Autocad II (1)

1 HALB
 
Eesti Põllumajandusülikool
Tehnikateaduskond
Mehaanika ja masinaõpetuse instituut

Enno Saks
Joonestuspakett AutoCAD 2000
(versioon 15.0)
II
Kolmemõõtmeline raalprojekteerimine
Programmeeritud joonestamine
Tartu 2000
1. Ruumilised koordinaadid
Ruumiliste jooniste valmistamiseks on vajalik tunda tähtsamaid ruumilisi koordinaatsüs-
teeme (vt joonis 1): ristkoordinaate xyz, silinderkoordinaate rz ja sfäärkoordinaate .
Silinderkoordinaatide saamiseks tuleb punkt P(x,y,z) projekteerida XY-tasandile, selleks on
joonisel 1 punkt P'(x,y,0). Punkti P' kaugus koordinaatide algusest O ongi parajasti polaar-
raadius r (r = x 2 + y 2 ), polaarnurk (0O < 360O , või ka ­180O < 180O ) on aga nurk
X-telje positiivse suuna ja polaarraadiuse vahel, kusjuures x = rcos , y = rsin .
Koordinaadid r ja on tavalised polaarkoordinaadid XY-tasapinnal. Sfäärkoordinaatide
puhul on suurus punkti P(x,y,z) kaugus koordinaatide algusest O ( = x 2 + y 2 + z 2 ). Nurk
määratakse siin samal viisil kui silinderkoordinaatide korral, aga vertikaaltasapinnas
mõõdetav nurk (­90O < 90O) määrab raadiuse kaldenurga XY-tasapinna suhtes.
Praktilisel joonestamisel pole ülaltoodud seoseid koordinaatide vahel vaja teada, küll aga
saab nurki ja kasutada jooniste vaatlemiseks suvalisest vaatesuunast (vt. punkt 5).

Joonis 1.
Ülalkirjeldatud rist-, silinder- ja sfäärkoordinaate saab kasutada punktide sisestamiseks
joonestamisel, näiteks (vt. ka lisa 1 juhendi esimesest osast):
· 8,13.5,-9 ­ absoluutsed ristkoordinaadid;
· @8,13.5,-9 ­ relatiivsed ristkoordinaadid;
· 7<22.5,6.45 ­ absoluutsed silinderkoordinaadid;
· @7<45,5.5 ­ relatiivsed silinderkoordinaadid;
· 4<90<30 ­ absoluutsed sfäärkoordinaadid;
· @4<90<30 ­ relatiivsed sfäärkoordinaadid.
Ruumiliseks joonestamiseks on edukalt kasutatavad ka mitmed juhendi esimeses osas
vaadeldud käsud. Selliste hulka kuulub näiteks käsk LINE ­ tuleb vaid kahe koordinaadi

2
asemel sisestada kolm koordinaati, nii nagu eespool kirjeldatud. Sama kehtib ka mitmete
teiste käskude kohta, näiteks RAY ja XLINE.
Seevastu käsuga PLINE ruumilist polüjoont joonestada ei saa, sest PLINE on ju tasapin-
naline objekt (moodustamise ajal paralleelne jooksva koordinaadistiku XY-tasapinnaga).
Küll aga saab kolmemõõtmelist polüjoont joonestada käsuga 3DPOLY, mis osutub kahe-
98% sisust ei kuvatud. Kogu dokumendi sisu näed kui laed faili alla
Autocad II #1 Autocad II #2 Autocad II #3 Autocad II #4 Autocad II #5 Autocad II #6 Autocad II #7 Autocad II #8 Autocad II #9 Autocad II #10 Autocad II #11 Autocad II #12 Autocad II #13 Autocad II #14 Autocad II #15 Autocad II #16 Autocad II #17 Autocad II #18 Autocad II #19 Autocad II #20 Autocad II #21 Autocad II #22 Autocad II #23 Autocad II #24 Autocad II #25 Autocad II #26 Autocad II #27 Autocad II #28 Autocad II #29 Autocad II #30 Autocad II #31 Autocad II #32 Autocad II #33 Autocad II #34 Autocad II #35 Autocad II #36 Autocad II #37 Autocad II #38 Autocad II #39 Autocad II #40 Autocad II #41 Autocad II #42 Autocad II #43 Autocad II #44 Autocad II #45 Autocad II #46 Autocad II #47 Autocad II #48 Autocad II #49 Autocad II #50 Autocad II #51 Autocad II #52 Autocad II #53 Autocad II #54 Autocad II #55 Autocad II #56
50 punkti Autor soovib selle materjali allalaadimise eest saada 50 punkti.
~ 56 lehte Lehekülgede arv dokumendis
2009-08-04 Kuupäev, millal dokument üles laeti
167 laadimist Kokku alla laetud
1 arvamus Teiste kasutajate poolt lisatud kommentaarid
londonheli Õppematerjali autor

