BRITISH NATIONAL SYMBOLS (0)

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BRITISH NATIONAL SYMBOLS




Research work
CONTENTS
CONTENTS.....................................................................................................................................2
INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................3
1. BRITISH NATIONAL SYMBOLS..............................................................................................5
1.1 Great Britain and British story................................................................................................5
1.2 National Symbols and Nation Building ..................................................................................5
1.3 The Use of Flags throughout History.....................................................................................6
1.4 The Early Modern Flags. United Kindom: Union Jack..........................................................8
1.5 National Flags as Political Instruments ................................................................................12
2. RESEARCH...............................................................................................................................16
2.1 The questionnaire 1...............................................................................................................16
2.2 Analysis of the questionnaire 1.............................................................................................18
2.3 Results of the questionnaire 1...............................................................................................23
During the first questionnaire 30 students of the 9th and 10th class of Gymnasium were
questioned about the British national symbols...........................................................................23
Surprisingly, according to the results, more than 50 percent of students are aware of the
national flags of Great Britain, Scotland , Northern Ireland and Wales . As can be seen , quite a
lot of children also know the name of the Great Britain flag. However , almost all of the
students have no idea about other names of the British flags, as well as about the patron saints.
In addition , almost 90 percent of students are also unaware about the national holidays ..........23
All things considered , we see that there is a need for students to pay more attention to
Scotland, Northern Ireland and Wales and to learn more information concerning those parts of
the United Kigdom.....................................................................................................................23
2.4 The questionnaire 2...............................................................................................................23
2.5 Analysis of the questionnaire 2.............................................................................................24
2.6 Results of the questionnaire 2...............................................................................................32
CONCLUSION ..............................................................................................................................34
BIBLIOGRAPHY..........................................................................................................................36





INTRODUCTION

Language is an important and prominent part of culture, so to learn the language well, it is
necessary to understand cultural backgrounds of the language. The level of our learning cannot be
judged just from the mastery of the vocabulary and grammar , it should also be judged from the
point of view of country studies knowledge .


This paper will try to explore the British National Symbols which is one of the themes in the
school curriculum .


The importance and choice of my research paper is explained by the following reasons :
 Firstly, there are a lot of different kinds of symbols in our everyday life;
 however, the area of my special interest is British National Symbols, to be more exact
British national flags;
The aim of this research paper is to:
 to study literature dealing with history of national symbols;
 explore the British National Symbols;
compare the knowledge of country studies symbols by gymnasium students of basic and
high school.
The main tasks of the research is to:
 explore the symbols;
 explore meaning of symbols;
 explore origin of symbols;
 explore usage of symbols.
The methods of the research are:
 a survey ;
 an analysis;
 a comparison .
The object of the paper is British country studies. The subject is British Symbols.


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My written part consists of two parts: theoretical which focuses on national symbols, their
history, flags as political instruments and British national symbols, namely – flags. The second
part is a practical part: a survey, analysis of the survey and the results of the survey.





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1. BRITISH NATIONAL SYMBOLS

1.1 Great Britain and British story

Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic off the north- west coast of continental Europe .
With an area of 229,848 km2, it is the largest island of the British Isles , the largest island in Europe and the ninth - largest in the world. It is surrounded by over 1,000 smaller islands . The
island is part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, constituting most of
its territory: most of England , Scotland, and Wales are on the island, with their respective capital
cities, London, Edinburgh, and Cardiff. (wikipedia, 2015)
The Kingdom of Great Britain resulted from the Union of Scotland and England in 1707. More
than a hundred years before, in 1603, King James VI, King of Scots , had inherited the throne of
England, but it was not until 1707 that the Parliaments of the two countries agreed to form a
single kingdom. Subsequently, in 1801, Great Britain united with the neighboring Kingdom of
Ireland, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. When five-sixths of
Ireland seceded from the United Kingdom in 1922, the state was renamed the United Kingdom of
Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

1.2 National Symbols and Nation Building

The nation is visible through its symbols (flags, anthems, emblems ), ceremonies (national days ,
sporting events ), monuments (memorials, buildings , national museums ), the land itself
( landscape ), its borders (insiders and outsiders) and the capital city. This assumption is illustrated
by the fact that all nations, in order to be accepted internationally, must have a certain number of
characteristics . The nation is usually known by six essential elements : a name, a capital city,
clearly defined borders, a national flag, a national anthem and a national day. ( Scott , 2000)
Every nation needs a main sign to represent it. The national flag is for this reason not only a piece
of cloth fluttering in the wind, it is a sign of self- expression , and a claim of sovereignty or the
wish to attain sovereignty. Flags, generally overlooked in the nation formation process , are also
essential symbols to rally around .
National anthems, much like flags, symbolise the nation and its collective self- celebration and
unisonance. National days are occasions when national symbols are activated. They are the


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repeated annual occasions when the nation remembers its founding myth or celebrates its
symbolic birthday .

