Briti kirjandus 20.-21. sajand kordamisküsimused vastustega (0)

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British Literature in the 20th-21st Century
  • The Contradictory , diverse , chaotic 20th century. New developments in science and philosophy . The essence and influence of Freudian theory.
    Contradictory, diverse, chaotic 20th c- simultaneous rejection and invocation of the past. While modernists apotheosized the creative geniuses of the past, they also rejected old poetic forms . Challenge old and established beliefs and more and more people had access to books and education more people went to universities .
    profound change in morals:
    Science: Albert Einstein -general theory of relativity had a huge impact on culture as well. Everything is relative.
    Philosophy: Henri Bergson ( French ) came to challenge the immediate experience ad intuition are more significant than rationalism and science for understanding reality . Opposition to materialism and positivism . Opposition to abstract , untested theories &ideologies. Friedrich Nietzsche „God is dead“- through explaining and putting forward theories had killed Christian god.
    The essence of Freudian theory: the process in the human psyche
    Superego -society, conscience, morals, traditions , religion, a moral censor
    Ego- rational behavior, motivation , self-identification, conscious decisions
    Id-instincts, natural responses , the pleasure principle, aggressive instincts, the death wish
    Influence: In art and literature, Freud 's theories influenced surrealism . Like psychoanalysis, surrealistic painting and writing explores the inner depths of the unconscious mind. Freudian ideas have provided subject matter for authors and artists . Critics often analyze art and literature in Freudian terms

  • Literary Modernism and its sub-movements. The influence of Structuralism and psychoanalysis. Main characteristic features of Modernism. Denial of conventions, traditional structure, plot and presentation of character . The stream of consciousness . Allusiveness. Virginia Woolf ’s Modern Fiction as a theoretical platform for Modernism. Criticism of Realist literary method .
    Literary modernism: end of the 19th century-1920 (reached its height ) and ended 1940s. A self-conscious break with traditional aesthetic forms. Rejecting the sentiment and discursiveness typical of Romanticism and Victorian literature for poetry that instead favored precision (täppis) of imagery and clear , sharp language . Modernist writers embraced the unconscious fears of a darker humanity.
    Sub movements: surrealism, formalism , avant- garde , symbolism, imagism
    Structuralism: Writers used myth and music as a part of the books structure. J. JoyceUlysses ”. Deep structure is the same as in “ odyssey ” and T.S. Elliot “the fisher king ”-more complicated experiment . Aldous Huxley „point counter point“-builds his chapters on principles of music. R. Aldington „death of a hero “-a jazz novel . Polyphony- harmony . Cacophony Virginia Woolf „the waves“-symphony.
    Psychoanalysis: The greatest influence of psychoanalysis on literary production has probably been to add legitimacy to the already -existing trends towards greater psychological introspection and towards more prominent and franker discussions of sexuality.

    Main characteristic features of Modernism: Characteristics of Modernism

      Formal characteristics (11)

    Thematic characteristics(8)
    Stream of consciousness: The flow of thought in the waking mind. The continuous flow of character’s mental process. In traditional books, descriptions are built on artificial, life is not like this, an ordinary mind does not think that now I’m going to think thought a or thought b. Ordinary mind can’t control itself, they just form itself.
    Allusiveness-reference to previous literature text. Those fact , names , hints are hided in modern text. They are expected to be recognized by readers. Everything is interconnected.
    Virginia Woolf-manifesto „modern fiction“. 1925, by that time major names had established themselves. She summarized what they were doing. He started by explaining what the situation was and went on to explain how it should be.
    Criticism of Realist literary method.
    Denial of conventions (tava), traditional structure, plot and presentation of character.

  • Joseph Conrad and Literary Impressionism . New ways of presenting character and experience. Conrad’s literary output. Lord Jim. Nostromo . Heart of Darkness and a critique of colonialism. Kurtz as Nietzsche’s Superman. The darkness of human heart. Civilization and barbarism: which is which?

