knocking during acceleration or
  • Whistling or wheezing noises
  • Tapping or rattling noises
  • Knocking or thumping noises
  • Engine (continued)
  • Clutch
  • Manual gearbox
  • Driveshafts
  • Automatic transmission
  • Braking system
  • Suspension and steering
  • Tyre treads exhibit feathered edges
  • Tyres worn on inside and outside edges
  • Tyres worn unevenly
  • Electrical system
  • Instrument readings increase with engine speed
  • Fuel or temperature gauge give no reading
  • Fuel or temperature gauges give continuous maximum
  • Horn operates all the time
  • Horn fails to operate
  • Horn emits intermittent or unsatisfactory sound
  • Wipers fail to operate or operate very slowly
  • Wiper blades fail to clean the glass effectively
  • One or more washer jets inoperative
  • Washer pump fails to operate
  • Window glass will only move in one direction
  • Window glass fails to move
  • Complete system failure
  • One solenoid/motor fails to operate
  • Electrical system (continued)
  • ABS (Anti-lock brake system)
  • Air bag
  • Air cleaner
  • Air filter element
  • Allen key
  • Alligator clip
  • Alternator
  • Ampere (amp)
  • Anaerobic sealer
  • Antifreeze
  • Anti-seize compound
  • Asbestos
  • Axleshaft
  • Ball bearing
  • Bearing
  • Big-end bearing
  • Bleed nipple
  • Brake bleeding
  • Brake disc
  • Brake drum
  • Brake linings
  • Brake pads
  • Brake shoe
  • Braking systems
  • Breaker bar
  • Bulkhead
  • Caliper
  • Camshaft
  • Canister
  • Carburettor
  • Castellated
  • Circlip
  • Clearance
  • Coil spring
  • Compression
  • Compression ratio
  • Constant velocity (CV) joint
  • Core plug
  • Crankcase
  • Crankshaft
  • Crocodile clip
  • Diagnostic code
  • Disc brake
  • Double-overhead cam (DOHC)
  • Drivebelt(s)
  • Driveshaft
  • Drum brake
  • EGR valve
  • Electronic control unit (ECU)
  • Electronic Fuel Injection (EFI)
  • Emergency brake
  • Endfloat
  • Engine management system (EMS)
  • Exhaust manifold
  • Fan clutch
  • Feeler blade
  • Firing order
  • Flywheel
  • Free play
  • Fusible link
  • Gasket
  • Gauge
  • Halfshaft
  • Harmonic balancer
  • Hydraulic tappet
  • Ignition timing
  • Inlet manifold
  • Jump start
  • Load Sensing Proportioning Valve (LSPV)
  • Locknut
  • Lockwasher
  • MacPherson strut
  • Multimeter
  • Ohmmeter
  • O-ring
  • Overhead cam (ohc) engine
  • Overhead valve (ohv) engine
  • Oxygen sensor
  • Phillips screw
  • Plastigage
  • Propeller shaft
  • Proportioning valve
  • Rack-and-pinion steering
  • Radiator
  • Refrigerant
  • Rocker arm
  • Rotor
  • Runout
  • Sealant
  • Sealed beam lamp
  • Serpentine drivebelt
  • Slide hammer
  • Sprocket
  • Starter inhibitor switch
  • Strut
  • Tappet
  • Thermostat
  • Thrust bearing
  • Timing belt
  • Timing chain
  • Toe-in
  • Toe-out
  • Tools
  • Tracer
  • Tune-up
  • Turbocharger
  • Universal joint or U-joint
  • Valve
  • Valve clearance
  • Vernier caliper
  • Viscosity
  • Welding
  • Wiring diagram
  • Accelerator pedal
  • Acknowledgements
  • Aerial
  • Air Charge Temperature (ACT) sensor
  • Alternator
  • Amplifier module
  • Anti-lock Braking System
  • Anti-roll bar
  • Antifreeze mixture
  • Asbestos
  • Automatic choke unit
  • Auxiliary air device
  • Auxiliary lamp
  • Auxiliary warning system
  • Balance control joystick
  • Battery
  • Beam alignment
  • Bellows
  • Bi-metal housing
  • Big-end bearings
  • Bleeding braking system
  • Body corrosion
  • Bodywork repairs
  • Bonnet
  • Booster battery (jump) starting
  • Breakerless ignition
  • Bumpers
  • Cables
  • Calipers
  • Cam followers
  • Camshaft
  • Capacities
  • Carbon canister
  • Catalytic converter
  • Central locking
  • Centre console
  • Centre pillar trim panels
  • Charge air temperature sensor
  • Choke control cable
  • Cigar lighter
  • Circuit breakers
  • CO emissions (mixture)
  • Computer unit
  • Condenser (contact breakers)
  • Connecting rods
  • Contact breaker ignition system
  • Contents
  • Control relay
  • Conversion factors