1.3 The Use of Flags throughout History

There are `old', `modern' and `new' national symbols (flags) because nations vary in `age', in
terms of continuity and independence .
The Romans , as far as we know, used two kinds of fabric flags, one with the image of the
goddess of victory painted on it, and the other the flammula, consisting of red streamers attached
to the spear, marking the presence of a general.
Another fabric flag used by the Christian Roman emperors was a ` sacred ' standard called
labarum, employed as early as 400 AD by the Roman Emperor Constantine. The labarum was a
Christian version of the Roman vexillum. It marked an evolution from the latter as it displayed a
portrait of the Emperor and his family or other government officials, and atop the staff, the
monogram of Christ .
The legend about its origin, as told by the 4th century historian Eusebius in Life of Constantine,
has it that the emperor before the victory over Maxentius in 312 had seen a sign of the cross in
the sky with the words In hoc signo vinces. Again we have to note that, although similar in some
functions to modern flags, none of these devices was flown from flagpoles - they were all
portable deities.
In consequence flags in their modern sense were still to be invented . Nevertheless , flags are
related to the units they represent, as signs of identification , whether flown in ancient or modern
times .
Banners and Flags in the Middle Ages The Koran's injunction against representational art
encouraged the development of flags in the Arab World. These relied heavily on abstract patterns and calligraphic inscriptions - often religious texts - in embroidery, applique or painting. Even
before the rise of Islam , promulgated by Mohammed in Arabia, flags of black and white were
used in the early part of the 7th century. From what we know today , Mohammed (570-632) used
one black and one white flag connected with him. The Arab World developed the tradition of
using specific colors and inscriptions for different dynasties and leaders. As dynasties followed
one another, contrasting colors were used, in order to differentiate the ruling dynasty from its
predecessors. (Smith, 1975)


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An interesting difference can be noted with regard to the use of colors by the Chinese and later by
the Arabs; whereas the Chinese identified every color with a philosophical or religious concept ,
the Arabs associated specific colors with dynasties and individual leaders. Another interpretation
of the Arab colours, from the last century, and based on the words of the poet Safi al-Din al-H'ily
In the West, flags were introduced during the Crusades , and derived from the struggles between
Christians and Muslims .
In the Christian world the practice of bestowing banners previously blessed by the Pope became a
tradition of high significance at this time and followed the ceremonial forms set by pre-Christian
Rome. These banners were generally called `pallia' and like the previously mentioned cloak of
Mohammed, they were originally garments.
It is interesting to note that pallia were dedicated to St. Augustine (354-430), Charlemagne (742-
814), and William the Conqueror (1028-1087). The cloak of St. Martin was another garment that
was turned into a flag, which later became a cult object of Frankish kings and even influenced the
choice of blue as part of the modern French tricolour.
Meanwhile the power that finally led to the creation of the Mongol Empire arose in Asia . Many
of the Mongol standards displayed a device, a `flaming trident', reproducing the blades of a
trident with flames surrounding them.
The flag of the Khan himself consisted of nine yak-tails hanging from a rack of crossbars. After
the conquest of China lateral flags were used, still with the horsetail and the flaming trident. The
use of flags by the forces of Genghis Khan (ca 1155-1227) was significant for the development of a world - wide flag tradition in that a special flag, actually called ` banner ', came to be connected
with each regiment. It reads: "White are our deeds, black our fields of battle ; our pastures are
green , but our swords are red with the blood of the enemy ". A banner refers to a cloth stretched
between two anchor points bearing a slogan or a flag with heraldic arms, or a flag carried by a
military unit . ( Brown , 1994)
It is thus evident from the first cloth flags in the Arab, Asian and Christian worlds that the
practise of flagging one's community , beliefs and purposes has been in use for a very long time,
regardless of material substance.
Vexillology has also been looked upon as a branch of heraldry and many national flags, their
colours and designs, have been influenced by preceding coats of arms which were originally used
to identify soldiers on the battlefield.


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The first badge used during the Crusades was the Cross, which could be worn as a garment on the
chest or back of the warrior. The imperial war flag of the Holy Roman Empire (from 800
onwards) displayed a white cross on red, symbolising the holy cause in which the battle was
fought.
As early as 1188 different colours were in use for crusaders from different regions , a distinction
illuminating that it is obviously impossible to provide a precise date of the first cloth flags since
fabric flags have not been preserved from the Middle Ages.
A `badge' is a distinctive emblem added to a flag or used on its own. It was also decided in 1188,
that King Philip Augustus of France was to have his own colours displayed on his cross flag (red
cross on white), as were King Henry II of England (white cross on red) and Count Philip of
Flanders (green cross on white).
These colours were later reversed and, while the reason for this remains unclear, England
embarked on what today is considered a continuous tradition of a red cross on white from 1277,
whereas France displayed a white cross, first on a red, then on a blue flag.
From this practice and time emerged the famous and significant cross flags, such as St. George's
Cross (red cross on white), the Cross of St. Denis (a white cross on red) and the cross flag of the
Teutonic Knights (black cross on white).
The Crusader flag displaying a white cross on red, was originally used by Christians against the
European `pagans', and later became the flag employed by the Holy Roman Empire in battle.
The influence of heraldry on modern flags has been substantial, and the effectiveness of the
symbolism has been reproduced due to the simplicity, distinctiveness and originality of heraldic
colours and designs. The first cross flags indicated primarily that the military operations of the
crusaders were sanctioned by the Pope. However, it is clear that these flags gained territorial
associations as time went by.

1.4 The Early Modern Flags. United Kindom: Union Jack

As regards the modern national flags, the oldest national flag - the Danish Dannebrogen - from
which all the other Scandinavian Cross flags have originated, can claim a direct link to the
Crusader Cross. St. George's Cross of England, as one part of the modem Union Jack reflecting
the political development of the United Kingdom.