Lisainfo

Autocad II juhend
juhend 2

Dokumendis esitatud küsimused

  • Mille nime küsitakse viibaga Enter name of UCS to restore or [ ?
  • Kui 48 listp kas on tegemist listiga ?

Mõisted

Sisukord

  • Eesti Põllumajandusülikool
  • Tehnikateaduskond
  • Mehaanika ja masinaõpetuse instituut
  • Enno Saks
  • versioon 15.0)
  • Kolmemõõtmeline raalprojekteerimine
  • Programmeeritud joonestamine
  • Tartu 2000
  • Ruumilised koordinaadid
  • Pindade joonestamine
  • Invisibl
  • Surfaces
  • Enter an option [Box/Cone/DIsh/DOme/Mesh/Pyramid/Sphere/Torus/Wedge]
  • Reference
  • Specify fourth corner point for base of pyramid or [Tetrahedron]
  • Specify apex point of tetrahedron or [Top]
  • Specify apex point of pyramid or [Ridge/Top]
  • Enter number of longitudinal segments for surface of sphere
  • Enter number of latitudinal segments for surface of sphere
  • Specify radius of torus or [Diameter]
  • Specify radius of tube or [Diameter]
  • Enter number of segments around tube circumference
  • Enter number of segments around torus circumference
  • [Select/All]
  • Kehade joonestamine
  • Specify corner or [Cube/Length]
  • Specify center point for base of cylinder or [Elliptical]
  • Specify height of cylinder or [Center of other end]
  • Specify height of cone or [Apex]
  • Specify height of extrusion or [Path]
  • Specify start point for axis of revolution or
  • Specify angle of revolution
  • Specify first point on slicing plane by [Object/Zaxis/View/XY/YZ/ZX/3points]
  • Regioonide ja kehade modifitseerimine
  • Solids Editing
  • [Object/Last/Zaxis/View/XY/YZ/ZX/3points]
  • [Object/Last/View/Xaxis/Yaxis/Zaxis/2points]
  • Specify rotation angle or [Reference]
  • Specify first source point
  • Specify first destination point
  • Specify second source point
  • Specify second destination point
  • Specify third destination point
  • Scale objects based on alignment points? [Yes/No]
  • Rotate arrayed objects? [Yes/No]
  • Select an edge or [Chain/Radius]
  • Select an edge chain or [Edge/Radius]
  • Enter surface selection option [Next/OK (current)]
  • Solids Editing
  • Extrude
  • Rotate
  • Offset
  • Taper
  • Delete
  • Color
  • Imprint
  • Separate Solids
  • Shell
  • Clean
  • Check
  • Jooniste vaatlemine
  • ,0,–1
  • ,–1,0
  • 1,0,0