  • Coolant
  • Coolant warning switch
  • Courtesy lamp
  • Crankcase
  • Crankcase emission control
  • Crankshaft
  • Cylinder bores
  • Cylinder head
  • Differential side gear oil seals
  • Dimensions
  • Direction indicator lamp
  • Distributor
  • Distributorless ignition system (DIS)
  • Downshift linkage
  • Drivebelts
  • Drivetrain
  • Electro-magnetic pressure actuator
  • Electronic modules
  • Electronic Spark Control (ESC II) module
  • Emblems and mouldings
  • Engine Coolant Temperature (ECT) sensor
  • Engine management and emission system
  • Engine speed sensor
  • Environmental considerations
  • Exhaust emission
  • Exhaust manifold
  • Exhaust system
  • Exterior fittings
  • Flywheel
  • Foglamp
  • Folding roof
  • Ford VV carburettor
  • Fuel accumulator
  • Fuel computer
  • Fuel cut-off (inertia) switch
  • Fuel distributor
  • Fuel evaporative emission control
  • Fuel-injection control module
  • Fuel injectors
  • Fuel pressure regulator
  • Gaskets
  • Gearchange mechanism
  • Gearchange selector shaft oil seal
  • Glossary of technical terms
  • Glove compartment
  • Graphic equaliser
  • Grille
  • Handbrake “ON” warning lamp switch
  • Handbrake
  • Handbrake lever
  • Handles
  • Hazard warning switch lamp
  • Headlamp
  • Heated Exhaust Gas Oxygen (HEGO)
  • Heated rear window
  • Heated windscreen
  • Heater
  • Hinges
  • Hub bearings
  • Hydraulic pipes and hoses
  • Hydraulic rams
  • Hydraulic system
  • Idle mixture
  • Idle speed compensator
  • Idle Speed Control Valve (ISCV)
  • Ignition switch
  • Ignition timing
  • Inlet manifold
  • Inner constant velocity joint bellows
  • Instrument panel
  • Intercooler
  • Introduction to the Ford Escort
  • Jacking
  • Jump starting
  • Knock sensor
  • Load apportioning valve
  • Loudspeakers
  • Lubricants and fluids
  • Main bearings
  • Maintenance - bodywork and underframe
  • Maintenance - upholstery and carpets
  • Maintenance schedule
  • Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) sensor
  • Master cylinder
  • Mirrors
  • Mixture (CO) adjustment potentiometer
  • Mixture adjustment
  • Mountings
  • Open-circuit
  • Outer constant velocity joint bellows
  • Panel illumination and warning lamp bulbs
  • Parcel shelf
  • Pedals
  • Plastic components
  • Ported vacuum switch
  • Power-operated folding roof
  • Pressure regulating valve
  • Printed circuit
  • Programmed electronic ignition
  • Quarter trim panel
  • Quarter window
  • Radiator
  • Radiator fan
  • Radiator grille
  • Radio/cassette player
  • Re-spraying
  • Relays
  • Repair procedures
  • Reversing lamp switch
  • Roadwheels
  • Safety first!
  • Shock absorbers
  • Short-circuit
  • Sidelamp
  • Sliding window glass
  • Solenoids
  • Speedometer
  • Spoilers
  • Springs
  • Starter inhibitor switch
  • Starter motor
  • Steering - see
  • Stop-lamp switch
  • Struts
  • Sunroof
  • Switches
  • Tachometer
  • Tailgate
  • Temperature gauge
  • Thermo-time switch
  • Thermostat
  • Throttle cable
  • Throttle housing
  • Throttle kicker
  • Throttle Position Sensor (TPS)
  • Throttle valve control motor
  • Tie-bar
  • Tie-rod outer balljoint
  • Timing sprockets and belt
  • Timing sprockets and chain
  • Towing
  • Transmission
  • Turbocharger
  • Valve clearances
  • Vehicle identification
  • Vehicle support
  • Ventilation system
  • Warm-up regulator
  • Warning indicator control unit
  • Warning lamps
  • Wash/wipe systems
  • Washer fluid
  • Washer fluid warning switch
  • Waste gate solenoid control valve
  • Weber 2V carburettor
  • Weights
  • Wheel alignment
  • Wheel arch deflectors
  • Wheel changing
  • Wheel cylinder
  • Wheelhouse covers
  • Wheels
  • Window glass
  • Window switch
  • Windscreen
  • Windscreen pillar trim panel
  • Windscreen washer
  • Windscreen wiper
  • Wiper delay switch
  • Working facilities
  • Leave blank

Kommentaarid (1)

ToomasNaadel profiilipilt
ToomasNaadel: Suured tänud.
13:25 10-11-2009


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