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The Cross of St George, originally seen as a less important flag, became as a result the flag to
symbolise England, and the English trading companies started to use St. George as a basis for
their own flags and in order to identify themselves at sea.
The Cross of St. George, earlier accounted for, has been traced back to 1348, when Edward III
made St. George the patron saint of the Order of the Garter. Later, after the Battle of Agincourt in
1415, Henry V ordered all soldiers siding with the English to wear a band with the colours of St.
George.
Although St. George's Cross is the founding component of the Union Jack and as such constitutes
an old flag, the final version of the Union Jack emerged only in 1801 after the formation of the
United Kingdom in 1800.
Earlier designs of the flag existed: a union flag was initiated as early as 1606 after the personal
union of the crowns of Scotland and England, although the independent national cross-flags of
England and Scotland were still in use on land and were legally formalised in 1707.(reigning

1572-84).

The end of the 18'h century marks the official beginning of the `national' flag. This was a gradual
process where official recognition came after the flag and its colours had gained some sort of
symbolic value .
It is of course impossible in all cases to establish whether flags had symbolic value for the elites
only or whether the people associated themselves with the first flags that were adopted. As we
have seen many countries had more than one flag denoting `belonging' before modern times.
Varieties of flags referred to vague notions of ` nationality ' and were in their various designs used
at sea by warships, unarmed vessels and privately owned craft be recognised in a context where
flags emerged as political symbols in modern times. And flag law was adopted in 1906.
England: St. George's Cross (white with red cross) dates from 1348. when Edward III made St.
George the patron saint of the Order of the 1348 Cross Flag Garter.
Scotland: References to the Saltire (diagonal) cross of St. Andrew (blue with white diagonal
cross)

Wales: (Red dragon on white-over-green) The colours are the livery colours of the Tudor dynasty
in the I5 `h c. The 'Dragon' is also (Wales) claimed to go back to the 15`h c. and has been the
official badge for ® Wales since 1801.


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The Welsh flag is not represented in the Union Jack, and was not recognised until the 1950s . The
Welsh Dragon constitutes a 'Heraldic Flag'.
Britain: 'Union Jack' is a combination of the three cross flags above . 1606-Cross Flag England
and Scotland in personal union combined their cross flags (1707) at sea (1606): (2) the Act of
Union of England and Scotland established (1801) Whereas, internationally, the `Union Jack'
represents Britain, the individual flags of England, Wales and Scotland, are flown nationally
within those territories . The cross - flags combined in the `Union Jack' are considered in this presentation including St.
Patrick 's Cross of Northern Ireland. Although comprising several nations, Britain can in terms of
its symbolic and ceremonial expression be considered to possess a national ` quality '.
The `Union Jack' is both a union-flag and a cross-flag, being a composite of the Cross of St.
George of England (the red cross on a white background), the Cross of St. Andrew of Scotland
(the white diagonal cross on blue background) and the Cross of St. Patrick of Northern Ireland
(red diagonal cross on white background).
The Welsh Dragon (red dragon on a white-over-green field), on the other hand , is not represented
in the British flag. Although the white and green colours in the Welsh flag have old roots as the
livery colours of the Tudors , the flag was officially recognised only in the 1950s, which is one
reason for its exclusion on the Union Jack.
St. George's Cross, as an emblem, can be traced back to the 14 th century, when in 1348 Edward
III made St. George the patron saint of the Order of the Garter. Later, after the Battle of Agincourt
in 1415, Henry V ordered all soldiers siding with the English in military action to wear a band of
St. George.
The earliest reference to the distinct Saltire (diagonal) Cross of St. Andrew is claimed to date
from the 8th century, while its colours evolved four centuries later, in the 12th century.
Regarding the Cross of St. Patrick (Northern Ireland), it has been suggested that the red saltire
originated from the arms of the Geraldines, one of the influential Anglo- Irish families sent to
Ireland to represent Henry II of England.
The Cross, which appeared in the 16th century, had a prominent place in their arms. The creation
of the `Union Jack' was initiated during what can be considered a new era of British national
flags, after the succession of the Stuart dynasty to the throne and during the growth of British
naval power.


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The first reference to the Union flag dates from a proclamation of 12 April 1606 declaring the
personal union of the symbolism and ceremonies.
The Cross of St. Patrick, as part of the crowns of Scotland and England, when King James VI of
Scotland (1567-1625) ascended the English throne, thereby becoming James I of Great Britain
(1603-25). (Smith, 1975)
The design of the first union flag was formed by superimposing the Red Cross of England on top
of the White Saltire of Scotland. However, the flags of England and Scotland continued to be
flown separately on land.
The use of the first union flag (uniting the crosses of England and Scotland) remained restricted,
being allowed only at sea from 1634 onwards on ships in the Royal Navy.
For a period of two hundred years, a great variety of ensigns, jacks and pennants were devised,
and all were essentially variations of the Union Jack displaying the recognised British colours.
In the period known as the Protectorate ( 1649 -60) the well-known golden Irish harp was also
displayed in one variation of the union flag.
It was, however, removed with the restoration of Charles II in 1660. In the Act of Union (1707),
by which England and Scotland joined together as the United Kingdom, the two combined
crosses were officially recognised in order to reflect the preceding political events.
After the union with Ireland in 1800 the final design of the Union Jack, where the Cross of St. Patrick was counter - charged (counterbalanced) with the Scottish Saltire, was adopted on 1
January 1801.
To preserve the former cross flags and to manage the incorporation of St. Patrick's Cross (red
diagonal cross on white), the heraldic advisers to the King suggested that St Andrew's Cross
should be divided diagonally and red appear below and above the white (on the hoist half of the
fly and above on its fly half).
In accordance with heraldic law the red cross may not border the blue background, so a white
narrow border, or fimbrication, was added in between. This also held for the centre where a white
border separated the crosses of St. Patrick and St. George.
The Union Jack has remained unchanged ever since. By an Order in Council of 9 July 1864 the
present official system of flags was confirmed. The name `Union Jack' also became the official
name for the flag in the late 19th century.