  • Enter option
  • [CAmera/TArget/Distance/POints/PAn/Zoom/TWist/CLip/Hide/Off/Undo]
  • Specify camera location, or enter angle from XY plane
  • Specify new camera-target distance
  • AutoCAD
  • Enter clipping option [Back/Front/Off]
  • Specify distance from target or [ON/OFF]
  • Specify distance from target or [set to Eye(camera)/ON/OFF]
  • Window
  • Enter an option [?/Orthographic/Delete/Restore/Save/Ucs/Window]
  • Press ESC or ENTER to exit, or right-click to display shortcut-menu
  • Adjust Distance
  • S wivel Camera
  • Continuous Orbit
  • Zoom Window
  • Zoom Extents
  • Adjust Clipping Planes
  • Adjust Front Clipping
  • Adjust Back Clipping
  • Create Slice
  • Front Clipping On/Off
  • Back Clipping On/Off
  • Front Clipping On
  • Projection
  • Parallel
  • Perspective
  • Shading Modes
  • CS Icon
  • Preset View
  • Isometric
  • Display Viewports Dialog
  • Viewports
  • Koordinaatide teisendamine
  • Enter an option [ON/OFF/All/Noorigin/ORigin]
  • Enter an option
  • [New/Move/orthoGraphic/Prev/Restore/Save/Del/Apply/?/World]
  • Specify origin of new UCS or [ZAxis/3point/OBject/Face/View/X/Y/Z]
  • Enter an option [Top/Bottom/Front/Back/Left/Right]
  • Restore
  • Apply
  • World
  • Enter an option [Current ucs/Ucs/World] < Current>
  • Previous
  • Unnamed
  • Varjamine ja varjutamine
  • Enter option [2D wireframe/3D wireframe/Hidden/
  • Flat/Gouraud/fLat+edges/gOuraud+edges]
  • Loomutruud kujutised
  • Skip Render Dialog
  • SCENE
  • LIGHT
  • MATLIB
  • SETUV
  • BACKGROUND
  • LSNEW
  • LSEDIT
  • LSLIB
  • RPREF
  • STATS
  • RENDER
  • Render
  • Photo Real
  • Photo Raytrace
  • *GLOBAL*
  • Gouraud
  • Crop Window
  • Destination
  • Viewport
  • Render Window
  • fastest)
  • Light Name
  • Shadows
  • Calculator
  • Standard
  • Marble
  • Granite
  • By Layer
  • Reflection
  • Roughness
  • Refraction
  • First Color
  • Sharpness
  • S cale
  • Stone Color
  • Light Color
  • Light/Dark
  • Ring Density
  • Ring Width
  • Ring Shape
  • S olid
  • Image
  • Middle
  • Height
  • Fog Background
  • Fog Percentage
  • Aligned
  • Find File
  • Programmeeritud joonestamine
  • Processor
  • Wordpad
  • AutoLISP
  • Look in
  • ASCII
  • Lisa. Programmeerimiskeele AutoLISP funktsioonide tabel
  • AutoLISP Reference
  • Sisukord