    Joseph Conrad and Literary Impressionism. Effect of light . Moments , very conscious of precious moments. Conrad: writer must do something like that on paper. Only by giving the impression can painter , writer can make people forget about their daily lives .
    New ways of presenting character and experience. Character is described as seen by other people. Impressionism in the description .
    Conrad’s literary output - author suspects skepticism of the human condition.
    Lord Jim“-Jim (his surname is never disclosed), a young British seaman, becomes first mate on the Patna, a ship full of pilgrims travelling to Mecca for the hajj. Jim joins his captain and other crew members in abandoning the ship and its passengers . A few days later , they are picked up by a British ship. However , the Patna and its passengers are later also saved, and the reprehensible actions of the crew are exposed. The other participants evade the judicial court of inquiry , leaving Jim to the court alone. The court strips him of his navigation command certificate for his dereliction of duty. Jim is angry with himself , both for his moment of weakness, and for missing an opportunity to be a 'hero'.
    At the trial , he meets Marlow, a sea captain, who in spite of his initial misgivings over what he sees as Jim's moral unsoundness, comes to befriend him, for he is "one of us". Marlow later finds Jim work as a ship chandler's clerk. Jim tries to remain incognito, but whenever the opprobrium of the Patna incident catches up with him, he abandons his place and moves further east .
    Nostromo ( 1904 )- Nostromo is set in the South American country of Costaguana (a fictional nation, though its geography as described in the book closely matches real -life Colombia). Costaguana has a long history of tyranny, revolution and warfare , but has recently experienced a period of stability under the dictator Ribiera.
    Charles Gould is a native Costaguanero of English descent who owns an important silver -mining concession near the key port of Sulaco. He is tired of the political instability in Costaguana and its concomitant corruption, and uses his wealth to support Ribiera's government , which he believes will finally bring stability to the country after years of misrule and tyranny by self-serving dictators. Instead, Gould's refurbished silver mine and the wealth it has generated inspires a new round of revolutions and self-proclaimed warlords, plunging Costaguana into chaos. Among others , the revolutionary Montero invades Sulaco; Gould, adamant that his silver should not become spoil for his enemies, orders Nostromo, the trusted "capataz de los cargadores" (head longshoreman) of Sulaco, to hide it on an offshore island .

    Heart of darkness“-1902. Conrad’s landmark. Novel is highly symbolic. The main events render by Marlow, happened in Congo, the river has the same name, is described as serpentine river (piblical illusion ), bears some evil in himself, in the same way like paradise. Congo-one of the darkest places on earth. ( Africa - dark continent )
    Story: white European Charles Marlowe is in charge of a ferry boat on Congo, meets Kurtz, who is trading ivory, very expensive, made illegal in some countries for now, keeps the local in fear . Later on he dies and Marlow returns to tell the story.
    Critique in colonialism: On one level, then, Heart of Darkness is a scathing critique of colonialism.  It takes place at a time when there were mere hints that colonialism was not working as it should. It was a time that appeared on the surface perhaps to be the height of Empire, a time to be bullish about colonialism in Africa.
    Kurtz as Nietzschean Superman- Kurtz is another strong person , that uses the Negroes because they are weaker than him - in fact he is considered like a god by them for his nature - and that loves this country for the same reason as Marlow and also because he can be seen like a god and live far from the stupid morals of his rich European world. Nietzsche believes that the true strength of man is unique and not of everybody : Marlow and Kurtz have this uniqueness. The hero that Nietzsche considers is the law of himself: he does not have to be limited by the consideration for the other people, and by stupid laws and rules . So, the true Nietzsche's hero can be very similar to Kurtz.
    Darkness of human heart: Frame story: Marlowe taken on board by 5 boatmen on the Thames awaiting tide, story, tide missed, darkness ahead, darkness in between , London: another dark place on earth. Brits to ancient romans what Africans to 20th century. Civilization versus barbarism: which is which?
    Different levels of darkness: of Congo wilderness, of European exploitation of natives, of general human nature-inherent evil. Outside social control(superego). Man is capable of committing heinous (jälk ) actions.
    Civilization vs barbarism: which is which? The treatment of the natives at the Company's station increases the barbarity of the "civilized" whites. First Marlowe sees a chain gang of several natives who seem starved and nearly worked to death. As they pass by, they seem to have the blank stare of death, unconscious to Marlowe's presence even though they pass within six inches of him. Again in the grove of death, Marlowe sees the effect of the civilizing light of Europe upon the natives. "They were dying slowly . . . nothing but black shadows of disease and starvation . . . lost in uncongenial surroundings, fed on unfamiliar food, they sickened, became inefficient, and were then allowed to crawl away and rest " (82). Marlowe implies in this passage that the natives were abused, used relentlessly for labor until they were spent , at which point they were "allowed" by the civilized whites to crawl into the grove of death to die. Truly a barbaric and dehumanizing view, using the natives only for their labor power , with no concern for their health or even their existence.