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Other flags of Britain include the Civil or Red Ensign (red with the Union Jack in the first
quarter ) used at sea, the Government or the Blue Ensign (blue with the Union Jack in the first
quarter) reserved for government vessels, and the Naval or White Ensign (the cross of St. George
with the Union Jack in the canton) used by the Royal Navy.
The Royal Standard displaying two quarters of three golden lions on red and two quarters, one
with the Irish golden harp on blue and the other with the Scottish rampant red lion on yellow ,
ought to be mentioned as the design is the same as that of the national arms.
The Royal Standard is the flag of the head of state and the banner refers to the monarch 's arms of
dominion (excluding Wales). Its present form has been dated back to the accession of Victoria as
Queen of the Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, on June 20, 1837 . (Stilling, 1995)
No other flags in British flag history have ever rivalled the Union Jack. The flag began as a
distinguishing flag of a ship , as an auxiliary of the principal flag, and evolved into the main flag
of Britain and its empire.
Today the Union Jack is flown for government and military purposes and, at sea, as the flag of
the Royal Navy. It is also used by the public. Traditionally the Union Jack has also been
incorporated into 8 other flags, as authorised in civil, governmental, military, naval or royal
contexts.
The Union Jack is, for example, displayed in the canton of the British Blue Ensign and the British
Red Ensign. It also constitutes part of the flags of the Commonwealth nations such as Australia
(and its states New South Wales, Queensland , South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, and Western
Australia), New Zealand and Tuvalu ; and, in addition, of the U. S. State of Hawaii and the three
Canadian states of British Columbia , Manitoba , and Ontario .

1.5 National Flags as Political Instruments

National flags constitute a powerful instrument for communication and participation. This is one
reason why flags are not merely colourful ornaments. Instead, identification and representation
are the key functions of the earliest kinds of symbolism.
Symbolic devices have been employed to identify groups and territories throughout history,
while, at the same time, they have been used symbolically to differentiate communities from one
another: the relationship between `us' and ` others ' isintimately linked to communal forms of




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symbolism. The original use of the medieval cross flags by England was to symbolise a holy
mission ( Christianity ) against `others' (non-Christians).
Nations cannot be dated in a precise manner . However, national symbols, such as national flags,
provide us with an indication when these communities started to assert hemselves.
From such a perspective it is useful to be able to account for, and interpret, the period when flags
appear related to historical events and circumstances around this time. This has something to tell
us about the complexity of the nationbuilding processes and the symbolic continuity, which may
or may not exist with regard to the national community of today.
Symbolic discontinuity may therefore be interpreted as a sign of a period of political instability
which has interfered, in one way or another, with the process of nation-building. Thus, some
nations may then have been represented by symbolism of early unions or connected to them as
part of empires, but they may have developed wholly independent symbolic regimes of their own.
The `old' cross flags of England, Scotland and Northern Ireland were simply combined with the
emergence of the political union.
The National Flag, the National Anthem and the National Emblem are the three symbols through
which an independent country proclaims its identity and sovereignty, and as such they command
instantaneous respect and loyalty. In themselves they reflect the entire background, thought and
culture of a nation. (Tilly, 1994)
The question is: how is it possible that `a piece of cloth' has had such a significant impact on the
most important political and cultural institution in modern times - that is, the nation? The flag has
proved to have such powerful symbolic value that people have been willing to sacrifice their lives
for it.
The soldier who dies for his flag, dies for his country; but as a matter of fact, in his own
consciousness , it is the flag that has the first place. Whether one isolated standard remains in the
hands of the enemy or not does not determine the fate of the country, yet the soldier allows
himself to be killed to regain it. He loses sight of the fact that the flag is only a sign, and that it
has no value in itself, but only brings to mind the reality that it represents; it is treated as if it
were the reality itself.
A related and new practice, in which the notions of nationhood and citizenship are sanctified, is
the `Citizenship Ceremony' in Britain. Under the Nationality, Immigration and Asylum Act 2002,
all new British Citizens are required to attend. The central elements of this ceremony are the


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Pledge of Loyalty to the United Kingdom' and the `Oath of Allegiance'. The latter reads as
follows:
I (name) swear by Almighty God that on becoming a British citizen, I will be faithful and bear
true allegiance to Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth the Second, her Heirs and Successors, according
to law.
These ceremonial statements are given in front of the Union Jack and the participants stand whilst
singing the National Anthem, which closes the ceremony. The powerful symbolism invested in the practice of flying flags at half - mast is demonstrated by the offence caused when this practice
is not respected.
In Britain, when Diana , Princess of Wales, died, the flags on all public buildings were at half
mast except for the Union Jack flying atop Buckingham Palace where tradition stipulated that the
flag should fly at full mast to mark the fact that Queen was in residence. The associations of the flag flying at full - mast as a sign of disrespect for the dead caused public outrage.
As a result, tradition had to give way to public pressure, and the flag was finally lowered at the
Palace under intense media coverage. The process did not stop there; to mark the first anniversary
of Diana's death (31 August 1998), the Queen ruled that all flags at the royal residences should be lowered and half - masted as a special mark of respect. The British government declared
immediately that they would follow suit.
The national flag can be an ` active ' symbol on national days, coronations and royal weddings,
and in parades, parliamentary debates, salutes, ceremonials, rituals, memorials and subtly in
everyday procedures in the legislature . A specific example is the saluting of the flag, or standing
up when singing the national anthem.
The state not only controls which national flag is to be used but its usage of national flags as they
appear on a number of places controlled by the state: embassies, vessels of war, airlines, national
museums, national monuments, capital city squares and stationery. There is also a specific
protocol involved in the use of national flags at the headquarters of the United Nations and the
European Union.
The state, too, specifies the days when the flag is to be flown in the practices of `official flag
days'.