Teemad

  • Ruumilised koordinaadid
  • Thickness
  • Specify new default elevation
  • Specify new default thickness
  • Pindade joonestamine
  • Specify third
  • Specify fourth point: or
  • ai_wedge
  • ai_dome
  • ai_mesh
  • Enter an option [Box/Cone/DIsh/DOme/Mesh/Pyramid/Sphere/Torus/Wedge]
  • Specify width of
  • box or [Cube]
  • Specify rotation angle of box about the Z axis or [Reference]
  • Specify fourth corner point for base of pyramid or [Tetrahedron]
  • Specify apex point of tetrahedron or [Top]
  • Specify apex point of pyramid or [Ridge/Top]
  • ai_cone
  • Enter number of longitudinal segments for surface of sphere
  • Enter number of latitudinal segments for surface of sphere
  • Specify radius of torus or [Diameter]
  • Specify radius of tube or [Diameter]
  • R = D/2
  • Enter number of segments around tube circumference
  • Enter number of segments around torus circumference
  • Enter mesh size
  • Enter mesh size in the N direction
  • Specify edge of 3dface to toggle visibility or [Display]
  • Enter selection method for display of hidden edges
  • [Select/All]
  • Enter size of mesh in M direction
  • Enter size of mesh in N direction
  • Specify included
  • angle (+=ccw, –=cw)
  • Solid
  • Kehade joonestamine
  • Solids
  • Specify corner of box or [CEnter]
  • Specify corner or [Cube/Length]
  • Height
  • Specify center point for base of cylinder or [Elliptical]
  • Specify height of cylinder or [Center of other end]
  • Specify height of cone or [Apex]
  • Specify height of extrusion or [Path]
  • Specify angle of taper for extrusion
  • define axis by [Object/X (axis)/Y (axis)]
  • Specify angle of revolution
  • viewport
  • Specify a point on desired side of the plane or [keep Both sides]
  • Nearest
  • Slicing plane does not intersect the selected solid
  • Regioonide ja kehade modifitseerimine
  • Solids
  • Null
  • Null solid created – deleted
  • [Object/Last/Zaxis/View/XY/YZ/ZX/3points]
  • Delete source objects? [Yes/No]
  • [Object/Last/View/Xaxis/Yaxis/Zaxis/2points]
  • Specify rotation angle or [Reference]
  • Specify first source point
  • Specify first destination point
  • Specify second source point
  • Specify second destination point
  • Specify third source point or
  • Specify third destination point
  • 4
  • Scale objects based on alignment points? [Yes/No]
  • 3
  • 3–5
  • 4–6
  • Enter the number of rows (---)
  • Enter the number of columns (|||)
  • Specify the angle to fill (+=ccw, –=cw)
  • Rotate arrayed objects? [Yes/No]
  • Select an edge or [Chain/Radius]
  • Select an edge chain or [Edge/Radius]
  • Enter surface selection option [Next/OK (current)]
  • Select an edge or [Loop]
  • Fence
  • eXit
  • Jooniste vaatlemine
  • Specify a view point or [Rotate]
  • Enter angle in XY plane from X axis
  • Enter angle from XY plane
  • 0,1
  • 0,–1
  • 1,0
  • 1,0
  • 0,0
  • XY Plane
  • Set to Plan View
  • Relative to UCS
  • Select objects or
  • [CAmera/TArget/Distance/POints/PAn/Zoom/TWist/CLip/Hide/Off/Undo]
  • TArget
  • or [Toggle (angle in)]
  • or [Toggle (angle from)]
  • CAmera
  • Specify new camera-target distance
  • POints
  • Specify camera point
  • Distance
  • Specify zoom scale factor
  • Specify lens length
  • Specify view twist angle
  • Enter clipping option [Back/Front/Off]
  • Specify distance from target or [ON/OFF]
  • Specify distance from target or [set to Eye(camera)/ON/OFF]
  • Named Views
  • Set Current
  • View
  • Current Display
  • Define
  • Define View Window
  • Details
  • Orthographic & Isometric Views
  • Enter an option [?/Orthographic/Delete/Restore/Save/Ucs/Window]
  • Front
  • Right
  • Escape
  • oom
  • rbit
  • More
  • Back Clipping On
  • isual Aids
  • ompass
  • rid
  • eset View
  • NW Isometric
  • Named
  • New Viewports
  • New Viewports