  • James Joyce as a master of European Modernism. Joyce’s background. Joyce and Ireland . A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man. Stephen ’s and Joyce’s spiritual searchings. Portrait as a modernist Bildungsroman. Revolution in style and composition .
    James Joyce as a master of European Modernism. Self-consciously modernist-new ways to express, quite difficult to read. Himself encouraged diversity of opinions concerning his art. „ Ulysses will give universities something to work on well into the next century“.
    Joyce’s background. Ireland, till 1904. Education was standard, middle class . He had quite prestigious start on education, Jesuit university college, Dublin . Ended up in rebellion. Against inhibiting(keelama) forces of family, church, school. Moved to the continent, Paris , Ulysses-Zürich and Paris.
    Joyce and Ireland. „Cultic twalette“, left in 1904, couldn’t help returning in every page
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    Briti kirjanduse 20.-21. sajandi eksami kordamisküsimused vastustega, British Literature in the 20th-21st Century
    briti kirjandus , 2012 , tallinna ülikool , the contradictory , diverse , chaotic 20th century , new developments in science and philosophy , the essence and influence of freudian theory , literary modernism and its sub-movements , the influence of structuralism and psychoanalysis , main characteristic features of modernism , denial of conventions , traditional structure , plot and presentation of character , the stream of consciousness , allusiveness , virginia woolf?s modern fiction as a theoretical platform for modernism , criticism of realist literary method , joseph conrad and literary impressionism , new ways of presenting character and experience , conrad?s literary output , lord jim , nostromo , heart of darkness and a critique of colonialism , kurtz as nietzsche?s superman , the darkness of human heart , civilization and barbarism: which is which? james joyce as a master of european modernism , joyce?s background , joyce and ireland , a portrait of the artist as a young man , stephen?s and joyce?s spiritual searchings , portrait as a modernist bildungsroman , revolution in style and composition , james joyce?s ulysses , life as a whole with its fundamental laws , structure , composition , language and style of ulysses , the use of myth , the characters: stephen , bloom , molly an d their mythological counterparts , joyce?s stream of consciousness: a means of characterisation and rendering life as a whole , the three characters? stream of consciousness , dh lawrence: man and writer , lawrence?s aesthetic: ?art for my sake? , why the novel matters , criticism of modern civilization , the influence of freudian theory , instinctive man vs , spiritual woman , lawrence?s women , sons and lovers , oedipus complex and the formation of the artist , ts eliot?s poetry , objective correlative , the love song of j alfred prufrock , paralysis , anxiety , fragmentation as typical features of the modern world and human condition (the waste land , the hollow men) virginia woolf: an innovative writer and a feminist classic , a troubled life on the verge of madness , bloomsbury group , woolf?s modernist aesthetic , peculiarities of woolf?s stream of consciousness , joyce?s and woolf?s stream of consciousness , the problem of time , change , and memory for human personality , mrs , dalloway , identity and survival , septimus smith as clarissa?s ?dark double? english literature of the 1930s-1950s , aggravating political and economic situation in the 1930s-1940s , a turn in the mood , aesthetic programme , moral convictions and public taste , the golden age of crime fiction , the literature of ?fair play? , graham greene , realism and existentialism , post wwii english literature , the age of fear , the philosophical novel , existentialism , loneliness , impossibility of communication , existence vs , being , william golding?s view of human nature , darkness visible , lord of the flies , a parable of man outside civilization , the 1960s as a new era in science , technology , politics , and society , victories and losses , new spirit and aesthetic , liberation world-wide , new consciousness: mass culture , counter-culture , cult of personality , ?the swinging sixties? and ?the sagging seventies? , the politics and poetics of postmodernism , resistance to interpretations , play with language , genre , character , ?the true? and ?the real? , the role of media and ideology , differences between post-war and postmodern fiction; postmodernism and modernism , anthony burgess , a clockwork orange as a satiric dystopia , the philosophy of free choice , burgess?s linguistic experiments , women?s liberation movement and the literature of feminism , second-wave feminism , political and social campaigns and victories , revolution in culture and language , hélène cixous and l?écriture feminine , sex vs , gender (s , de beauvoir , butler) , genres and characteristics of feminist literature , angela carter , the evolution of the writer?s career 1960s-1990s: from radicalism to magic realist metafiction , femininity as a constructed notion in a , carter?s short stories , novels and non-fiction , new woman changing old rules in nights at the circus and the loves of lady purple , magic realism: characteristic features and philosophical meaning , play with time and reality , plurality of worlds and truths , the ?real? and its representations (examples from a , carter) , historiographic metafiction , linda hutcheon , history as a collection of representations , historiographic metafiction and magic realism in the writings of salman rushdie , postcolonial situation and postcolonial trauma , d m thomas?s view of history as myth , postmodern play , metafiction , magic realism , intertextuality and plagiarism (or pastiche!) in the white hotel , english literature at the millennium , 1990-2010: diversity of writers and social responses , major historical events and their influence on cultural climate , responses of different ethnic groups , literature of second- and third-generation immigrants from former colonies , nadeem aslam?s politics , language and characters , cultural hybridity as predicament and site for dialogue and development , postmodernism , realism , postcolonialism and hybridity in the writings of zadie smith , cultural construction and the ?beauty myth? , postmodernism as a life-style , fiction that goes beyond literature , jeanette winteron: self-conscious , self-advertising writer , winterson?s postmodernism: gender blending , identity as a construct , cyberspace and 21st-century fiction , ian mcewan: the progress of a mainstream writer , mcewan?s psychological fiction , violence and alienation as part of zeitgeist , mcewan?s children , responses to urgent contemporary concerns: climate change and ecocriticism


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