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The flag as a symbol of dissent can be used as protest against authority, against a single action or
as an ideological condemnation, but in such cases "the national symbol is manipulated in order to
assert moral value over existing power value.
The public destruction of national flags is a form of desecration and represents deliberate acts of
disrespect. An early example of flags being used in this way include the Jacobite struggle against
the English Hanoverian kings, who after the battle of Culloden (1746) put a stop to the Highland
resistance .
The treatment of the rebel standards captured provide us with interesting information about the
associations involved: they [the rebel standards] were carried by the chief hangman of Edinburgh
and by chimneysweeps, with an escort , and laid in the dust, while a proclamation was read
explaining why they were to be burnt by the public hangman.
Each standard was then laid over the flames, while the senior herald named the Scottish clan that
had marched behind it to battle. This was deliberate disrespect, with symbolic modes of
contempt: training in the dust; handling by executioners and men associated with black soot ;
Historically, it is possible to observe how the national flag, as in Britain, has continuously moved
from the sacred to the mundane sphere. Before 1939, it was hardly ever displayed by individuals,
as it was associated with an official and/or royal context.
In contemporary Britain it is also used as decoration, for example on clothing . There are three
main types of flags: Cross Flags (type 1), Tricolours (type 2), and Heraldic Flags displaying
mainly heraldic devices (type 3). The symbolic origin for the `old' cross flags was religious.
Cross Flags (Type 1)
The oldest flags of Europe are those which display the Christian Cross. Many of them have their
origin during the Crusades and the military campaigns undertaken in the name of Christianity.
Others have been selected later in order to symbolise the role of Christianity in the formation of
the modern nation. Another old flag, in terms of its parts, is the Union Jack, a combination of the
old crosses of St George, St Andrew and St. Patrick. (Tilly, 1994)





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2. RESEARCH

2.1 The questionnaire 1
The following survey was conducted.

30 students of the ninth and tenth grades participated in it.
Students had to answer 14 questions .
The questionnaire:

1. What form do you study?
2. Identify this part of the national flag of Great Britain.




Picture 1. The flag of England

3. Identify this part of the national flag of Great Britain.




Picture 2. The flag of Scotland





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4. Identify this part of the national flag of Great Britain.





Picture 3. The flag of Ireland

5. Whose national flag is it?





Picture 4. The Welsh flag

6. What is the name of the national flag of Great Britain?


Picture 5. The flag of the Union Jack


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7. Whose patron Saint is St. Patrick? What is the name of their flag?

8. Whose patron Saint is St. George? What is the name of their flag?

9. Whose patron Saint is St. Andrew? What is the name of their flag?

10. Whose patron saint is St. David? What is the name of their flag?

11. What national holiday is celebrated on 17 March?

12. What national holiday is celebrated on 23 April?

13. What national holiday is celebrated on 30 November?

14. What national holiday is celebrated on 1 March?


2.2 Analysis of the questionnaire 1

1. What form do you study?





Picture 6. What form do you study?


9 class 1 53.3%
6
10 class 1 53.3%
6


2. Identify this part of the national flag of Great Britain.





Picture 7. Identify this part of the national flag of Great Britain.
National flag of England 21 70%


National flag of Scotland 4 13.3%


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National flag of Northern Ireland 3 10%
National flag of Wales 2 6.7%

3. Identify this part of the national flag of Great Britain.




Picture 8. Identify this part of the national flag of Great Britain.


National flag of England 1 3.3%
National flag of Scotland 20 66.7%
National flag of Northern Ireland 3 10%
National flag of Wales 6 20%


4. Identify this part of the national flag of Great Britain.




Picture 9. Identify this part of the national flag of Great Britain.


National flag of England 1 3.4%
National flag of Scotland 9 31%
National flag of Northern Ireland 20 69%
National flag of Wales 3 10.3%


5. Whose national flag is it?


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Picture 10. Whose national flag is it?
National flag of England 2 6.7%
National flag of Scotland 3 10%
National flag of Northern Ireland 8 26.7%
National flag of Wales 17 56.7%


6. What is the name of the national flag of Great Britain?




Picture 11. What is the name of the national flag of Great Britain?
Union John 4 13.3%
Union Joy 2 6.7%
Union Jack 25 83.3%
Union Jeffery 3 10%

7. Whose patron Saint is St. Patrick? What is the name of their flag?




Picture 12. Whose patron Saint is St. Patrick? What is the name of their flag?
Don't know 29 100%
Другое 1 3.4%


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8. Whose patron Saint is St. George? What is the name of their flag?





Picture 13. Whose patron Saint is St. George? What is the name of their flag?


Don't know 29 100%
Другое 1 3.4%

9. Whose patron Saint is St. Andrew? What is the name of their flag?




Picture 14. Whose patron Saint is St. Andrew? What is the name of their flag?