  • New name
  • Current Viewport
  • Display
  • Setup
  • Change View to
  • Koordinaatide teisendamine
  • User Coordinate System
  • Enter an option [ON/OFF/All/Noorigin/ORigin]
  • Display
  • UCS Icon
  • Origin
  • [New/Move/orthoGraphic/Prev/Restore/Save/Del/Apply/?/World]
  • UCS II
  • Tools
  • Specify origin of new UCS or [ZAxis/3point/OBject/Face/View/X/Y/Z]
  • Specify point on positive portion of Z
  • axis
  • Specify new origin point or [Zdepth]
  • orthoGraphic
  • Enter an option [Top/Bottom/Front/Back/Left/Right]
  • Enter name of UCS to restore or [?]
  • Enter name to save current UCS or [?]
  • komadega
  • *NO NAME*
  • Enter an option [Current ucs/Ucs/World] < Current>
  • Orthographic UCSs
  • Set Current
  • Depth
  • Varjamine ja varjutamine
  • Shade
  • Flat/Gouraud/fLat+edges/gOuraud+edges]
  • Visual Aids
  • Compass
  • Loomutruud kujutised
  • Loaded Applications
  • ACRENDER
  • Unload
  • Rendering Type
  • *current view*
  • Smooth Shade
  • Apply Materials
  • Shadows
  • Photo
  • Shadow
  • Render Cache
  • More Options
  • Phong
  • Face Controls
  • Rendering Procedure
  • uery for Selections
  • Light Icon Scale
  • Smoothing Angle
  • Sub Sampling
  • :1 (best)
  • Fog/Depth Cue
  • Scenes
  • *NONE*
  • Scene Name
  • *CURRENT*
  • *ALL*
  • Modify
  • Lights
  • Point Light
  • Inverse Square
  • Distant Light
  • Spotlight
  • Lights
  • Select
  • Ambient Light
  • North Location
  • Light Name
  • Intensity
  • Position
  • Modify
  • Enter light target
  • Enter light location
  • Falloff
  • Shadow On
  • Shadow Options
  • Azimuth
  • Altitude
  • Sun Angle
  • Clock Time
  • Longitude
  • South
  • Geographic Location
  • Light Source Vector
  • Modify
  • Materials
  • Materials Library
  • Preview
  • Sphere
  • Select
  • Duplicate
  • Attach
  • Detach
  • Attach
  • Select ACI
  • Attach
  • Select ACI
  • Detach
  • Export
  • Import
  • Purge
  • Save As
  • olor/Pattern
  • mbient
  • ransparency
  • Fourth Color
  • Vein Color
  • urbulence
  • Dark Color
  • radient
  • bitmap
  • Preview
  • Gradient
  • Gradient
  • Top
  • Bottom
  • Bottom
  • orizon
  • otation
  • Find
  • Adjust Bitmap
  • Environment
  • Enable Fog
  • Near Distance
  • Far Distance
  • Near Fog Percentage
  • Fog Percentage
  • Position
  • Height
  • Crossing Faces
  • render
  • Textures
  • Save Statistics to File
  • Programmeeritud joonestamine
  • AutoCAD 2000
  • LISt
  • Microsoft
  • MS–DOS
  • Norton
  • Notepad
  • Tools
  • Load Application
  • Look in
  • File name
  • Files of type
  • defun
  • pause
  • error: divide by zero
  • float
  • minusp
  • numberp
  • zerop
  • listp
  • caaddr
  • cdaar
  • cdddr
  • cadar
  • caddr
  • length
  • append
  • reverse
  • distance
  • polar
  • angle
  • string
  • strlen
  • strlen
  • strcat
  • substr
  • strcase
  • Decimal
  • angtos
  • princ
  • prompt
  • initget
  • getint
  • getreal
  • getpoint
  • getdist
  • getangle
  • getstring
  • Enter
  • getkword
  • getvar
  • setvar
  • command
  • entlast
  • Entity name: 25509c8>
  • equal
  • progn
  • cond
  • while
  • repeat
  • foreach
  • 3
  • 1 2
  • 0
  • Kui ei ole täpselt teada, millises kaustas vajalik fail leidub, võib faili avamisel
  • kasulikuks osutuda faili otsimise lause
  • findfile
  • close
  • read–char
  • read–line
  • write–char
  • write–line
  • read-line
  • ssget
  • punkt1
  • Crossing
  • ptlist
  • WPolygon
  • CPolygon
  • sslength
  • ssname
  • Contents
  • Shortcut link to the AutoCAD Visual LISP Help
  • AutoLISP Reference Overview
  • !nimi
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  • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Kommentaarid (1)


poyka: Ei ole see mida vaja
11:57 06-01-2012


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