Don't know 29 100%
Другое 1 3.4%

10. Whose patron saint is St. David? What is the name of their flag?




Don't know 29 100%
Другое 1 3.4%


11. What national holiday is celebrated on 17 March?




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Picture 15. What national holiday is celebrated on 17 March?
Don't know 26 89.7%
Другое 4 13.8%


12. What national holiday is celebrated on 23 April?




Picture 16. What national holiday is celebrated on 23 April?


Don't know 26 89.7%
Другое 3 10.3%


13. What national holiday is celebrated on 30 November?




Picture 17. What national holiday is celebrated on 30 November?


Don't know 25 86.2%
Другое 4 13.8%





22
14. What national holiday is celebrated on 1 March?





Picture 18. What national holiday is celebrated on 1 March?
Don't know 26 89.7%
Другое 3 10.3%




2.3 Results of the questionnaire 1

During the first questionnaire 30 students of the 9th and 10th class of Gymnasium were
questioned about the British national symbols.


Surprisingly, according to the results, more than 50 percent of students are aware of the national
flags of Great Britain, Scotland, Northern Ireland and Wales. As can be seen, quite a lot of
children also know the name of the Great Britain flag. However, almost all of the students have
no idea about other names of the British flags, as well as about the patron saints. In addition,
almost 90 percent of students are also unaware about the national holidays.


All things considered, we see that there is a need for students to pay more attention to Scotland,
Northern Ireland and Wales and to learn more information concerning those parts of the United
Kigdom.

2.4 The questionnaire 2
The following survey was conducted.

30 students of the ninth and tenth grades participated in it.
Students had to answer 19 questions.
The questionnaire:

1. What form do you study?

23
2. Do you know anything about British National symbols?

3. What is the national animal of England?
4. What is the national animal of Scotland?

5. What is the national flower of England?

6. What is the national flower of Wales?

7. What is the national flower of the Northern Ireland?

8. What is the national flower of Scotland?

9. What do you think is the national tree of England?

10. What do you think is the national tree of Wales?

11. What do you think is the national tree of Scotland?

12. Who is the heroic outlaw in English folklore?

13. Do you know that Saint George is the patron saint of England?

14. Do you know that Saint Andrew is the patron saint of Scotland?

15. What do you think is the national drink of Scotland?

16. What do you think is English national food?
17. Do you know the national bird of Wales?

18. Do you know that the Eurasian Wren is the national bird of England?

19. Are you interested in knowing British National symbols?

2.5 Analysis of the questionnaire 2

1. What form do you study?





Picture 19. What form do you study?
9 class 15 50%

10 class 15 50%




24
2. Do you know anything about British National symbols?





Picture 20. Do you know anything about British National symbols?
Yes 6 20%
No 14 47%
Maybe 10 33%


3. What is the national animal of England?




Picture 21. What is the national animal of England?
Don’t know 19 63%
The Barbarian Lion 2 7%
The White Lion 9 30%
The Siberian Tiger 0 0%


4. What is the national animal of Scotland?




25
Picture 22. What is the national animal of Scotland?
Don't know 15 50%
Unicorn 13 43%
Cat 2 7%




5. What is the national flower of England?




Picture 23. What is the national flower of England?
Don't know 18 60%
The Tudor rose 9 30%
The White rose 3 10%


6. What is the national flower of Wales?




26
Picture 24. What is the national flower of Wales?
Don’t know 18 60%
Daffodil 10 33%
Tulip 2 7%


7. What is the national flower of the Northern Ireland?




Picture 25. What is the national flower of the Northern Ireland?
Don’t know 18 60%
Shamrock 12 40%
Tulip 0 0%


8. What is the national flower of Scotland?




Picture 26. What is the national flower of Scotland?


27
Don’t know 18 60%
Thistle 11 37%
Tulip 1 3%


9. What do you think is the national tree of England?




Picture 27. What do you think is the national tree of England?
Don’t know 19 63%
Thee oak 11 37%
The maple 0 0%




10. What do you think is the national tree of Wales?




Picture 28. What do you think is the national tree of Wales?
Don’t know 20 67%
The oak 0 0%
The Sessile oak 10 33%




28
11. What do you think is the national tree of Scotland?





Picture 29. What do you think is the national tree of Scotland?
Don’t know 18 60%
Scots Pine 10 33%
The maple 2 7%




12. Who is the heroic outlaw in English folklore?




Picture 30. Who is the heroic outlaw in English folklore ?
Don’t know 14 47%
Robin Hood 16 53%


13. Do you know that Saint George is the patron saint of England?


29
Picture 31. Do you know that Saint George is the patron saint of England?
Yes, I know 11 37%
No, I don’t 19 63%


14. Do you know that Saint Andrew is the patron saint of Scotland?




Picture 32. Do you know that Saint Andrew is the patron saint of Scotland?
Yes, I know 11 37%
No, I don’t 19 63%


15. What do you think is the national drink of Scotland?




Picture 33. What do you think is the national drink of Scotland?
Don’t know 14 47%
Whisky 15 50%
30
Tequila 1 3%


16. What do you think is English national food?




Picture 34. What do you think is English national food?
Don’t know 17 57%
Roast beef and Yorkshire pudding 13 43%
Другое 0 0%




17. Do you know the national bird of Wales?




Picture 35. Do you know the national bird of Wales?
Don’t know 19 63%
Red kite 11 37%
White kite 0 0%


18. Do you know that the Eurasian Wren is the national bird of England?

31
Picture 36. Do you know that the Eurasian Wren is the national bird of England?
Yes, I know 11 37%
No, I don’t 19 63%


19. Are you interested in knowing British National symbols?




Picture 37. Are you interested in knowing British National symbols?
Yes 7 23%
No 23 77%




2.6 Results of the questionnaire 2

During my research work 30 students of Gymnasium were questioned on their knowledge of
British national symbols.
The half of students are in 9th form and another half in 10th form.
As it turns out only 20 percent of the students know something about British national symbols.
For example, only 30 percent of pupils answered correctly the question about national animal and
flower of England.


32
Half of questioned students have no idea what is the national animal of Scotland and 60 percent
don't know anything about symbols of Northern Ireland, Wales, Scotland.
Although, 50 percent of students know the hero of English folklore, but not aware of national
birds and patron saints.
According to the questionnaire, we come to the conclusion that students of gymnasium, who
study English as a foreign language are not quite aware of the facts about British national
symbols. It seems they know some facts, but not much.
What is more crucial and even sad, according to students' answers they are not interested in
knowing British national symbols. That means there is not much interest in that kind of
information.
So maybe there should be another way of motivating them learn more and attract their attention.





CONCLUSION

In conclusion, I would like to emphasize the importance of studying culture. Studying should
allow learners to increase their knowledge of the target culture in terms of people’s way of life,
values , attitudes, and beliefs, national symbols etc.
Foreign language learning is comprised of several components, including grammatical
competence, communicative competence, language proficiency , as well as a change in attitudes
towards one’s own or another culture. Cultural competence, i.e., the knowledge of the
conventions , customs , beliefs, and systems of meaning of another country, is indisputably an
integral part of foreign language learning.
At any rate , foreign language learning is foreign culture learning, and, in one form or another,
culture has been taught in the foreign language classroom . Cultural knowledge is not only an
aspect of communicative competence, but an educational objective in its own right.
Culture and communication are inseparable because culture not only dictates who talks to whom ,
about what, and how the communication proceeds, it also helps to determine how people encode
messages, the meanings they have for messages, and the conditions and circumstances under
which various messages may or may not be sent, noticed, or interpreted... Culture...is the
foundation of communication.
We can’t avoid touching upon different kinds of national symbols studying world history and
culture. Having studied national symbols in general, still I read and analysed a lot of information
connected with such national symbols as flags. Certainly, there is a lot of interesting and
significant information about Britain, its history and its national symbols and their meanings, that
students of basic and high school should know.
At the same time, the second, practical part and the analysis made on the basis of the test, shows
how uninformed children are of the simple facts about Britain.
Thus, under the circumstances and realizing how crucial the situation is, that research paper could
significantly influence students' perception and realization of their need in paying more attention
to this subject.
In addition, that research can make them be more interested and motivated in exploring more
facts and to look for extra information about Britain and even about other country symbols.


34
Motivation is perhaps one of the most important elements in this situation. It goes without saying
that cultural competence can lead to respect towards different cultures and it is important to
stimulate students’ intellectual curiosity about the target culture. I hope my research might
motivate students of Ahtme gymnasium to know more about British history and culture.





35
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Brown, S. (1994). Otherness and the actor - network : the undiscovered. London.
Scott, K. (2000). Scotland to boost tourism with searches for ancestral roots. Edinburgh.
Smith, J. (1975). United Kingdom: The Noble Lineage of the Union Jack. London.
Stilling. (1995). Wales: Ddraig Goch (Red Dragon). London.
Tilly, C. (1994). Afterword: political memories in space and time. Edinburgh.
wikipedia. (15 April 2015 г.). Great Britain. http://en.wikipedia.org :
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Britain





36

-13200% sisust ei kuvatud. Kogu dokumendi sisu näed kui laed faili alla
BRITISH NATIONAL SYMBOLS #1 BRITISH NATIONAL SYMBOLS #2 BRITISH NATIONAL SYMBOLS #3 BRITISH NATIONAL SYMBOLS #4 BRITISH NATIONAL SYMBOLS #5 BRITISH NATIONAL SYMBOLS #6 BRITISH NATIONAL SYMBOLS #7 BRITISH NATIONAL SYMBOLS #8 BRITISH NATIONAL SYMBOLS #9 BRITISH NATIONAL SYMBOLS #10 BRITISH NATIONAL SYMBOLS #11 BRITISH NATIONAL SYMBOLS #12 BRITISH NATIONAL SYMBOLS #13 BRITISH NATIONAL SYMBOLS #14 BRITISH NATIONAL SYMBOLS #15 BRITISH NATIONAL SYMBOLS #16 BRITISH NATIONAL SYMBOLS #17 BRITISH NATIONAL SYMBOLS #18 BRITISH NATIONAL SYMBOLS #19 BRITISH NATIONAL SYMBOLS #20 BRITISH NATIONAL SYMBOLS #21 BRITISH NATIONAL SYMBOLS #22 BRITISH NATIONAL SYMBOLS #23 BRITISH NATIONAL SYMBOLS #24 BRITISH NATIONAL SYMBOLS #25 BRITISH NATIONAL SYMBOLS #26 BRITISH NATIONAL SYMBOLS #27 BRITISH NATIONAL SYMBOLS #28 BRITISH NATIONAL SYMBOLS #29 BRITISH NATIONAL SYMBOLS #30 BRITISH NATIONAL SYMBOLS #31 BRITISH NATIONAL SYMBOLS #32 BRITISH NATIONAL SYMBOLS #33 BRITISH NATIONAL SYMBOLS #34 BRITISH NATIONAL SYMBOLS #35 BRITISH NATIONAL SYMBOLS #36
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0 arvamust Teiste kasutajate poolt lisatud kommentaarid
NikaVjal Õppematerjali autor

Lisainfo

CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION 3
1. BRITISH NATIONAL SYMBOLS
1.1 Great Britain and British story
1.2 National Symbols and Nation Building
1.3 The Use of Flags throughout History
1.4 The Early Modern Flags. United Kingdom: Union Jack
1.5 National Flags as Political Instruments
2. RESEARCH
2.1 The questionnaire 1
2.2 Analysis of the questionnaire 1
2.3 Results of the questionnaire 1
2.4 The questionnaire 2
2.5 Analysis of the questionnaire 2
2.6 Results of the questionnaire 2
CONCLUSION
BIBLIOGRAPHY

nation , land , symbol , cross , national flag , symbols , england , scotland , britain , british , national symbol

Mõisted

Sisukord

  • BRITISH NATIONAL SYMBOLS
  • CONTENTS
  • INTRODUCTION
  • BRITISH NATIONAL SYMBOLS
  • RESEARCH
  • CONCLUSION
  • BIBLIOGRAPHY

Teemad

  • BRITISH NATIONAL SYMBOLS
  • Great Britain and British story
  • National Symbols and Nation Building
  • The Use of Flags throughout History
  • The Early Modern Flags. United Kindom: Union Jack
  • National Flags as Political Instruments
  • RESEARCH
  • The questionnaire 1
  • The questionnaire
  • Picture 1. The flag of England
  • Picture 2. The flag of Scotland
  • Picture 3. The flag of Ireland
  • Picture 4. The Welsh flag
  • Picture 5. The flag of the Union Jack
  • Analysis of the questionnaire 1
  • What form do you study?
  • Picture 6. What form do you study?
  • Identify this part of the national flag of Great Britain
  • Picture 7. Identify this part of the national flag of Great Britain
  • Identify this part of the national flag of Great Britain
  • Picture 8. Identify this part of the national flag of Great Britain
  • Identify this part of the national flag of Great Britain
  • Picture 9. Identify this part of the national flag of Great Britain
  • Whose national flag is it?
  • Picture 10. Whose national flag is it?
  • What is the name of the national flag of Great Britain?
  • Picture 11. What is the name of the national flag of Great Britain?
  • Whose patron Saint is St. Patrick? What is the name of their flag?
  • Picture 12. Whose patron Saint is St. Patrick? What is the name of their flag?
  • Whose patron Saint is St. George? What is the name of their flag?
  • Picture 13. Whose patron Saint is St. George? What is the name of their flag?
  • Whose patron Saint is St. Andrew? What is the name of their flag?
  • Picture 14. Whose patron Saint is St. Andrew? What is the name of their flag?
  • Whose patron saint is St. David? What is the name of their flag?
  • What national holiday is celebrated on 17 March?
  • Picture 15. What national holiday is celebrated on 17 March?
  • What national holiday is celebrated on 23 April?
  • Picture 16. What national holiday is celebrated on 23 April?
  • What national holiday is celebrated on 30 November?
  • Picture 17. What national holiday is celebrated on 30 November?
  • What national holiday is celebrated on 1 March?
  • Picture 18. What national holiday is celebrated on 1 March?
  • Results of the questionnaire 1
  • The questionnaire 2
  • Analysis of the questionnaire 2
  • Picture 19. What form do you study?
  • Do you know anything about British National symbols?
  • Picture 20. Do you know anything about British National symbols?
  • What is the national animal of England?
  • Picture 21. What is the national animal of England?
  • What is the national animal of Scotland?
  • Picture 22. What is the national animal of Scotland?
  • What is the national flower of England?
  • Picture 23. What is the national flower of England?
  • What is the national flower of Wales?
  • Picture 24. What is the national flower of Wales?
  • What is the national flower of the Northern Ireland?
  • Picture 25. What is the national flower of the Northern Ireland?
  • What is the national flower of Scotland?
  • Picture 26. What is the national flower of Scotland?
  • What do you think is the national tree of England?
  • Picture 27. What do you think is the national tree of England?
  • What do you think is the national tree of Wales?
  • Picture 28. What do you think is the national tree of Wales?
  • What do you think is the national tree of Scotland?
  • Picture 29. What do you think is the national tree of Scotland?
  • Who is the heroic outlaw in English folklore?
  • Picture 30. Who is the heroic outlaw in English folklore?
  • Do you know that Saint George is the patron saint of England?
  • Picture 31. Do you know that Saint George is the patron saint of England?
  • Do you know that Saint Andrew is the patron saint of Scotland?
  • Picture 32. Do you know that Saint Andrew is the patron saint of Scotland?
  • What do you think is the national drink of Scotland?
  • Picture 33. What do you think is the national drink of Scotland?
  • What do you think is English national food?
  • Picture 34. What do you think is English national food?
  • Do you know the national bird of Wales?
  • Picture 35. Do you know the national bird of Wales?
  • Do you know that the Eurasian Wren is the national bird of England?
  • Picture 36. Do you know that the Eurasian Wren is the national bird of England?
  • Are you interested in knowing British National symbols?
  • Picture 37. Are you interested in knowing British National symbols?
  • Results of the questionnaire 2
  • Otherness and the actor-network: the undiscovered
  • Scotland to boost tourism with searches for ancestral roots
  • United Kingdom: The Noble Lineage of the Union Jack
  • Wales: Ddraig Goch (Red Dragon)
  • Afterword: political memories in space and time
  • Great Britain

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